Мягкая игрушка "Wage" 17,5 см марки Uglydoll. Уникальная мягкая игрушка обязательно привлечёт внимание малыша необычным видом и ярким цветом. Игрушка изготовлена из гипоаллергенного, абсолютно безопасного материала с мягким наполнителем. Размер: 17,5 см.
Stability of wage functions is fundamentally important in economic systems. In this book, first and second order wage equations are developed and solved. Subsequent wage functions are analyzed and interpreted for stability. For first order equation, its function initially stands off equilibrium wage rate but asymptotically stabilizes towards equilibrium wage rate in the long run. Speculative parameters operating freely dictating employers’ expectations included in modeling second order equation causes both stability and instability of wage function in certain circumstances. When wage function is exponential, asymptotic stability towards equilibrium wage rate is observed. Where wage function consists of exponential and periodic factors, time path periodically fluctuates with successive smaller amplitudes until it stabilizes. Free market operations sometimes cause volatility in wage rates resulting in uncertainties in an economy. This book is important to policy makers in writing policies that may stop volatility of wage rates in free labor markets. It proposes creating a middle path where wage rate oscillates within a narrow band managed by employers in consultation with workers.
This book analyzes within-country causes and mechanisms which affected wage inequality in European transition economies, after the fall of the Communism. First, we find that internal factors such as small scale privatisation were the main institutional factor increasing wage inequality. Second, we find that even though of a smaller magnitude, globalisation, namely trade freedom and investment freedom affected wage inequality, the first one positively while the second negatively. Third, we find that governments were incapable or unwilling of addressing increasing wage inequality problems, as government spending is found to be insignificant while an increase in tax freedom increased wage inequality. Fourth, we find that workforce education was an additional factor increasing inequality, while economic development (GDP per capita) was found to have a negative effect on inequality, but as the countries got to be more developed this effect became positive.
The vast empirical literature on wage differentials reflects extreme interest in the subject from economists, social scientists, and policymakers alike. A review of the literature reveals two noticeable shortcomings. First, nearly all past studies have assumed a linear relationship between earnings and worker characteristics without consideration as to the potential specification error this imposes on their estimates. Second, researchers have generally focused on simple mean effects rather than estimating the effects of characteristics and wage rates on earnings distributions as a whole. Using data from the American Community Survey, this book addresses both issues with a nonparametric approach which is simple to apply. The empirical sections apply the method to measure wage differentials between federal and private sector workers, as well as wage differences between males and females.
The focus area of this paper is on the assignment problem with budget constraints which is one of the application area of combinatorial optimization that operates on the domain of those optimization problems,in which the set of feasible solutions is discrete or can be reduced to discrete,and in which the goal is to find the best solution. It is particularly concerned with solving the unconstrained assignment problems with Hungarian algorithm and the constrained assignment problem by cutting plane or outer linearization algorithm for solving the Lagrangian dual problem in which, at each iteration,the function that approximates the dual function is optimized. The paper is divided in to two chapters. In the first chapter,the classical assignment problem,the problem of finding optimum (minimum or maximum) cost or profit assignment a set of workers or resources to jobs or activities to gather with its mathematical formulation,solution methods and special cases in assignment problems were considered. Under the second chapter, we have considered generalization of the classical assignment problem concerning resource(or budget) constraints, due to the variety of real life problems.
Assignment Problem is one of the first fundamental problems in the area of combinatorial optimization. Despite its historical roots, the problem has tremendous importance to date, due to its numerous real life applications in like facility location, personnel scheduling, job scheduling, production planning, project assignment, task assignment, time-tabling, vehicle routing, storage space allocation, etc. This book comprises some real life assignment and related problems involving imprecise cost/time parameters. In order to represent those imprecise parameters, interval numbers have been used here as this representation is the best among others. The associated problems have been solved using Genetic Algorithm efficiently. A salient feature of this book is that most of the algorithms have been written in a lucid manner with suitable examples using figures. This book should interest academicians, OR/GA practitioners and executives of different industries and business organizations.
A wireless mesh networks (WMNs) has emerged recently, WMN consist of two types of nodes mesh routers and mesh clients.WMN is dynamically self-organized and self-configured, with the nodes in the network automatically establishing and maintaining mesh connectivity among themselves. Channel assignment is a critical issue in WMN which is the mapping between the available channels and the radios at each node such that the network performance is optimized, and hence the focus of this work along with static channel assignment, multi-radio, multi-channel. Multi-radio MAC can potentially achieve higher network capacity than single-radio MAC. We design and implement a new agent (DSBCA) distributed channel assignment spanner base, the routing protocol Optimize the network performance considering the throughput, end-to-end delay, connectivity and the interference of our channel assignment algorithm. Base on the network simulations NS2.34 on Linux Fedora and our proposed channel assignment algorithm improved the throughput, minimal-connectivity preserving channel assignment algorithm.
