Similar to individuals using impression management to influence image, organizational impression management (OIM) suggests organizations use communications tactics to influence public opinion of company image and brand. OIM has been studied sporadically across industries and communications, but not within the field of law and sporadically across industries and communications, but not within the field of law and social media. The purpose of this causal comparative quantitative study was to examine if there were differences in social media OIM strategies based on financial performance and litigation specialty by the largest revenue-grossing U.S. law firms.
Negative atomic ions are often considered to be perfect objects for fundamental studies of photon-matter interactions within many-particle processes. Investigations of the dynamics of photodetachment can provide useful insight to the general problem of correlated motions of electrons in atomic systems. The recent development of the Many-Body Theory approach, namely the method based on Random-Phase approximation and Dyson equation, is reviewed in the book. The case of study on photodetachment with emphasis on resonant features for a series of negative ions and the newest data on inner-shell photodetachment are presented. The results of the concrete calculations for the very sensitive to proper account of the many-electron correlations open-shell negative ions are compared with the available experimental data. The objects chosen present the wide range of the resonance types - strong near-threshold and window resonances, interference and autodetachment resonances, shape and Feschbach resonances - and give the most telling example of importance of the collective effects. With using the Feynman diagram technique the physical meaning of the considered effects becomes especially evident.
Home is the first and the most significant place for the child’s inclusive growth and development. It provides not only the hereditary transmission of basic potentials for the development of the child, but also the favourable environment in terms of interpersonal relationship and cultural pattern. However, education like in school, at home must also strive to achieve the desired objectives in principles with constructive ways of perceiving and making self meaning. Therefore, this book deals with the effect of home environment on academic achievement as an objective. This book specifically examines the extent to which home processes – homework habits, parental support and guidance, intellectual stimulations and parental expectations – affect students’ academic achievement. The study employed is mostly quantitative approach, though some aspects were dealt with qualitatively. The findings of the study confirm that homework processes have desirable effect on students’ academic performance.Therefore, the study recommends creating positive home environment by educating the parents on the importance of productive home environment.
Sexual abuse of the girl-child has continued to escalate the world over especially in the recent past.Although it is hard to acknowledge this,it is known to involve people mostly trusted by the child and family members. The negative impact of Child Sexual abuse has been highlighted by several authors especially those dealing with short term ones. However, apart from carrying out first aid, eliminating chances venereal diseases and generally enabling the child cope with the obvious and immediate discomforts,it is important to note that there is more to this than meets the eye. The long-term effects may go a long way into completely changing one's self-concept and sadly in the negative direction. This is so when appropriate intervention is not done on time. The appropriateness of action taken depends on how much the stake holders know about the impact of Child Sexual Abuse on the long term basis. This book seeks to draw attention on these negative effects and emphasizes the importance of psychological counseling in helping with the reconstruction of the ruined self-concept of the victims of Child Sexual Abuse.
Individuals' Value system can be altered using programmed regular reading of positive literature materials. Effects of bibliotherapy on Behaviour Modification of Adolescents is a vital response to overcome social behaviour problems using regular reading of positive literature. The author brings to knowledge the fact that,just as the reading of positive literature can alter the value system of individuals from negative to positive,regular reading of negative literature materials can on the contrary, result in emotional bad health for users. The emphasis should always be on regular use of positive literature materials. Bibliotherapy is effective for use as therapy in any social re-engineering process of behaviour modification, and is perhaps capable of solving the prevalent national and global behaviour problems ravaging the Society.
The research candidly and boldly reveals the effects of urban developments...it gives insights for policy makers to equally consider the impact of a seemingly positive development initiatives.It gives recommendations to mitigate some of the negative effects of infrastructural developments which are often wedded with restructuring urban spaces.It also reveals some of the broken promises that were made by authorities for the displacees.
Performance feedback is a factor that has differential effects on feedback receiver’s performance outcomes depending on the individual’s tendency to blame the self for the outcome, or to focus on the task in hand to improve outcome. This study investigates the combined effects of feedback receiver’s moral emotion proneness characteristic (shame-prone vs guilt-prone) and negative feedback content (self-focused vs process-focused) on the feedback receiver’s level of self-efficacy beliefs, performance outcomes and performance predictions. Shame-prone individuals are more inclined to make internal and stable attributions for their failures and therefore are expected to experience decreases in their efficacy beliefs and performance outcomes in the face of negative feedback, especially when the feedback is focused on the self. Guilt-prone individuals, on the other hand, generally make unstable, internal attributions for their failures when they receive negative feedback. Their efficacy beliefs and performance related outcomes are expected to be positively affected by the negative feedback, especially when the feedback is process focused.
