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Tariq Alrifai Islamic Finance and the New Financial System. An Ethical Approach to Preventing Future Financial Crises

Tariq Alrifai Islamic Finance and the New Financial System. An Ethical Approach to Preventing Future Financial Crises

Can Islamic finance save the global system? Islamic Finance and the New Financial System describes how the adoption of Islamic finance principles in future regulatory decisions could help prevent future shocks in the global financial system. Using illustrations and examples to highlight key points in recent history, this book discusses the causes of financial crises, why they are becoming more frequent and increasingly severe, and how the new financial system will incorporate elements of Islamic finance – whether deliberately or not. With an introspective look at the system and an examination of the misconceptions and deficiencies in theory vs. practice, readers will learn why Islamic finance has not been as influential as it should be on the larger global system. Solutions to these crises are thoroughly detailed, and the author puts forth a compelling argument about what can be expected in the future. Despite international intervention and global policy changes, the financial system remains in a fragile state. There is an argument to be made about integrating Islamic finance into the new system to facilitate stronger resilience, and this book explains the nuts and bolts of the idea while providing the reader with a general understanding of Islamic finance. Understand the key principles of Islamic finance Examine the history of the current financial system Discover how Islamic finance can help build a new debt-free economy Learn how Islamic finance theory doesn't always dictate practice Although Islamic finance is a growing market, it is still a foreign concept to many. Those within the Islamic finance circles wonder why the system has yet to gain broader appeal despite its ability to create a strong and well-balanced economy. Islamic Finance and the New Financial System provides clever analysis and historical background to put the issues into perspective.

Stephen Turner P. Explaining the Normative

Stephen Turner P. Explaining the Normative

Normativity is what gives reasons their force, makes words meaningful, and makes rules and laws binding. It is present whenever we use such terms as ‘correct,' ‘ought,' ‘must,' and the language of obligation, responsibility, and logical compulsion. Yet normativists, the philosophers committed to this idea, admit that the idea of a non-causal normative realm and a body of normative objects is spooky. Explaining the Normative is the first systematic, historically grounded critique of normativism. It identifies the standard normativist pattern of argument, and shows how this pattern depends on circularities, assumptions about the unique correctness of preferred descriptions, problematic transcendental arguments, and regress arguments that end in mysteries. The book considers in detail a paradigm case: legal normativity as constructed by Hans Kelsen. This case exemplifies the problems with normativist arguments. But it also shows how normativism was constructed as an alternative to ordinary social science explanation. The normativist argument is that social science explanations themselves are forced to rely on normative conceptsÑminimally, on normative rationality and on a normative view of ‘concepts' themselves. Empathic understanding of the reasoning and meanings of others, however, can solve the regress problems about meaning and rationality that are central to the appeal of normativism. This account has no need for a parallel normative world, and has a surprising and revealing lineage in the history of philosophy, as well as a basis in neuroscience.

Scott Pratt L. Logic. Inquiry, Argument, and Order

Scott Pratt L. Logic. Inquiry, Argument, and Order

An enlightening introduction to the study of logic: its history, philosophical foundations, and formal structures Logic: Inquiry, Argument, and Order is the first book of its kind to frame the study of introductory logic in terms of problems connected to wider issues of knowledge and judgment that arise in the context of racial, cultural, and religious diversity. With its accessible style and integration of philosophical inquiry and real-life concerns, this book offers a novel approach to the theory of logic and its relevance to questions of meaning and value that arise in the world around us. The book poses four problems for logic: Is logic separate from experience? Does logic require dualisms? Can logic reconcile opposed ways of understanding the world? And when things are divided, does the boundary have a logic? The author begins the exploration of these questions with a discussion of the process of analyzing and constructing arguments. Using the logical theories of C. S. Peirce, John Dewey, and Josiah Royce to frame the investigation, subsequent chapters outline the process of inquiry, the concept of communicative action, the nature of validity, categorical reasoning through the theory of the syllogism, and inductive reasoning and probability. The book concludes with a presentation of modal logic, propositional logic, and quantification. Logic is presented as emerging from the activities of inquiry and communication, allowing readers to understand even the most difficult aspects of formal logic as straightforward developments of the process of anticipating and taking action. Numerous practice problems use arguments related to issues of diversity and social theory, and the book introduces methods of proving validity that include Venn diagrams, natural deduction, and the method of tableaux. Logic: Inquiry, Argument, and Order is an ideal book for courses on philosophical methods and critical reasoning at the upper-undergraduate and graduate levels. It is also an insightful reference for anyone who would like to explore a cross-cultural approach to the topic of logic.