The efficient management of Change Requests (CRs) is fundamental for successful software maintenance; however the assignment of CRs to developers is an expensive aspect in this regard, due to the time and expertise demanded. To overcome this, researchers have proposed automated approaches for CR assignment. Although these proposals present advances to this topic, they do not consider many factors inherent to the assignments, such as: developers’ workload, CRs severity, interpersonal relationships, and developers know-how. Actually, as we demonstrate in this work, CR assignment is a complex activity and automated approaches cannot rely on simplistic solutions. Ideally, it is necessary to consider and reason over contextual information in order to provide an effective automation. Beyond investigating all these aspects through an extensive systematic literature review, this work also proposes a context-aware architecture solution to semi-automated assignment of CRs.
Revision with unchanged content. Wage discrimination reduces the wages of groups subject to discrimination. Its effect on other groups is less obvious. A powerful effect on one group in a work relationship likely affects other members of the relationship. This study develops and tests models of discrimination in which managers’ biases cause discrimination. Unlike other models of discrimination, these models predict that as managers’ level of bias rises, the wage gap rises, and managers’ pay falls. Using data from the 2000 U.S. Census, this study finds that increased discrimination against female workers leads to lower wages for managers in the same geographic area. This is consistent with the proposed models. In the context of the race wage gap, the opposite effect holds for managers: when discrimination rises, manager wages rise. Discrimination that comes from managers' biases could explain some of wage discrimination based on sex, race wage discrimination needs another explanation. This model and its implications are of interest to researchers in the economics of discrimination as well as civil rights advocates and human resources professionals.
25 years ago no one in Germany had thought that once Great Britain could become an economical role model. To that time, Great Britain was known as the “sick man” of Europe-high unemployment rate, high inflation and many strikes. But today situation is different - until a short time, Germany was the “sick man” of Europe. Even if today situation in both countries are better and seems to be stable, it is a fact that Germany and Great Britain - as well as all other European Member States - has to suffer under many exogenous and endogenous challenges. Existing systems need to be changed and to adapt to new situations. This is a difficult task, which affects nearly every area. This paper will focus on the problems Welfare systems has to face, hereby focusing on employment and wage. Great Britain as a role model for national minimum wage and Germany as a country without a national minimum wage will be compared and it will be explained, how a European minimum wage could look like and which challenges countries have to face if such one exist.
This study examines the role of minimum wage legislation in the working conditions of domestic workers (house maids) in Zambia. The introduction of a minimum wage generally tends to improve domestic worker wages, although an increasing number of domestic workers in the labour market (excess supply) tends to maintain their vulnerability as this tends to reduce their bargaining power (Societal perception, low agency and self-esteem, especially for live-ins). This paper identifies the key actors in domestic work, and suggests a model for formalizing it that focuses on maid centres (domestic worker agencies) because they are able to register, organize, bargain and represent the domestic workers as most of them ensure the domestic worker employer complies to the minimum wage (although the emphasis is not it being a floor/starting point in most cases).In addition, education and literacy seem to have less explanatory value in relation to the dynamics of bargaining, but awareness. It also seems that minimum wage legislation benefits urban Domestic Workers more, as I had hypothesized. This could be due to higher awareness levels, proximity to representation and higher standards of living.
Scholars have paid considerable attention to the frequency of strikes among Nigerian workers, most of the literature identifies poor working conditions and poor remunerations as factors. But very few of these studies have been so detailed to highlight on what constitutes a poor wage in a developing economy, as Nigeria; to document the gross monthly earnings plus fringe benefits of university workers; obtain the real market prices of the major stable foods consume by Nigerians; and the cost of household utilities. These evidence were generated, and were not only used to measure wage (poor or standard) and the deteriorating living conditions of workers, but also the poverty of workers and the effect of poor wage on workers''roductivity, among Junior staff of Universities in Nigeria.The background question when determining the productivity of workers is: How much can a working poor offer? Students and Teachers,at all stratum will find the book very useful, so will labour unions,administrators,researchers, Non-Governmental Organizations,and International Labour Organization who may have the need to know the wage statistic and reasons for incessant strikes in Nigerian Universities.
The monograph “L-moments and TL-moments as an Alternative Tool in Modeling the Distribution of Wage” concludes the research phase aimed at the issue of short-term forecasts of the wage and income distribution using univariate statistical probabilistic models. The focus on this type of short-term predictions was motivated by the experience the author gained during an extensive research of the wage and income distribution in the Czech Republic and other European Union member states in the years 1992-2013, the selected types of those predictions having been verified. Short-time predictions of above-average wages and incomes based on the Pareto distribution, those of entire wage and income distribution based on the three-parameter lognormal distribution in particular, as well as two- and four-parameter lognormal distributions and those founded on Pearson and Johnson systems of curves were performed in the course of this research. Different methods of parameter estimation – moment method, quantile and maximum likelihood methods, Kemsley’s method, Cohen’s method of the least sample value as well as those of L-moments and TL-moments were given proper attention.