This dissertation consists of three essays. Two are empirical and one is theoretical. The empirical papers consider the relationship between advertising and beer consumption by young adults. We use the fact that numerous differences existed in the MLDA across states to analyze the effect of the minimum drinking age on the beer consumption. The second empirical paper analyzes the hypothesis that alcohol and cigarettes are complements and studies the effect of advertising, cigarettes consumption and government regulations on beer consumption by youth. We use time series market-level data to estimate the effect of advertising and demographic variables on the market demand for beer. The theoretical essay in this dissertation concentrates on the effect of advertising on welfare in the presence of search costs and negative externalities. It is possible that advertising will be oversupplied if it generates negative externalities. However, under some circumstances advertising can theoretically still be below the socially optimal level even in the presence of negative externalities. We explore those conditions.
The book elicits information on Money Laundering; Negative Effect on economic development in Nigeria. Money laundering is significant to Nigeria Economy because of the havoc it caused in the stability of the system. People who are thwarted in attaining desired social and economic goals legally may seek to obtain them illegally. Data were gathered through the survey design using questionnaire and analyzed using the software package for social sciences (SPSS) The findings show that there was a significant relationship between the incidence of money laundering and economic development. It is a repository of understanding the elements and effects of money laundering coupled with a coherent systematization of the procedures of social science research work.
The book aims in finding the influence of intensive farming over ground water table and water quality in the intensive farming district of Tamil Nadu. For identifying the intensive farming district, composite index was constructed. For analyzing the objectives, the study utilized secondary data pertained to the period 1980-2010. Results of probit model shows that increase in paddy productivity due to the adoption of high yielding varieties have positive relation with that of the ground water depletion. Increase in gross irrigated area under tube wells has a very minimal negative relation with that of the decline in ground water level due to significant ground water recharge. To analyse the influence of intensive farming on ground water quality, various Physico-chemical parameters of ground water like pH, Electrical Conductivity, Cl, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, etc. were analysed over the years.
Excessive growth of population due to urbanization led to upward growth of cities, which as consequence cities missed their realms and boundaries and produced variety of urban forms that took a little consider of their affects upon the environment. Thus, this century experienced the miracle of urban sprawl as the initial primary urban form. The urban sprawl and the expansion of urban areas are the concerns of today’s cities due to social, environmental and economic negative impacts that has in the cities. According to these impacts, it is believed that urban sprawl demonstrates a threat for urban sustainability, since it indicates high level of land, water and energy consumption, as well as increase pollutants and wastes. In the today’s world the best way to implement sustainability is the urban development and overcoming the consequences of rapid urban planning such as urban sprawl. Hence, sustainable urban forms would be a solution for this phenomenon to achieve sustainability in all three dimensions in the contemporary cities. Accordingly, the focus of this book is analyzing the types and costs of urban sprawl in Kyrenia city.
Development and the preaching of the Liberating Gospel of Jesus Christ in Developing countries and the West have been slowed, hindered and frustrated by negative ethnicity, genocide, ethnic cleansing, the house of human skulls in Rwanda, destruction of property, apartheid in South Africa, Racism in the West and Silent Majimboism in Sudan and Kenya, are all forms and effects of negative Ethnicity. There is need to establish the basis and the stronghold of negative Ethnicity and come up with possible solutions. The world is reeling from the deep hatred among its people with issues of negative ethnicity, tribalism, Nepotism and the Race factor. The churches are sick, the governments are struggling, economies are sinking, families are divided and the peoples are fallen apart. The economies are going down whenever a new political system comes to power. Evangelism is thwarted and church growth is dismal. Commissions of inquiries are set each morning to look into these factors. What’s going on? This book endeavors to give top answers to the world’s most disturbing question “Negative ethnicity”. Read through and definitely you will extract the starting point for the healing processes.
The purpose of this literature-based study was to investigate the effects of group songwriting on negative symptoms of schizophrenia and group cohesion. Several studies showed the effectiveness of music therapy in reducing negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Music therapy has also been effective in increasing group cohesion in various populations. The music therapy technique of songwriting has been successful in increasing group cohesion in other populations, but there is little literature about the use of this particular technique in patients exhibiting negative symptoms of schizophrenia. The results of this study suggest that group songwriting could be an effective technique for music therapists to use in order to increase group cohesion when working with patients exhibiting negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Clinical examples of the use of this technique in this population were presented, and a group songwriting method for increasing group cohesion and reducing negative symptoms of schizophrenia was proposed in this study.
