A user-friendly, hands-on guide to recognizing and conducting proper research techniques in data collection Offering a unique approach to numerical research methods, Analyzing Quantitative Data: An Introduction for Social Researchers presents readers with the necessary statistical applications for carrying out the key phases of conducting and evaluating a research project. The book guides readers through the steps of data analysis, from organizing raw data to utilizing descriptive statistics and tests of significance, drawing valid conclusions, and writing research reports. The author successfully provides a presentation that is accessible and hands-on rather than heavily theoretical, outlining the key quantitative processes and the use of software to successfully draw valid conclusions from gathered data. In its discussion of methods for organizing data, the book includes suggestions for coding and entry into spreadsheets or databases while also introducing commonly used descriptive statistics and clarifying their roles in data analysis. Next, inferential statistics is explored in-depth with explanations of and instructions for performing chi-square tests, t-tests, analyses of variance, correlation and regression analyses, and a number of advanced statistical procedures. Each chapter contains explanations of when to use the tests described, relevant formulas, and sample computations. The book concludes with guidance on extracting meaningful conclusions from statistical tests and writing research reports that describe procedures and analyses. Throughout the book, Statistical Resources for SPSS® sections provide fundamental instruction for using SPSS® to obtain the results presented. Where necessary, the author provides basic theoretical explanations for distributions and background information regarding formulas. Each chapter concludes with practice problems, and a related website features derivations of the book's formulas along with additional resources for performing the discussed processes. Analyzing Quantitative Data is an excellent book for social sciences courses on data analysis and research methods at the upper-undergraduate and graduate levels. It also serves as a valuable reference for applied statisticians and practitioners working in the fields of education, medicine, business and public service who analyze, interpret, and evaluate data in their daily work.
Featuring extensive revisions and updates, the Second Edition of The Sociology of Gender: An Introduction to Theory and Research presents an introductory overview of gender theory and research, and continues to offer a unique and compelling approach to one of the most important topics in the field of sociology. Features extensive revisions and updates, and incorporates recent cross-national research on gender Expands and develops frameworks introduced in first edition Treats gender as a multilevel system operating at the individual, interactional, and institutional levels Stresses conceptual and theoretical issues in the sociology of gender Offers an accessible yet intellectually sophisticated approach to current gender theory and research Includes pedagogical features designed to encourage critical thinking and debate
We can’t see them, but microbes are the dominant form of life on Earth. They make up half of the world’s biomass. They were here billions of years before we were, and they will be here after we are gone. Without their activity, life as we know it would be impossible. Even within our own bodies, there are ten times as many bacterial cells as human cells. Understanding Microbes provides a clear, accessible introduction to this world of microbes. As well as looking at a selection of infectious diseases, including how they are prevented and treated, the book explores the importance of microbes in the environment, in the production and preservation of food, and their applications in biotechnology. This lively and engaging book provides the basics of microbiology, in a contemporary context. It will be equally useful for students across the biological, environmental and health sciences, and for the curious reader wanting to learn more about this fascinating subject. A highly-readable, concise introduction to the basics of microbiology placed in the context of the very latest developments in molecular biology and their impact on the microbial world. Numerous real-world examples range from how cows digest grass to the role of microbes in cancer and the impact of climate change Well-illustrated in full colour throughout. Written by an Author with a proven track record in teaching, writing and research.
