Recently the using of erasable ball pen increased the likelihood of erased or decolorized writing in ink featuring in criminal activity in which these inks were used frequently throughout our lives to signed or writing documents , thus the writing by these inks can be removed by rubber eraser,converted the valid documents to forged documents.Therefore an adequate and accurate approaches and treatments for the protection of paper documents and writing by erasable inks in these documents are urgently needed . This work is in progress to achieve a deeper insight to establish the application of the graft copolymerization method using vinyl comonomers as a new technique for document preservation and opens the way to preservation and restoration of cellulosic paper sheet , which belong to the field of cultural heritage . Our work alerts the forensic science community to the existence of the erasable ball pen and the possibility to contribute in the development of criminal activity in the field of forgery .
Citation represents the full bibliographical description for paper which the author has used, while writing his paper. Citation analysis "is a method based on the principle that article citing the same references also have much of their content in common" stated M. Osinga in "Some fundamental aspects of Information Science". The present study analyzes the data of citations found in the Journals in the field of Computer Science. The objective of the present study is to find out the major forms of citations, dominant country and language of citation in the field of Computer Science and to draw up a ranking list of periodicals and to ascertain the subject dispersion in the discipline and also to find out the highly selected journals and highly self cited authors in the discipline.
The objective of this book is to provide students with fundamental requirements to facilitate thesis writing and improve writing skills. This book covers the standard of academic papers in the following disciplines: Development studies, Economics and Management, Human Geography, International relations, Political Science and Sociology. Nevertheless, students of other disciplines will find the contents of this book useful in handling their theses. This book answers the key questions: What is academic paper? What is the purpose of academic paper? What is expected from you? The author has a good knowledge of various research techniques such as Econometrics, Advanced Time Series, Qualitative, Quantitative, Mixed methods and Comparative Analysis. Besides, he is an expert in empirical modelling techniques. This means that in this book, the author provides students with expert guidelines that will help them write good theses both at undergraduate and postgraduate levels.