TITLE: THE IGBOMINA MIGRANT COMMUNITY IN LAGOS 1900-1985 Scholars mostly agree with the global character of migration, but are divided as to its impact especially on the source region. While some of them believe that migration does have positive effects on the source region, others hold the view that it produces negative impact on the source region but benefits the host community. It is within this context that this study looked at migration of Igbomina from their homeland to Lagos. The objective of the study is to examine the factors responsible for Igbomina migration, that is the push and pull factors; the nature of the migration and its socio-economic and political consequences, first on the source region, Igbominaland and the host community Lagos. The key finding of the research is that migration has a long-term positive rather than negative effects on Igbominaland. It has served as veritable tool for relative rapid socio-economic and political transformation of their homeland. The study concludes that without migration much of the growth and development witnessed in Igbomina today may not have been possible. Therefore, the effects of migration on Igbomina were not negative.
The negative priming (NP) paradigm offers a means to study inhibitory processes in selective attention. Negative priming refers to a slowed or more erroneous response to stimuli that have recently been ignored as distractors and is purported to reflect residual inhibition that serves to aid the selection of relevant over irrelevant stimuli. It is widely assumed that children are characterized by reduced capacity for inhibition and that inhibitory dysfunction is characteristic of individuals with ADHD. However, the two NP studies reported here find no such evidence. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed.
The aim and objective of this investigation is to explore,on a preliminary basis,the psychological and social effects on a sample of women following disclosure of their positive HIV diagnosis.The study was conducted in KwaZulu-Natal,SA. A convenience sampling approach was used to collect the sample.Inclusion criteria included female, older than 18,with a positive HIV status.Participants''disclosure of a positive HIV status was a key inclusion criterion.Semi-structured interviews were used in the collection of data.The themes in the transcripts as well as from the literature review were utilized as a guide.The results of this study suggest that there are various factors that influence whether disclosure of a positive HIV diagnosis takes place,largely based on the initial adjustment to the positive HIV diagnosis,the individual''s socio-cultural context and the weighing of potential reactions (whether positive or negative) that disclosing a positive HIV diagnosis can induce.The psychological effects of disclosing a positive HIV diagnosis that were identified in this study were anger, fear of stigma/discrimination, shock and disbelief and a false sense of acceptance of the diagnosis.
Despite being often cited as one of the most stable and peaceful countries in Africa, the Ghanaian society just like any other association of human beings is not devoid of disputes. Nonetheless, the frequency, and intensity of the disputes bedeviling Ghanaians are comparatively not as alarming as those of neighboring countries like Ivory Coast, Liberia, and Sierra Leone. The most common type of disputes in Ghana usually erupts either within a particular ethnic group, or between two or more ethnic groups. Among these disputes are the Bawku, and the Dagbon Chieftaincy Disputes. Using the Bawku Chieftaincy Dispute as a case study, this book has shown that chieftaincy disputes in Ghana have negative socio-politico-economic consequences on the Ghanaian society. Prominent among these effects are: the loss of lives, the destruction of properties, the severance of family ties, low agricultural production, the injuring of persons, the stifling of educational progress, the closure of health facilities, and threats to national stability. Furthermore, the book proposes means by which the Bawku Chieftaincy Dispute (and the perennial violence associated with it)can be resolved short of war.
There is ever growing risk of chronic exposure to nitrates due to their widespread usage in medicine, agriculture, manufacturing industry, and presence in the environment as pollutants. Particularly common is exposure to nitrates through the use of nitrosable drugs used to treat heart disease and consumption of vegetables grown on heavily fertilized farmlands. Oxidative stress is known to be involved as a pathophysiological mechanism in many disease processes, including chronic toxicity induced by nitrates. Currently, intensive research is on-going to discover the role of the available anti-oxidants in converting diseases. This book presents the findings of an experimental study aimed at characterizing the effects of anti-oxidant vitamins C and E on the negative effects resulting from chronic sodium nitrate exposure on some blood parameters, sperm count and male reproductive hormone. This book will be especially useful to academics, researchers and practitioners in medicine, pharmaceutical, food and biotechnology industries.
Community workers are an under-researched sector of society and the economy. Research suggests that they are vulnerable to negative stress-related effects, including burnout. We provide evidence to show that life satisfaction, positive affect and negative affect need to be considered to fully understand the complex construct of well-being. This book also reports on an experimental intervention based on the transactional model of stress and coping. The group that implemented the strategies learned in the workshop significantly reduced their negative affect and dysfunctional attitudes. Personality traits did not factor into the relationships among the variables. Counsellors need to pay more attention to assisting participants with enhancing and maintaining post-training effects.