The Evil Within: The Assignment – это первое из двух дополнение к The Evil Within, главной героиней которого является Джулия Кидман, напарница детектива Себастьяна Кастелланоса. В этом дополнении игроки получат часть ответов на те вопросы, которые у них остались после финала оригинальной игры.
In cellular mobile communication, since there will be conversation in progress in case of handover calls, GOS for them should be less than that for newly originating calls. Basically, there are three channel assignment schemes, fixed, dynamic & hybrid channel assignment schemes for handling newly originating and handover calls. In this study, capacity design for cellular mobile network in area inside ring road in Kathmandu valley has been done according to the findings of data collection and analysis of mobile communication service being provided by Nepal Telecom. Capacity planning has been done with GOS equal to 2% for newly originating calls and 1% for handover calls. In addition to capacity planning, efficient channel assignment scheme in terms of blocking and throughput has been evaluated with optimal utilization of the designed capacity for getting minimum blocking for both types of calls maintaining the blocking for handover calls always less than that for newly originating calls. The simulated values of GOS & throughput for all channel assignment schemes at different penetration have been compared and hybrid channel assignment scheme has been found to be most efficient.
Modern day public transport assignment faces lots of problems. Solutions may exist but needs some form of backings. A sensitivity analysis in most cases could just be sufficient to provide this backing. The developments in this book are very important for students, academic researchers and policy makers. The book provides an extensive review on transit assignment, sensitivity analysis and OmniTRANS. It highlights important conclusions such as:- - Passenger access-egress distances significantly affects their access stop choices. - The travel distance parameter of the generalized cost function has the highest influence on transit assignment - The number of transfers to be made by passengers significantly determines their generalized cost of travel - A carefully conducted partial sensitivity analysis can provide better predictions than a Monte-Carlo sensitivity analysis. As a policy advice to public transport operators in Flanders-Belgium, the developments in this book suggest that; to improve transit assignment, it is sufficient to reduce passengers access-egress distances & the number of transfers either through the institution of more direct transit lines or missing links.
This dissertation studies an old topic in a new perspective: distributive pattern of gender wage differentials globally. It is both interesting and crucial, especially for policy-makers who attempt to eliminate gender discrimination. In addition to the empirical importance, this dissertation also explores the applications of quantile decomposition, and creatively proposes the methodology of double decomposition in studying over-time change in gender wage gaps and formulate a discriminating search model. Chapters in this dissertation have been presented in many international academic conferences including 4th Young Economist Society conference held in Guangzhou, 3rd SOLE/EALE joint conference in London, 2010 Shanghai Econometric Society World Congress, 12th conference of East Asia Economic Association in Seoul, and 2011 Singapore Economic Review.
Minimum wage laws are a favorite textbook example of how policy may grossly deviate from economic theory and economists' prescriptions. After all, their opposition to it is traditionally one of the most consensual issues among policy recommendations. Most economists would agree that while imposing minimum wage may be a product of good intentions (at least sometimes), it ends up affecting adversely precisely those whom it is supposed to help. The book covers this narrow stream of intellectual history in economics, tracing down the development of economists' attitude towards this kind of legislation within the last century. It shows how economists' resistance and protestations against it on the one hand, or their lukewarm embrace of it on the other, determined how popular their theories were in political circles.
The problem of distributing goods from depots to consumers plays an important role in the management of many distribution systems, and therefore when it is programmed efficiently it may yield significant savings. In a typical distribution system, trucks provide pick-up and delivery services to customers that are geographically dispersed in a given area. In many of its applications, the main objective of distribution is to find a set of routes for such trucks, satisfying a variety of constraints, so as to minimize the total distribution cost. This work focuses on a decision model for a real world problem. The problem reveals itself as assignment of trucks to routes by Latex Foam Rubber Products Limited-Kumasi, Ghana. This study addresses the problem of finding an efficient assignment of the limited number of trucks at the company’s disposal to the routes they ply while serving its customers outside the metropolis. In this work we use a solution procedure based on Munkres Assignment Algorithm for optimal assignment of non-homogenous fleet of trucks to a given set of routes, where Latex Foam Rubber Products Limited-Kumasi, distributes its products to its customers.
The highly competitive environment in today's wireless and cellular network industries is making the management of systems seek for better and more advance techniques to keep masses of data, complexity of systems and deadline constrains under control with a lower cost and higher efficiency. Therefore, the management is getting significant attentions by researchers in order to increase the efficiency of the resource usage to provide high quality services. Two of the cornerstones of the management system in wireless and cellular network are carrier assignment and packet scheduling. Therefore, this work focuses on analysis and development of carrier assignment and packet scheduling methods in multi-band Wi-Fi and LTE-A networks.
