Written out of the author’s awareness of the problems many students and young researchers encounter when writing their research papers, this book is a simplified presentation of the fundamentals of research. Its technically simple style is aimed at making the book accessible to people of all academic persuasions. Most research studies or projects begin with a written proposal. For this reason, the book starts with a section on how to write a good standard research proposal. In the second section, the book discusses in detail the way in which a research project, dissertation or thesis must be outlined once the research proposal has been accepted. Chapter three looks specifically at a journal paper/article as another very important type of research paper. It gives a brief survey of important points to bear in mind when writing a journal article as well as the structure such a paper is expected to follow. Chapter four is a brief presentation of some of the methods of citation and reference styles commonly used in research.
Do you have an idea for a novel (or a poem, or an article, or a play...) that you'd love to finally get down on paper? Whatever your aim, inside you'll find the advice and support to get you started and keep you going. From preparing a writing work-space to marshalling your material into both fiction and non-fiction genres, Creative Writing For Dummies has everything you need to help you unlock your creativity and make your writing sparkle.
This book does not observe perfection. It is not meant to. Its objective is more important than finesse that many scholars insist on in writing books from which others must learn things. I am not a scholar. I have practiced journalism from the position of cub reporter to an editor of a magazine. I have trained journalists both from Zambia and from almost every English Speaking African country and outside including the Caribbean. I have worked as a Public Relations Officer for an important city in Zambia. I have followed crime both inside and outside court-rooms. I have read countless books on journalism in order to teach the subject as well as to do the job. I say, I know enough about the field to explain it to a beginner. This book is meant for beginners not for those who intend to become professors in the subject.
Scientific research articles provide a method for scientists to communicate with other scientists about the results of their research. A standard format is used for these articles, in which the author presents the research in an orderly, logical manner. This doesn't necessarily reflect the order in which you did or thought about the work. The dissemination of research results and findings is an integral part of the research process. Researchers write to keep records of their work for themselves, but more importantly also for the readers and peer researchers who are expecting a standard form, language, and style when reading research papers. Writing in a scientific style may be hard in the beginning for novices, but clear communication and concise writing have no magic involved. The author has helped provide to the profession significant information on which to base current decisions on writing of scientific articles and on which to build for future developments and methods. This book gives an introductory report on basic issues of writing and organizing scientific articles, and getting them published.
This book discusses the role of public policy in Article 81 of the EC Treaty. The Commission, and recently the Court of First Instance have said that the sole objective of Article 81 EC is consumer welfare. Many competition lawyers and economists support this view. Writing in a crisp, plain style, Townley demonstrates that public policy considerations are still relevant in that provision. He also examines how and where they are currently considered and then suggests why, how and where this might be changed. The book explains how some of the most complex competition law cases can be understood and offers a framework for those fighting or deciding such cases in the future. As such, it will be of interest to European competition lawyers, both academics and practitioners (furnishing them with a framework for hard cases), as well as students, seeking a deeper understanding of how the European competition rules work and how they interact both with European Union and Member State public policy goals. It will also help competition economists by revealing the mechanisms through which public policy considerations impact upon the consumer welfare test in European law.
The purpose of academic research is publication. Graduate students are measured primarily not by their innate knowledge of either broad or narrow scientific subject; they are measured by their publications. The goal of this book is to help graduate students to prepare manuscripts that will have a high probability of being accepted for publication and of being completely understood when they are published. Because the requirements of journals vary widely, it is not possible to offer a recommendation that is universally acceptable. This book is tray to lay out some key concepts in the process of writing a manuscript. I will not cover methods for any one discipline, but rather, provide certain basic principles that are accepted in most disciplines.