The present investigation was aimed to elucidate the toxic effects of selenium on male reproductive organs in albino rats by injecting sub lethal and lower doses of selenium intraperitoneally. The higher doses of selenium caused slight hypotrophy of testes and significantly decreased weights and the secretory activities of male accessory reproductive structures in male albino rats indicating that selenium might interfere with the androgen action at the target sites. It is suggested that interaction of selenium with receptor protein may change the configuration of receptor proteins, thereby decreasing the steroid binding affinity and possibly altering the way in which the receptor can interact with other cellular molecules, thus altering androgen action at the target sites. The study reveals that both low and high selenium concentrations have negative influence on reproductive performance. So dietary supplements should be used judiciously (staying well below the toxic level) and exposure to selenium should be minimized.
Downsizing the workforce has become an ongoing phenomenon in organizations the world over. Downsizing has various effects on the employees and the organizations. The positive effects expected by organizations are faster decision making, smoother communications, greater, and increase in productivity and thus an increase in organizational effectiveness. Although organizations reduce workforces with the intention to get benefits, they must face the negative effects too. The negative effects are creation of climate of distrust, insecurity and demotivation,less commitment, increased absenteeism, emotional trauma, break-down of psychological contract, high level of stress, increased conflict, skills break down of communication and loss of creativity. Research reveals that most organizations do not even achieve financial gain from downsizing as expected. One of the reasons for the failure is ineffective handling of the people left after downsizing (survivors). This study conducts an in-depth research of the literature to understand the effect of downsizing on survivors.
Ready-to-use therapeutic exercises for overcoming parenting deficits The Parenting Skills Homework Planner provides complete, customizable, copy-ready exercises for use with parents in therapy. Designed as a companion for the Parenting Skills Treatment Planner, this invaluable resource can also be used alone to facilitate counseling and help clients take a more proactive role. Organized by topic, each section provides specific goals for each exercise and suggests additional exercises that may help clients organize their thoughts and behaviors surrounding complex family dynamics. From behavioral problems and negative relationships to career development, blended families, grandparenting, and much more, this book provides practical tools for therapists helping clients navigate the landmines of parenthood. In an era of brief therapy, tangible homework assignments help clients continue their therapeutic work outside of the session, offering a quicker, more effective route to solving parenting skills deficits. This book provides insightful prompts and helpful exercises designed to uncover the root of the problem, focus on a solution, and help clients think deeply and critically about past and ongoing behaviors and habits. Use tested homework assignments independently, or in alignment with the Parenting Skills Treatment Planner Customize each exercise to suit each client's situation using downloadable files Help clients get more out of therapy by using time between sessions productively Tackle issues relating to abuse, depression, school difficulties, divorce, poverty, and more Today's complex family structures, combined with increased childhood pressures from school, peers, and the general culture, make parenting a more difficult job than ever before. Homework assignments extend therapy into family time, and facilitate constructive thought and discussion outside of the session. With 60 customizable exercises tailored to specific parenting problems, the Parenting Skills Homework Planner is an essential resource for the family therapist.
This study sought to assess the effects of competition on the performance of letter mail at the Postal Corporation of Kenya. The literature reviewed was based on three theories: porter’s five forces theory, Game theory and Chamberlain’s monopolistic theory. The study adopted a case study design. The target population of the study was Postal Corporation of Kenya employees at Nakuru, Cyber cafes along Kenyatta Avenue in Nakuru, G4S offices in Nakuru, Nation Group of Newspaper office Nakuru and Bus company offices at Nakuru bus terminus. The study found that competition has had far reaching negative effects on the performance of letter mail at Nakuru post office. The latest advancement in communication technology have created fierce competition to letter mail communication and the researcher has therefore recommended adaptation of latest technology at PCK Nakuru coupled with implementation of strategies such as mergers/acquisitions with strategic industry partners, automation of business processes and provision of quality service.
In December 2010 the Dutch government announced plans for new legislation that should diminish the number of longitudinal students. The bill contains requirements regarding the time for obtaining a bachelor’s and master’s degree. If students do not fulfil their study in the required time they have to pay an additional €3.000 fine. This bill for longitudinal students will become valid in September 2012, and was the underlying idea for this study. The purpose of this study is to gain understanding about the effects of monetary and nonmonetary incentives on people’s behavior. This is tested among more than 300 first-year students of the University of Amsterdam. The results of the study show resemblance with economic theory and also indicate that monetary and nonmonetary incentives do not always improve behavior as expected. The study points out that different incentives can improve the study progress of students. This raises the question whether a negative incentive, as the €3.000 fine, is the best way to achieve structural improvements in study behavior. Or are cost savings in Dutch tertiary education the underlying motivation for implementing the bill for longitudinal students?