Offering the first general introductory text to this subject, the timely Introduction to Evolutionary Ethics reflects the most up-to-date research and current issues being debated in both psychology and philosophy. The book presents students to the areas of cognitive psychology, normative ethics, and metaethics. The first general introduction to evolutionary ethics Provides a comprehensive survey of work in three distinct areas of research: cognitive psychology, normative ethics, and metaethics Presents the most up-to-date research available in both psychology and philosophy Written in an engaging and accessible style for undergraduates and the interested general reader Discusses the evolution of morality, broadening its relevance to those studying psychology
Do ever wish that you could write the perfect university essay? Are you left baffled about where to start? This easy-to-use guide walks you through the nuts and bolts of academic writing, helping you develop your essay-writing skills and achieve higher marks. From identifying the essay type and planning a structure, to honing your research skills, managing your time, finding an essay voice, and referencing correctly, Writing Essays For Dummies shows you how to stay on top of each stage of the essay-writing process, to help you produce a well-crafted and confident final document. Writing Essays For Dummies covers: Part I: Navigating a World of Information Chapter 1: Mapping Your Way: Starting to Write Essays Chapter 2: Identifying the essay type Part II: Researching, Recording and Reformulating Chapter 3: Eyes Down: Academic reading Chapter 4: Researching Online Chapter 5: Note-taking and Organising your Material Chapter 6: Avoiding Plagiarism Part III: Putting Pen to Paper Chapter 7: Writing as a process Chapter 8: Getting Going and Keeping Going Part IV: Mastering Language and Style Chapter 9: Writing with Confidence Chapter 10: Penning the Perfect Paragraph Chapter 11: Finding Your Voice Part V: Tightening Your Structure and Organisation Chapter 12: Preparing the Aperitif: The Introduction Chapter 13: Serving the Main Course: The Essay’s Body Chapter 14: Dishing up Dessert: The Conclusion Chapter 15: Acknowledging Sources of Information Part VI: Finishing with a Flourish: The Final Touches Chapter 16: It’s all in the detail Chapter 17: Perfecting Your Presentation Chapter 18: The afterglow Part VII: Part of Tens
Drysdale's book is by far the most comprehensive – everyone in the office has a copy…now including me. It holds just about everything you need to know about fire science. (Review of An Introduction to Fire Dynamics, 2nd Edition) After 25 years as a bestseller, Dougal Drysdale's classic introduction has been brought up-to-date and expanded to incorporate the latest research and experimental data. Essential reading for all involved in the field from undergraduate and postgraduate students to practising fire safety engineers and fire prevention officers, An Introduction to Fire Dynamics is unique in that it addresses the fundamentals of fire science and fire dynamics, thus providing the scientific background necessary for the development of fire safety engineering as a professional discipline. An Introduction to Fire Dynamics Includes experimental data relevant to the understanding of fire behaviour of materials; Features numerical problems with answers illustrating the quantitative applications of the concepts presented; Extensively course-tested at Worcester Polytechnic Institute and the University of Edinburgh, and widely adopted throughout the world; Will appeal to all those working in fire safety engineering and related disciplines.
The best-selling introduction to evidence-based medicine In a clear and engaging style, How to Read a Paper demystifies evidence-based medicine and explains how to critically appraise published research and also put the findings into practice. An ideal introduction to evidence-based medicine, How to Read a Paper explains what to look for in different types of papers and how best to evaluate the literature and then implement the findings in an evidence-based, patient-centred way. Helpful checklist summaries of the key points in each chapter provide a useful framework for applying the principles of evidence-based medicine in everyday practice. This fifth edition has been fully updated with new examples and references to reflect recent developments and current practice. It also includes two new chapters on applying evidence-based medicine with patients and on the common criticisms of evidence-based medicine and responses. How to Read a Paper is a standard text for medical and nursing schools as well as a friendly guide for everyone wanting to teach or learn the basics of evidence-based medicine.
This book introduces the reader to the basic concepts of the generation and manipulation of synchrotron light, its interaction with matter, and the application of synchrotron light in the “classical” techniques, while including some of the most modern technological developments. As much as possible, complicated mathematical derivations and formulas are avoided. A more heuristic approach is adopted, whereby the general physical reasoning behind the equations is highlighted. Key features: A general introduction to synchrotron radiation and experimental techniques using synchrotron radiation Contains many detailed “worked examples” from the literature Of interest for a broad audience – synchrotrons are possibly one of the best examples of multidisciplinary research Four-colour presentation throughout
Research like a pro-and write a winning paper! Do research papers make you nervous? Don't panic! This task isn't as overwhelming as it may seem–and conducting good research is an important skill to have. With How to Write a Great Research Paper, you'll see how easy and rewarding it can be to explore a topic and present your ideas in an organized and interesting way. Filled with easy-to-follow instructions and valuable tips, this new guide breaks the entire process down into 7 Keys to Success: * Find a Topic * Look It Up * Take Notes * Outline Your Paper * Create Your First Draft * Revise and Edit Your Draft * Present Your Paper So take a deep breath, relax-and get ready to write a top-notch research paper!
