Stability of wage functions is fundamentally important in economic systems. In this book, first and second order wage equations are developed and solved. Subsequent wage functions are analyzed and interpreted for stability. For first order equation, its function initially stands off equilibrium wage rate but asymptotically stabilizes towards equilibrium wage rate in the long run. Speculative parameters operating freely dictating employers’ expectations included in modeling second order equation causes both stability and instability of wage function in certain circumstances. When wage function is exponential, asymptotic stability towards equilibrium wage rate is observed. Where wage function consists of exponential and periodic factors, time path periodically fluctuates with successive smaller amplitudes until it stabilizes. Free market operations sometimes cause volatility in wage rates resulting in uncertainties in an economy. This book is important to policy makers in writing policies that may stop volatility of wage rates in free labor markets. It proposes creating a middle path where wage rate oscillates within a narrow band managed by employers in consultation with workers.
Scholars have paid considerable attention to the frequency of strikes among Nigerian workers, most of the literature identifies poor working conditions and poor remunerations as factors. But very few of these studies have been so detailed to highlight on what constitutes a poor wage in a developing economy, as Nigeria; to document the gross monthly earnings plus fringe benefits of university workers; obtain the real market prices of the major stable foods consume by Nigerians; and the cost of household utilities. These evidence were generated, and were not only used to measure wage (poor or standard) and the deteriorating living conditions of workers, but also the poverty of workers and the effect of poor wage on workers''roductivity, among Junior staff of Universities in Nigeria.The background question when determining the productivity of workers is: How much can a working poor offer? Students and Teachers,at all stratum will find the book very useful, so will labour unions,administrators,researchers, Non-Governmental Organizations,and International Labour Organization who may have the need to know the wage statistic and reasons for incessant strikes in Nigerian Universities.
Assignment is a crucial topic in commercial law, and this new work by Gregory Tolhurst is the most comprehensive work on the assignment of contractual rights ever published. It seeks to explain the existence, meaning and application of the rules governing the assignment of contractual rights and it does this by reference to the idea that assignments involve transfers. The book is logically structured to follow the issues that arise in planning, drafting and enforcing an assignment, including: - what is meant by 'assignment'; - what is the distinction between legal and equitable assignments; - how an assignable contractual right is identified; - what formalities apply to assignment; and - what rights and remedies are available to the parties to an assignment. The topic of assignment is of such universal importance to commercial lawyers that all practicing lawyers will find this work invaluable. However, the work will also be required reading for academics teaching contract, equity and personal property.
This study examines the role of minimum wage legislation in the working conditions of domestic workers (house maids) in Zambia. The introduction of a minimum wage generally tends to improve domestic worker wages, although an increasing number of domestic workers in the labour market (excess supply) tends to maintain their vulnerability as this tends to reduce their bargaining power (Societal perception, low agency and self-esteem, especially for live-ins). This paper identifies the key actors in domestic work, and suggests a model for formalizing it that focuses on maid centres (domestic worker agencies) because they are able to register, organize, bargain and represent the domestic workers as most of them ensure the domestic worker employer complies to the minimum wage (although the emphasis is not it being a floor/starting point in most cases).In addition, education and literacy seem to have less explanatory value in relation to the dynamics of bargaining, but awareness. It also seems that minimum wage legislation benefits urban Domestic Workers more, as I had hypothesized. This could be due to higher awareness levels, proximity to representation and higher standards of living.
Assignment Problem is one of the first fundamental problems in the area of combinatorial optimization. Despite its historical roots, the problem has tremendous importance to date, due to its numerous real life applications in like facility location, personnel scheduling, job scheduling, production planning, project assignment, task assignment, time-tabling, vehicle routing, storage space allocation, etc. This book comprises some real life assignment and related problems involving imprecise cost/time parameters. In order to represent those imprecise parameters, interval numbers have been used here as this representation is the best among others. The associated problems have been solved using Genetic Algorithm efficiently. A salient feature of this book is that most of the algorithms have been written in a lucid manner with suitable examples using figures. This book should interest academicians, OR/GA practitioners and executives of different industries and business organizations.
A wireless mesh networks (WMNs) has emerged recently, WMN consist of two types of nodes mesh routers and mesh clients.WMN is dynamically self-organized and self-configured, with the nodes in the network automatically establishing and maintaining mesh connectivity among themselves. Channel assignment is a critical issue in WMN which is the mapping between the available channels and the radios at each node such that the network performance is optimized, and hence the focus of this work along with static channel assignment, multi-radio, multi-channel. Multi-radio MAC can potentially achieve higher network capacity than single-radio MAC. We design and implement a new agent (DSBCA) distributed channel assignment spanner base, the routing protocol Optimize the network performance considering the throughput, end-to-end delay, connectivity and the interference of our channel assignment algorithm. Base on the network simulations NS2.34 on Linux Fedora and our proposed channel assignment algorithm improved the throughput, minimal-connectivity preserving channel assignment algorithm.