This book examines long-term, negative consequences of various behaviours characteristic of negative parenting styles, specifically verbal maltreatment (insulting children), physical maltreatment (beating or hitting children), and lack of encouragement. Findings indicate that parents’ discouraging their children from expressing thoughts and feelings, and parents’ being verbally and physically harsh towards their children, are both powerful risk factors for a broad array of long-term health outcomes in both clinical and non-clinical samples. Various aspects of the individuals’ childhood relationships with their parents, as measured using the new APSQ, are significantly correlated with the following health- and wellness-related variables in adulthood: quality of life as assessed on the Global Quality of Life Scale (GQLS), health complaints as assessed using the Minor Health Complaints Questionnaire (MHCQ),
The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of a cognitive behavioral group counseling program on the learned resourcefulness level and automatic thought patterns of fifth grade elementary school students. Children’s Version of Self-Control Schedule (C-SCS) and Cognitive Triad Inventory for Children (CTI-C) were given to 232 fifth grade students. An experimental design with one training and two control groups (placebo-attention and no-treatment) and three measurements (pre, post, and follow-up) were used. 45 students (27 males, 18 females) who had low learned resourcefulness and negative automatic thought patterns were randomly assigned to the training and two control groups. ‘Cognitive Behavioral Group Counseling (CBGC)Program ’ was implemented to the training group students over a period of 15 sessions. Contrary to the expectations, the results indicated that ‘CBGC Program’ did not improve learned resourcefulness levels and increase positive automatic thought patterns of students.
A high-resolution hydro-dynamic model for Delaware Bay was developed, validated and applied to hindcast the largely unknown tracers and circultions of the bay, to investigate the roles of these factors in influencing oyster diseases (e.g., the Multinucleated Spheres of unknown origin, MSX), and to inquiry into the future fate of the bay in response to climate change. In the contemporary bay, a negative temperature/salinity correlation was determined to exist under the modern climate via a positive river flow/temperature correlation and a negative river flow/salinity correlation; warm-salty conditions rarely occur, which helps control MSX; a substantial horizontal salinity gradient provides a habitable refuge for oysters. However, according to the sensitivity studies, sea-level rise and warmer surface air may significantly salinize and warm the bay. Intensified river flow cannot reduce the SLR-induced salinization. The new physical environment may be generally unfavorable to oysters if they are related to oyster diseases.
This book emphasizes about the species richness in theregeneration layer of Shorea robusta in different strata.I conclude that open strata maintain seedling density, and favour regeneration of Sal (shorea robusta)but plant species richness in the regeneration layer dependent to the heavily influenced by the local communities. The correlation between the stem number of upper storey and under storey is negative for diversity index.Timber, firewood, fodder, fiber and food are provisioning services provided by forest ecosystem to local communities.So,this study will be favourable for the management of Sal forest.
Since its discovery in 1997 by three independent groups, PTEN has become one of the most studied tumour suppressor genes. PTEN gene encodes a 403 amino acid sequence protein which has a vital role as a negative regulator for the highly oncogenic prosurvival PI3K/AKT signalling pathway. However, PTEN is one of the most frequently mutated tumour suppressor genes in human cancer. Expression and subcellular localization of PTEN can be affected by certain chemokines. This project has been carried out to study and investigate the effects of CXCL12 chemokine on the expression and subcellular localization of tumour suppressor PTEN in cancer cells. Methods: Two cell lines with different PTEN protein profiles; human endometrial carcinoma HEC 1B, and human neuroblastoma SH SY5Y were stimulated with 20, 50ng/ml of CXCL12. Immunocytochemistry and Western blotting have been performed in triplicate to determine the expression and subcellular localization of PTEN before and after the CXCL12 stimulation.
In psychiatric research, data for analysis originate principally from two sources: directly from the patients themselves and from interviews conducted by health care professionals. In the latter case, statistical theory indicates that clustering by interviewers or raters needs to be considered when performing any analyses including regression, factor analysis (FA) or item response theory (IRT) modelling of binary or ordinal data. We use simulated data to study the bias of factor analytic estimates and model fit indices when data clustering is fully or partly ignored. Robustness of different estimators, such as maximum likelihood, weighted least squares and Markov chain Monte Carlo is also presented. In the second part, we analyse two real datasets containing responses to the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) to show the differences when the data are analysed using the correct multilevel approach rather than a traditional aggregated analysis.