This outstanding book is the first comprehensive introduction to the English School of International Relations. Written by leading ES scholar Barry Buzan, it expertly guides readers through the English School’s formative ideas, intellectual and historical roots, current controversies and future avenues of development. Part One sets out the English School’s origins and development, explaining its central concepts and methodological tools, and placing it within the broader canon of IR theory. Part Two offers a detailed account of the historical, regional and social structural strands of the English School, explaining the important link between the school’s historical projects and its interest in a societal approach to international relations. Part Three explores the School’s responses to the enduring problems of order and justice, and highlights the changing balance between pluralist and solidarist institutions in the evolution of international society over the past five centuries. The book concludes with a discussion of the English School’s ongoing controversies and debates, and identifies opportunities for further research. For students new to the topic this book will provide an accessible and balanced overview, whilst those already familiar with the ES will be prompted to look afresh at their own understanding of its significance and potentiality.
The stepping-stone text for students with a preliminary knowledge of organic chemistry looking to move into organic synthesis research and graduate-level coursework Organic synthesis is an advanced but important field of organic chemistry, however resources for advanced undergraduates and graduate students moving from introductory organic chemistry courses to organic synthesis research are scarce. Introduction to Strategies for Organic Synthesis is designed to fill this void, teaching practical skills for making logical retrosynthetic disconnections, while reviewing basic organic transformations, reactions, and reactivities. Divided into seven parts that include sections on Retrosynthesis and Protective Groups; Overview of Organic Transformations; Synthesis of Monofunctional Target Molecules; Synthesis of Target Molecules with Two Functional Groups; Synthesis of Aromatic Target Molecules; Synthesis of Compounds Containing Rings; and Predicting and Controlling Stereochemistry, the book covers everything students need to successfully perform retrosynthetic analyses of target molecule synthesis. Starting with a review of functional group transformations, reagents, and reaction mechanisms, the book demonstrates how to plan a synthesis, explaining functional group analysis and strategic disconnections. Incorporating a review of the organic reactions covered, it also demonstrates each reaction from a synthetic chemist's point of view, to provide students with a clearer understanding of how retrosynthetic disconnections are made. Including detailed solutions to over 300 problems, worked-through examples and end-of-chapter comprehension problems, Introduction to Strategies for Organic Synthesis serves as a stepping stone for students with an introductory knowledge of organic chemistry looking to progress to more advanced synthetic concepts and methodologies.
A valuable learning tool as well as a reference, this book provides students and researchers in surface science and nanoscience with the theoretical crystallographic foundations, which are necessary to understand local geometries and symmetries of bulk crystals, including ideal single crystal surfaces. The author deals with the subject at an introductory yet mathematically sound level, providing numerous graphic examples to keep the math in context. The book brings together and logically connects many seemingly disparate structural issues and notations used frequently by surface scientists and nanoscientists. Numerous exercises of varying difficulty, ranging from simple questions to small research projects, are included to stimulate discussions about the different subjects.
The classic and authoritative textbook, Molecular Mechanisms of Photosynthesis,is now fully revised and updated in this much-anticipated second edition. Whilst retaining the first edition’s clear writing style and accessible description of this complex process, updates now include cutting-edge applications of photosynthesis, such as to bioenergy and artificial photosynthesis as well as new analytical techniques. Written by a leading authority in photosynthesis research, this new edition is presented in full color with clear, student-friendly illustrations. An interdisciplinary approach to photosynthesis is taken, with coverage including the basic principles of energy storage, the history and early development of photosynthesis, electron transfer pathways, genetics and evolution. A comprehensive appendix, containing an introduction to the basic chemical and physical principles involved in photosynthesis, is also included. Molecular Mechanisms of Photosynthesis,second edition, is an indispensable text for all students of plant biology, bioenergy, and molecular biology, in addition to researchers in these and related fields looking for an accessible introduction to this vital and integral process to life on earth. stresses an interdisciplinary approach emphasizes recent advances in molecular structures and mechanisms includes the latest insights and research on structural information, improved techniques as well as advances in biochemical and genetic methods comprehensive appendix, which includes a detailed introduction to the physical basis of photosynthesis, including thermodynamics, kinetics, and spectroscopy associated website with downloadable figures as powerpoint slides for teaching
Accessible and clearly written, Living Language: An Introduction to Linguistic Anthropology introduces readers to the study of language in real-life social contexts around the world through the contemporary theory and practice of linguistic anthropology. A highly accessible introduction to the study of language in real-life social contexts around the world Combines classic studies on language and cutting-edge contemporary scholarship and assumes no prior knowledge in linguistics or anthropology Provides a unifying synthesis of current research and considers future directions for the field Covers key topics such as: language and gender, race, and ethnicity; language acquisition and socialization in children and adults; language death and revitalization; performance; language and thought; literacy practices; and multilingualism and globalization
Everything aspiring authors need to write, publish, and sell a children's book Everyone loves a children's book—and many dream about writing one. But is it actually possible for an unpublished writer—armed with a good story idea and a love of kids—to write, sell, publish, and promote a book? Yes, it is! Clearly and concisely written with straightforward advice and a plethora of specific up-to-date recommendations, Writing Children's Books For Dummies provides step-by-step information on everything aspiring children's book authors need to know—from researching the current marketplace to developing story ideas, strengthening writing skills, dealing with editors, and submitting proposals and manuscripts to agents and publishers. Updated and improved writing exercises All new content on social media and establishing an online presence as an author Fresh, updated content on publishing via hard copy and all the e- platforms From setting down that first word on paper to doing a successful publicity tour, Writing Children's Books For Dummies gives you the confidence and the insiders' know-how to write and sell the story you've always wanted to write.