Venkatapuram Sridhar Health Justice. An Argument from the Capabilities Approach

Venkatapuram Sridhar Health Justice. An Argument from the Capabilities Approach

Social factors have a powerful influence on human health and longevity. Yet the social dimensions of health are often obscured in public discussions due to the overwhelming focus in health policy on medical care, individual-level risk factor research, and changing individual behaviours. Likewise, in philosophical approaches to health and social justice, the debates have largely focused on rationing problems in health care and on personal responsibility. However, a range of events over the past two decades such as the study of modern famines, the global experience of HIV/AIDS, the international women’s health movement, and the flourishing of social epidemiological research have drawn attention to the robust relationship between health and broad social arrangements. In Health Justice, Sridhar Venkatapuram takes up the problem of identifying what claims individuals have in regard to their health in modern societies and the globalized world. Recognizing the social bases of health and longevity, Venkatapuram extends the ‘Capabilities Approach’ of Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum into the domain of health and health sciences. In so doing, he formulates an inter-disciplinary argument that draws on the natural and social sciences as well as debates around social justice to argue for every human being’s moral entitlement to a capability to be healthy. An ambitious integration of the health sciences and the Capabilities Approach, Health Justice aims to provide a concrete ethical grounding for the human right to health, while advancing the field of health policy and placing health at the centre of social justice theory. With a foreword by Sir Michael Marmot, chair of the WHO Commission on the Social Determinants of Health.

Stephen Moore An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of States. How Taxes, Energy, and Worker Freedom Change Everything

Stephen Moore An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of States. How Taxes, Energy, and Worker Freedom Change Everything

A passionate, detailed, quantified argument for state-level tax reform An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of States explains why eliminating or lowering tax burdens at the state level leads to economic growth and wealth creation. A passionate argument for tax reform, the book shows that even states with small populations can benefit enormously with the right policies. The authors’ detailed exposition evaluates the impact state and local government policies have on a state’s relative performance and economic growth overall, backed up with economic data and analysis. Facts don’t lie. But they do point clearly to the failure of so-called progressive tax schemes designed more to curry favor with selected constituencies than to create an economic system that leads to individual wealth as the reward for hard work and entrepreneurial risk taking. An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of States is a detailed and critical look at income taxation across the nation, and drills down into an analysis of the economic growth or malaise that results from tax policy. Arguing eloquently that a state cannot tax itself into prosperity, just as the impoverished cannot spend themselves into wealth, the authors point out what many inherently know but often fear to say out loud. The book provides detailed quantitative analysis, and discusses the policy variables that can have enormous effects on the financial well-being of states and individual residents, such as: Personal and corporate income tax rates Total tax burden as a percentage of personal income Estate and inheritance taxes Right-to-work laws An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of States shows everyone how to evaluate state-level fiscal and economic policies to become more competitive.

PCG Education Argument Writing, Teacher Guide, Grades 9-12

PCG Education Argument Writing, Teacher Guide, Grades 9-12

Paths to College and Career Jossey-Bass and PCG Education are proud to bring the Paths to College and Career English Language Arts (ELA) curriculum and professional development resources for grades 6–12 to educators across the country. Originally developed for EngageNY and written with a focus on the shifts in instructional practice and student experiences the standards require, Paths to College and Career includes daily lesson plans, guiding questions, recommended texts, scaffolding strategies and other classroom resources. The Paths Writing Units, Argument Writing, Informative Writing, and Narrative Writing, complement the full instructional program and can also be used independently, providing in-depth writing instruction to support all students in grades 9–12 in meeting grade level standards. To emphasize the relationship between reading and writing, each Writing Unit includes accessible model texts that exemplify key elements of each text type, and source texts that provide a topic for the unit writing assignment. Individual lessons guide students through the writing process, providing instruction on grammar and conventions and highlighting collaboration and reflection as key elements of effective writing. Students' final essays are assessed using a checklist developed by the class over the course of the unit. The organization and distinctive content of the model and source texts in each unit afford teachers the flexibility to implement each unit independently of the others, and at any point during the curriculum. For example, a unit may be implemented to assess students' writing prior to implementation of the standard curriculum, to scaffold writing instruction leading into a writing assessment, or to support struggling writers by addressing gaps in skills as demonstrated in previous assessments. The Paths Writing Units provide teachers with invaluable opportunities to engage students as active participants in their own learning at every stage of the writing process, and to customize instruction to meet the varying needs of all students.


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