The focus area of this paper is on the assignment problem with budget constraints which is one of the application area of combinatorial optimization that operates on the domain of those optimization problems,in which the set of feasible solutions is discrete or can be reduced to discrete,and in which the goal is to find the best solution. It is particularly concerned with solving the unconstrained assignment problems with Hungarian algorithm and the constrained assignment problem by cutting plane or outer linearization algorithm for solving the Lagrangian dual problem in which, at each iteration,the function that approximates the dual function is optimized. The paper is divided in to two chapters. In the first chapter,the classical assignment problem,the problem of finding optimum (minimum or maximum) cost or profit assignment a set of workers or resources to jobs or activities to gather with its mathematical formulation,solution methods and special cases in assignment problems were considered. Under the second chapter, we have considered generalization of the classical assignment problem concerning resource(or budget) constraints, due to the variety of real life problems.
Being in an equalitarian world does not imply a world of serenity for both sexes. World labour force is growing with both sexes but the issue of inequality still remains without exception in many developed and under-developed economies. The purpose of this book is to analyse the presence of gender wage discrimination across sectors in the Mauritian economy. I made use of Continuous Multipurpose Survey Data (CMPHS) from the Statistics Mauritius for 5 consecutive years: 2006-2010 and applied some metrics. The gender wage gap in public sector is lower than in private sector and there is evidence of sticky floors which outweighs glass ceilings across years and in both sectors. Moreover, discrimination level is higher across years and fairly stable. This book adds light to the gender wage gap analysis as no micro-study has been done at present for Mauritius and should especially be useful to professionals in Research and Policy Development fields, or anyone else who may be considering utilizing some information for further studies.
The Evil Within: The Assignment – это первое из двух дополнение к The Evil Within, главной героиней которого является Джулия Кидман, напарница детектива Себастьяна Кастелланоса. В этом дополнении игроки получат часть ответов на те вопросы, которые у них остались после финала оригинальной игры.
The impact of trade on the general well-being of an economy and especially on the distribution of income has been a topic of considerable debate among economists and policy makes alike. Following the influential neo – classical model of trade developed by Eli Heckscher and Bertil Ohlin together with its celebrated propositions one of which is the Stolper – Samuelson theorem or its generalization (Jones (1965), (1979)) it was once thought that trade increases the relative returns to the factor that relatively abundant in a country. Empirical evidences however points to the contrary. With respect to wage earnings, the relative position of the unskilled workers compared to their skilled counterparts, deteriorated in most countries of the world since 1970’s (Wood (1997)). Except for the countries of East Asia, most countries with unregulated labor markets experienced an increase in the ratio of skilled to unskilled wage. In economies where national institutions regulated the labor markets, rising unemployment of the relatively unskilled workers revealed the fall in the relative position of the unskilled workers.
This book analyzes within-country causes and mechanisms which affected wage inequality in European transition economies, after the fall of the Communism. First, we find that internal factors such as small scale privatisation were the main institutional factor increasing wage inequality. Second, we find that even though of a smaller magnitude, globalisation, namely trade freedom and investment freedom affected wage inequality, the first one positively while the second negatively. Third, we find that governments were incapable or unwilling of addressing increasing wage inequality problems, as government spending is found to be insignificant while an increase in tax freedom increased wage inequality. Fourth, we find that workforce education was an additional factor increasing inequality, while economic development (GDP per capita) was found to have a negative effect on inequality, but as the countries got to be more developed this effect became positive.
This dissertation studies an old topic in a new perspective: distributive pattern of gender wage differentials globally. It is both interesting and crucial, especially for policy-makers who attempt to eliminate gender discrimination. In addition to the empirical importance, this dissertation also explores the applications of quantile decomposition, and creatively proposes the methodology of double decomposition in studying over-time change in gender wage gaps and formulate a discriminating search model. Chapters in this dissertation have been presented in many international academic conferences including 4th Young Economist Society conference held in Guangzhou, 3rd SOLE/EALE joint conference in London, 2010 Shanghai Econometric Society World Congress, 12th conference of East Asia Economic Association in Seoul, and 2011 Singapore Economic Review.
Liberalization measures have benefited both developed and developing countries in terms of expansion of market size, inflow of foreign capital high growth rate etc. However, it has also brought sever social problem of unemployment and income and wealth inequality. The present book in this backdrop presents a comprehensive critical review literature and tests empirically the hypothesis whether in the case of India liberalization measures have been effective in reducing or increasing wage inequality, particularly in the manufacturing sector. The book in very analytical way tries to analyse the causes and consequences of liberalization and draws relevant policy implication for Indian policy makers to go ahead on the path of liberalization.