Forensic Entomology provides undergraduates with a concise introduction to the subject. The book is written with the clarity necessary for students starting out in entomology yet authoritative enough to prove useful for more experienced researchers. Worked examples of the necessary mathematics, including how to use excel to process data, coupled with lab protocols and self-assessment questions make the book an essential starting point in the subject. Assuming little prior knowledge of either biology or entomology the book provides information on identification, life cycles and ecology of insects presented in a forensic context. Information is conveyed in an accessible style with practical tasks and suggestions for further reading included in each chapter. Fully revised and updated to include new research in the field New chapter on aquatic forensic entomology New pictorial key to aid identification of species contributed by Dr. Krzysztof Szpila, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Poland Further coverage of civil applications of forensic entomology Practical tasks and further reading included to aid understanding Colour plate section and improved illustrations throughout to assist in the identification of insects associated with the corpse Approaches the topic from the dual perspectives of basic entomology and its forensic applications Covers the contributions to forensic investigations of both flies and beetles Provides information on culturing insects collected from crime scenes Guides students through the processes of writing entomological court reports and presenting in court alongside the scientific topics Extended coverage of PMI calculations, role of professional associations for forensic entomologists and sampling at the crime scene New sections to discuss the identification of traces of explosives found in larvae, puparia and pupae and DNA sampling from insects
This comprehensive overview of the modern Chinese economy by a noted expert from China offers a quality and breadth of coverage. In this book, the author provides an introduction to China's economy since 1949 and original insights based on his own extensive research. The book sets out to analyze and compare the operational mechanisms of the Chinese economy between the pre- and post-reform periods and through national, regional and local dimensions. Both positive and negative consequences of the Chinese economic transformation have been clarified. A multiregional comparison of the Chinese economy is conducted in terms of natural and human resources, institutional evolution, as well as economic and social performances. At last, some key issues relating to the inherent operational mechanisms of and the dynamic patterns of the Chinese economy are also discussed.
An introduction to the rheology of polymers, with simple math Designed for practicing scientists and engineers interested in polymer rheology science, education, consulting, or research and development, Introduction to Polymer Rheology is a comprehensive yet accessible guide to the study of the deformation and flow of matter under applied stress. Often considered a complicated topic for beginners, the book makes grasping the fundamentals of polymer rheology easy by presenting information in an approachable way and limiting the use of complex mathematics. By doing so, this introductory overview provides readers with easy access to the key concepts underlying the flow behavior of polymer melts, solutions, and suspensions. Incorporating sample problems that are worked through and explained on the page, as well as numerous practice problems to gauge learning comprehension, the book prepares new students and practitioners for moving on to more advanced concepts. Comprising twelve chapters, the book covers stress, velocity and rate of deformation, the relationship between stress and rate of deformation (Newtonian fluid), generalized Newtonian fluids, normal stresses and elastic behavior, experimental methods, small and large strain, the molecular origins of rheological behavior, elementary polymer processing concepts, quality control in rheology, and the flow of modified polymers and those with supermolecular structure. The essential reference for accurately interpreting polymer rheology data, Introduction to Polymer Rheology provides readers with an elementary understanding of the key issues and modern approaches to resolving problems in the field. An Instructor’s Guide with answers to select problems in the text, 60 new problems with full solutions, hints for effective presentation of the material in the text, and an errata listing is available for professors using the book as a course textbook.