"IELTS Advantage: Writing Skills" is a fully comprehensive resource for passing the writing section of the IELTS exam with a grade of 6.5-7.0 or higher. Students are guided step-by-step through the different tasks in the writing module, using material developed in the classroom, by authors with many years' experience in helping hundreds of IELTS candidates achieve a high IELTS score. "IELTS Advantage: Writing Skills": shows students how to organise and structure an answer for all types of task 1 and 2 questions; contains a model essay in each unit, showing students exactly what is required; contains a general interest article in each unit, developing ideas and vocabulary for a common topic in the exam; quickly develops students' fluency and confidence in producing pieces of writing through a focus on academic vocabulary and collocations; and, contains grammar exercises in each unit, showing students how to apply a wide range of grammar items in their IELTS writing. Key features: suitable for classroom study or self-study; includes answer key; real writing samples from IELTS students, with examiners' comments, show in detail what is required to achieve a 6.5 , for example, frequent exam tips from the authors' experience as IELTS examiners help students achieve a higher score; and, check and challenge sections allow students to revise material and take their writing to the next level. "IELTS Advantage" is a series of course books offering step-by-step guidance to achieving a high IELTS score.
This study investigates the rhetorical organisation of Chinese research article introductions in the field of educational psychology using Swales’s (1990 & 2004) framework of move analysis. This study found similarities and differences between the selected Chinese research article introductions and Swales's CARS (Create a Research Space) model. Chinese research article introductions fit the CARS model in terms of the global organisation. However, both Chinese research article introductions and Swales's CARS model have subtle rhetorical differences. This study attributes the rhetorical similarities to the influence of English as an international language on publications in China. It ascribes the rhetorical differences partially to membership of a specific discourse community but mainly to potential cultural influences. The findings of this study have pedagogical implications.
Register means the placement, or to establish standing, writing, writing notes and post office. The patents include: writing contracts or legal action or personal status or rights (such as patents), or anything else (such as signs) special offices specified by law, such as real estate transactions recorded Real estate and patent registration and registration marks, and so on. Documents, collect documents. What it means to trust, who to ask for a loan or assign text appearing or prove anything. The document defined in Article 1284 of the Civil Code as "any text that is invoked as a defense liability."
This book is this writer's fourth book in her Lecture Notes Series. In essence, each book of the series represents this writer’s compilation of working papers. As a faculty member, one of the courses this writer teaches at AlFaisal University in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, is ENG 101 Freshman English 1. The course comprises several components that are required to be delivered to students. The Functional Language Use component is aimed at giving students more exposure to the content and linguistic elements of their pathway studies. Students worked on writing an Article Reflection Essay Paper after critically reading a pathway study related article selected by this writer. This book displays selected works by AlFaisal University students from each pathway study towards demonstrating their performance in this component.
The notion of market power is central to antitrust law. Under EU law, antitrust rules refer to appreciable restrictions of competition (Article 101 (1) TFEU, ex Article 81(1) TEC), the elimination of competition for a substantial part of the market (Article 101 (3) TFEU, ex Article (81(3) TEC), dominant positions (Article 10 2 TFEU, ex Article 82 TEC) and substantial impediment to effective competition, in particular by creating or reinforcing a dominant position (Article 2 of the EU Merger Regulation). At first sight, only the concept of dominant position relates to market power but it is the aim of this book to demonstrate that the other concepts are directly linked to the notion of market power. This is done by reference to the case law of the EU Courts and the precedents of the European Commission and the author goes on to argue that for very good reasons (clarity and enforceability, among others) the rules should be interpreted in this way. Beginning with market definition, the book reviews the different rules and the different degrees of market power they incorporate. Thus it analyses the notion of 'appreciable restriction of competition' to find a moderate market power obtained by agreement among competitors to be the benchmark for the application of Article 101 TFEU, ex Article 81TEC. It then goes on to the concept of dominance under Article 102 TFEU, ex Article 82 TEC, which is equivalent to substantial (or important) market power and then focuses on the old and new tests for EU merger control. Finally, it addresses the idea of elimination of competition in respect of a substantial part of the market (Article 101 (3) TFEU, ex Article 81 (3) (b) TEC), in which the last two types of market power (Article 102 TFEU, ex Article 82 TEC and EU Merger Regulation) converge. To exemplify this, an in-depth study of the notion of collective dominance is made. The book concludes that a paradigm of market power exists under the EU antitrust rules that both fits with past practice and provides for a useful framework of analysis for the general application of the rules by administrative and even more importantly judicial authorities in the Member States, under conditions of legal certainty.