Revision with unchanged content. This study investigated the influence of computer-generated reminders on the rate in which distance learners submitted assignments and completed courses. The computer-generated reminders, sent via email, served as a time management support strategy. Participants were randomly divided into two groups: control and treatment. Both groups received a list of target due dates for course assignments. The control group did not receive reminders. The treatment group received reminders when they failed to submit an assignment by a target due date. The results indicated no significant difference between the control and treatment groups in terms of assignment submission rates and course completion rates. However, results of this study did reveal that the number of assignments in a distance course influences the timeliness of assignment completion and the likelihood of course completion.
This study is situated within the field of instructional design and sought to identify competencies specific to online designers-by-assignment in high school learning environments. Since existing instructional design standards currently available to guide designers-by-assignment differ from one another, a lack of clarity remains about which specific standards actually benefit this emerging professional group in the process of developing and revising courses they eventually teach. The purpose of this qualitative Delphi study was to identify, through expert agreement, instructional design competencies that can benefit high school online designers-by-assignment and the instructional design profession. This study employed the qualitative Delphi design to achieve consensus among experts in five fields (high school online practitioners, instructional design academics, university pre-service instructors, online high school administrators and high school online instructional designers).
Being in an equalitarian world does not imply a world of serenity for both sexes. World labour force is growing with both sexes but the issue of inequality still remains without exception in many developed and under-developed economies. The purpose of this book is to analyse the presence of gender wage discrimination across sectors in the Mauritian economy. I made use of Continuous Multipurpose Survey Data (CMPHS) from the Statistics Mauritius for 5 consecutive years: 2006-2010 and applied some metrics. The gender wage gap in public sector is lower than in private sector and there is evidence of sticky floors which outweighs glass ceilings across years and in both sectors. Moreover, discrimination level is higher across years and fairly stable. This book adds light to the gender wage gap analysis as no micro-study has been done at present for Mauritius and should especially be useful to professionals in Research and Policy Development fields, or anyone else who may be considering utilizing some information for further studies.
This book explains the port operations and proposes approaches that aim to improve the most important successive steps in container terminal management activities. A multi-period assignment problem that seeks to allocate vessels to berthing spaces and quay cranes is proposed to handle the quayside operations. Subsequently, on the yard side, a discrete-event simulation model for the real life detailed processes performed during the handling of import containers is developed. In particular, the model focuses on the storage assignment problem at the operational level in a container terminal with a multiple-berth structure. An approach by means of a hierarchical structure is adapted to partition the assignment problem into two sub-problems and solve each of them using separate decision rules. Suggested storage policies are evaluated in view of the overall performance of the container terminal.
This book contains a good literature survey of various mathematical models and routing & wavelengths assignment algorithms in WDM optical networks. Some of the new algorithms for optimization of blocking probability have aslo been covered. This book is good for researchers who are working on optical networks and advancements in fiber optics communication. Mathematical models covered in this book are simple and easy to implement. A good number of routing and wavelength assignment algorithms have also been covered in this book which can be used to reduce blocking probability of the optical network. This book can be very helpful to the research scholars.
Revision with unchanged content. In this book, we first develop a simple two-period model to examine the parent’s optimal choice of children’s time. We identify factors such as wage rate, school fees, education returns, degree of children’s altruism toward their parents and the parents’ discounting rate that influence the parents’ optimal choice, and discuss their impacts on the optimal choice. Two basic uses for Children’s time are: working in the labor market and attending schools. Schooling today may make children more productive in the future. The opportunity cost of schooling is the forgone wage rate in the labor market. Allocation of children’s time is therefore mainly determined by education return, wage rate in labor market and school fees. Many existing models in the literature cannot explain the coexistence of schooling, poverty and the coexistence of child labor and affluence. We extend our basic model to explain the above two paradoxes. We show that, when education return is high and the household is willing to endure extra hardship caused by the child attending school, the coexistence of schooling and poverty can emerge. On the other hand, when the wage rate for child labor and schooling fees are higher than education return, affluence and child labor can co-exist.
When dealing with stress assignment on the word level, many exceptions to hitherto defined principles can be found in the English language. While some exceptions can be explained by word or morpheme boundaries, others do not fit so easliy into the underlying systematicity of English stress behaviour. Some are often described as simply being idiosyncratic. A new statistical analysis reveals that many of these exceptions do share some common features to a certain extent, in particular in their orthography. Can this kind of features be used to establish additional rules in order to account for exceptional cases of English stress assignment? Or is there no other means but to consider these cases as lexcially exceptional?