A comprehensive introduction to sampling-based methods in statistical computing The use of computers in mathematics and statistics has opened up a wide range of techniques for studying otherwise intractable problems. Sampling-based simulation techniques are now an invaluable tool for exploring statistical models. This book gives a comprehensive introduction to the exciting area of sampling-based methods. An Introduction to Statistical Computing introduces the classical topics of random number generation and Monte Carlo methods. It also includes some advanced methods such as the reversible jump Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm and modern methods such as approximate Bayesian computation and multilevel Monte Carlo techniques An Introduction to Statistical Computing: Fully covers the traditional topics of statistical computing. Discusses both practical aspects and the theoretical background. Includes a chapter about continuous-time models. Illustrates all methods using examples and exercises. Provides answers to the exercises (using the statistical computing environment R); the corresponding source code is available online. Includes an introduction to programming in R. This book is mostly self-contained; the only prerequisites are basic knowledge of probability up to the law of large numbers. Careful presentation and examples make this book accessible to a wide range of students and suitable for self-study or as the basis of a taught course
For a construction business to function properly, architects, engineers, and contractors need to understand how the various state and federal laws affect their business and how to avoid disputes and exposure to liability. This book offers a comprehensive review of the US legal environment, both criminal and civil, focusing on the key legal concepts and issues applicable to a typical construction project. Construction professionals will find clear, concise introduction to a wide range of contractual issues related to project participants, as well as issues related to the actual construction and litigation.
This text offers an open-learning approach to Raman spectroscopy providing detail on instrumentation, applications and discussions questions throughout the book. It provides a valuable guide to assist with teaching Raman spectroscopy which is gaining attention in (analytical) chemistry, and as a consequence, teaching programs have followed. Today, education in Raman spectroscopy is often limited to theoretical aspects (e.g. selection rules), but practical aspects are usually disregarded. With these course notes, the author hopes to fill this gap and include information about Raman instrumentation and how it is interpreted. Provides a user-friendly text that tackles the theoretical background, and offers everyday tips for common practice Raman instrumentation and practical aspects, which are sometimes overlooked, are covered Appropriate for students, and includes summaries, text boxes, illustrating the ideas with examples from research literature or providing background information or links with other courses Written with an open-learning approach, this book will be ideal for use as a self-study guide or as the basis of a taught course with discussion and self-assessment questions throughout the text Includes a comprehensive bibliography to guide the reader to more specialized texts and sources.
The third edition of this established textbook has been thoroughly updated and revised. It maintains its broad coverage of topics from phonetics to language variation, and increases its accessibility by incorporating a more descriptive, less theoretical approach. A fully updated new edition of this successful textbook introducing students to a wide range of issues, phenomena, and terminology in Japanese linguistics Includes extensive revisions to the chapters on phonetics, syntax and phonology, and incorporates a less theoretical, more descriptive approach Features the author’s own data, examples and theoretical analyses throughout Offers an original approach by discussing first and/or second language acquisition within each chapter Includes exercises exploring descriptive and theoretical issues and reading lists which introduce students to the research literature, both of which have been updated in this new edition
A SCIENTIFIC APPROACH TO WRITING Technical ideas may be solid or even groundbreaking, but if these ideas cannot be clearly communicated, reviewers of technical documents—e.g., proposals for research funding, articles submitted to scientific journals, and business plans to commercialize technology—are likely to reject the argument for advancing these ideas. The problem is that many engineers and scientists, entirely comfortable with the logic and principles of mathematics and science, treat writing as if it possesses none of these attributes. The absence of a systematic framework for writing often results in sentences that are difficult to follow or arguments that leave reviewers scratching their heads. This book fixes that problem by presenting a “scientific” approach to writing that mirrors the sensibilities of scientists and engineers, an approach based on an easily-discernable set of principles. Rather than merely stating rules for English grammar and composition, this book explains the reasons behind these rules and shows that good reasons can guide every writing decision. This resource is also well suited for the growing number of scientists and engineers in the U.S. and elsewhere who speak English as a second language, as well as for anyone else who just wants to be understood.
Introduction to Pragmatics guides students through traditional and new approaches in the field, focusing particularly on phenomena at the elusive semantics/pragmatics boundary to explore the role of context in linguistic communication. Offers students an accessible introduction and an up-to-date survey of the field, encompassing both established and new approaches to pragmatics Addresses the traditional range of topics – such as implicature, reference, presupposition, and speech acts – as well as newer areas of research, including neo-Gricean theories, Relevance Theory, information structure, inference, and dynamic approaches to meaning Explores the relationship and boundaries between semantics and pragmatics Ideal for students coming to pragmatics for the first time