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In the library of a country house in Nottinghamshire, Vivian is writing an article about the importance of lying, when he is interrupted by Cyril, who tries to tempt him away, but instead is drawn into a discussion about art, nature, literature and imagination.The Decay of Lying sees Wilde explore his deepest preoccupations about the relationship between life and art, and examine the work of such writers as Shakespeare and Balzac.
The first concept of solid phase synthesis was performed by Merrifield (1) in a dipeptide synthesis from two amino acids. Not surprisingly, Solid phase synthesis did not remain limited to peptides, but also it was extended to heterocycles, so many synthesis methods in solution phase had been transferred to solid phase processes.So, solid phase organic synthesis had become very attractive route of synthesis due to its simplicity of separation of synthetic intermediates from soluble components of a reaction mixture by simple filtration and washing of the resin bound reaction product.
The landscape of European competition law has seen significant changes in the past decade, both in terms of enforcement and substantive application. One of the last frontiers to be subjected to scrutiny has been Article 82. In recent years the European Commission has pushed forward the debate on the nature and scope of Article 82. Of major significance to this debate were the Commission’s Consultation Paper on an economic approach to Article 82, the Discussion Paper on the application of Article 82 to exclusionary abuses, and the Commission’s recent Guidance on its enforcement priorities in applying Article 82. The debate over the realm of Article 82 EC has raised important questions as to its past and present application. This collection of essays by international experts explores the changing boundaries of Article 82 EC and considers its recent evolution. The chapters cover a range of subjects, including the legal and economic implications of an effects-based approach to Article 82 EC, the recent Commission Guidance on Article 82 EC, the interface between intellectual property rights and competition law, licensing, tying, excessive pricing, and the protection of the consumer interest.
Shortlisted for the 2008 Inner Temple Book Prize The Law and Economics of Article 82 EC is a comprehensive, integrated treatment of the legal and economic principles that underpin the application of Article 82 EC to the behaviour of dominant firms. Traditional concerns of monopoly behaviour, such as predatory pricing, refusals to deal, excessive pricing, tying and bundling, discount practices, and unlawful discrimination are treated in detail through a review of the applicable economic principles, the case law and decisional practice, and more recent economic and legal writings. In addition, the major constituent elements of Article 82, such as market definition, dominance, effect on trade, and applicable remedies are considered at length. Jointly authored by a lawyer and an economist, The Law and Economics of Article 82 EC contains an integrated approach to the legal and economic principles that frame policy in this major area of competition law. Although written primarily with practitioners and in-house lawyers in mind, it is essential reading for anyone with an interest in competition-law enforcement against monopoly behaviour.
"The Law and Economics of Article 82 EC" is a comprehensive, integrated treatment of the legal and economic principles that underpin the application of Article 82 EC to the behaviour of dominant firms. Traditional concerns of monopoly behaviour, such as predatory pricing, refusals to deal, excessive pricing, tying and bundling, discount practices, and unlawful discrimination are treated in detail through a review of the applicable economic principles, the case law and decisional practice, and more recent economic and legal writings. In addition, the major constituent elements of Article 82, such as market definition, dominance, effect on trade, and applicable remedies are considered at length. Jointly authored by a lawyer and an economist, "The Law and Economics of Article 82 EC" contains an integrated approach to the legal and economic principles that frame policy in this major area of competition law. Although written primarily with practitioners and in-house lawyers in mind, it is essential reading for anyone with an interest in competition-law enforcement against monopoly behaviour.
The Oxford Dictionary defines manuscript as a book, document, or piece of music written by hand rather than typed or printed and encompasses an author's handwritten or typed text that has not yet been published. It generally implies works prepared by hand including handwritten or typescript drafts of pre-publication papers or works not otherwise reproduced in multiple copies and only for restricted viewership. It further also refers to a original handwritten or typed version (draft) of a book, article, etc., prepared by an author for further processing such as editing, proofing, comments by readers to freeze into a final, acceptable form, publication etc. for the target audience.1 Each manuscript is usually prepared for an intended purpose and the formats and styles of presentation of the contents may significantly vary. A manuscript is intended to provide information on a specific matter. It can range from simple one-line slogans in advertisements to theses to books to voluminous epics. In fact, they are they are the very foundation in information handling and play a very "vital" role in knowledge management.