The vast empirical literature on wage differentials reflects extreme interest in the subject from economists, social scientists, and policymakers alike. A review of the literature reveals two noticeable shortcomings. First, nearly all past studies have assumed a linear relationship between earnings and worker characteristics without consideration as to the potential specification error this imposes on their estimates. Second, researchers have generally focused on simple mean effects rather than estimating the effects of characteristics and wage rates on earnings distributions as a whole. Using data from the American Community Survey, this book addresses both issues with a nonparametric approach which is simple to apply. The empirical sections apply the method to measure wage differentials between federal and private sector workers, as well as wage differences between males and females.
In this book we consider the Frequency Assignment Problem, where the objective is to minimize the cost due to interference arising in a solution. We use a quadratic 0-1 integer programming formulation of the problem as a basis to derive new lower bounds and problem reduction rules. A tree search algorithm that uses the lower bounds and dominance criteria is also presented. Computational results are shown on standard benchmark instances from the literature.
This book contains a good literature survey of various mathematical models and routing & wavelengths assignment algorithms in WDM optical networks. Some of the new algorithms for optimization of blocking probability have aslo been covered. This book is good for researchers who are working on optical networks and advancements in fiber optics communication. Mathematical models covered in this book are simple and easy to implement. A good number of routing and wavelength assignment algorithms have also been covered in this book which can be used to reduce blocking probability of the optical network. This book can be very helpful to the research scholars.
In recent years, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of communication networks. This is because they are widely used in all walks of life, and this trend continues increasing. The research on computer communication networking field has also grown explosively due to a large variety of combinatorial optimisation problems. One of these problems is the Terminal Assignment Problem which implies fixing the minimum cost links to construct a network between a specified set of terminals and concentrators. A good solution for this problem should maintain small distances between concentrators and terminals assigned to them without exceeding the capacity of any concentrator. Additionally, it should also maintain a balanced distribution of terminals among concentrators. The intractability of this problem is a motivation for the pursuits of different approximation algorithms. In this book, we explore several metaheuristics applied to the Terminal Assignment Problem and other similar problems. Simulation results verify the effectiveness of these algorithms.
Given that the main pathway to developing human capital of an individual is schooling, learning about the factors that affect individual’s decision whether to acquire more education can contribute towards better educational policy in the country. We use available information to regress: i) expected monthly net earnings after university graduation, ii) expected monthly net earnings with only high school diploma, iii) expected monthly net university earnings 10 years after graduation and iv) expected monthly net high school earnings 10 years after obtaining a high school degree, on a set of variables which includes: characteristics of the individual, socio-economic background, field of study, year of enrolment (junior or senior students), academic performance, sources of information for future earnings and country of future employment, perceived employability and costs of studies. Our findings show that expected university earnings are significantly correlated with father’s education, year of study, sources of information on wages in the labour market, gender, ethnicity, regular job during studies,perceived employability, field of study and country of future employment.
Special Agent Fangs Enigma and his sidekick, werewolf Agent Puppy Brown, were recruited by secret intelligence agency MP1 (Monster Protection, 1st division) to stop the world's super(natural) villains and monster criminals from realizing their evil plans.
Mesh Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) is a promising access network to enhance channels utilization, extend access coverage using simple and cheap network components. Power management affects mesh WLAN network coverage, topology, throughput, traffic routing and end to end delay. Channel assignment affects the mesh nodes interference level and so the transmission capacity. It also controls the number of nodes share the same channel which increases the probability of collision and reduces the network throughput. In this book, the power management problem is formulated to show its impact on mesh WLAN network throughput. Then this formulation is used to propose a new ranking based cooperative game strategy. Mesh WLAN channel assignment problem is also formulated. Then different algorithms throughput and processing delay is analyzed. This analysis is based on evaluating average users’ data rate and processing delay for different assignment techniques in many mesh WLAN network configurations.
25 years ago no one in Germany had thought that once Great Britain could become an economical role model. To that time, Great Britain was known as the “sick man” of Europe-high unemployment rate, high inflation and many strikes. But today situation is different - until a short time, Germany was the “sick man” of Europe. Even if today situation in both countries are better and seems to be stable, it is a fact that Germany and Great Britain - as well as all other European Member States - has to suffer under many exogenous and endogenous challenges. Existing systems need to be changed and to adapt to new situations. This is a difficult task, which affects nearly every area. This paper will focus on the problems Welfare systems has to face, hereby focusing on employment and wage. Great Britain as a role model for national minimum wage and Germany as a country without a national minimum wage will be compared and it will be explained, how a European minimum wage could look like and which challenges countries have to face if such one exist.