The aim of this thesis was to investigate the reliability of anodic vacuum arc plasma deposition technique in developing thin film thermocouples. This thesis presents a detailed description of the preparation and characterization of nanocrystalline thin films of Cu, Ni, Fe, Constantan, Chromel and Alumel, and their subsequent pairs as thin film thermocouples.
Transportation problem is one of the important areas in operation research, which is widely used to make a decision in engineering, business, management and many other fields. In the field of operation research, Network Analysis plays an important role to optimization. In this thesis “A study of Transportation Problem (TP) & Network Analysis with TORA applications”, we consider the transportation problem which is a linear programming problem having particular significance in optimization theory. We study some new initial and optimal solution method with some established methods and we comparing the solution. We also study some network problem to optimize the result. Finally software TORA has been used to show the variations in the methods of solving Transportation Problem (TP) & Network Problem. By using TORA, the solution can be found in short time.
Human Resources discipline is considered as the ‘heart of the health system’ in any country. There is a great need for capable, well trained and competent administrators and HR managers. Without suitable deployment of HRM, no organization can stay alive for long, therefore right utilization will not only be in the interest of organization but of the country. Human beings are the most important resources in health care. The significance of human factor in the success of hospital objectives cannot be underestimated. Therefore, a hospital must be administered scientifically and professionally in order to perform its functions efficiently and effectively. It was a cross-sectional hospital based study carried out in public and private hospitals of Sindh. A questionnaire of 43 items based on different aspects of human resource management with special context to this country was used. The study subjects were doctors, nurses, and paramedical or auxiliary health workers of the hospital included through stratified random sampling method. The study of human resource planning was carried out under four sections.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The incidence of malaria is on the raise in South Canara district of Karnataka in the recent years. This study was undertaken to study the hematological changes in malaria and to correlate it with the clinical severity and prognosis.METHODS: Analysis was done on 100 patients over the age group of 15 yr.RESULTS: A total of 100 patients were admitted and treated for malaria. Males (83%) outnumbered females(17%).More common in the age group of 15-35 years. Most of the cases occurred between June to November. P. Vivax (54%) formed the majority of the cases followed by P.Falciparum(25%) and mixed(21%). Thrombocytopenia was the most common cause of severe malaria followed by liver dysfunction , renal failure, anemia. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSION: Malaria is a major health problem affecting the younger population. Thrombocytopenia contributed the maximum to the severity with anemia, liver dysfunction , deranged renal parameters concontributing to a lesser extent. Mixed malaria was the leading cause for severe malaria.The prognosis is particularly good with early detection and treatment.
The detection of Escherichia coli in drinking water supply systems traditionally indicates on the recent fecal pollution. However, this approach has occasionally failed to explain several waterborne outbreaks or sporadic occurrence of E. coli in distribution networks without apparent source of contamination. The overall aim of this thesis was to evaluate the significance of viable but non-culturable (VBNC) Escherichia coli in drinking water systems. During the work the selection and evaluation of appropriate molecular methods for enumeration of total and non-culturable E. coli in water and biofilm samples, laboratory scale experiments on the disinfection efficiency and long term sampling of E. coli in water concentrates and biofilm from a large scale distribution network was performed. Finally, full scale testing of effect on increased concentration of AOC on changes in total and VBNC E. coli found in the water and biofilm. The results showed that the concentration of the disinfection residual usually found in drinking water distribution systems is not enough to fully neutralize the fecal indicator – E. coli. Moreover, E. coli has the tendency to accumulate in the biofilms of a wat
In the 21st century, it is a must for economic actors to get involved in some forms of information and communication technology. It is equally true that it is difficult to know our way around in the vast labyrinth of the ever more complex technological systems. This study aims at highlighting the intensifying relationship between the role of information and communication technology and the daily operation of enterprises by researching into the effects of the information society on the Hungarian economic sectors. Apart from examining the requirements of the information society, the ICT development levels of the individual economic sectors and company size categories are also investigated and compared to each other as well as to other member states of the European Union. Heading from the general to the specific, a case study is included to reveal the background criteria for making decisions on introducing and implementing business information systems in terms of the various needs and size categories of enterprises, discussing the factors contributing to the increase in the operational effectiveness of enterprises in more detail.
This thesis provides insight to an object-oriented approach for mapping the current land use and land cover (LULC) in the study area Crans-Montana-Sierre in Valais. The study area is located in an inner alpine dry valley in the canton of Valais in Switzerland. In times of scarcity and global change the significance of water management in the Alps as a component of development increases consistently. The goal of this master thesis is the development and application of a suitable methodology for the establishment of an accurate and detailed LULC map of the study area Crans-Montana-Sierre, which shall serve as an accurate base map for the inter- and transdisciplinary project MontanAqua. This project deals with the development of options for a sustainable water management at a commune level and is within the framework of the National Research Programme Sustainable Water Management (NRP 61).
Our ideas & beliefs as teachers can form our behaviors in the classrooms and subsequently they may affect on learning & learners.Considering the significance of thoughts and beliefs,the present book retrieved from my MA thesis from Islamic Azad University,Tonekabon Branch,Mazandaran,Iran was applied to study these beliefs in the area of vocabulary. What our beliefs are about teaching and learning lexicon refers to how we will behave in the classroom and during learning processes.
The importance of techniques in mural was introduced. A significant element in mural, a public and social art that is as old as mankind, is indeed techniques which as emphasized by art scholars such as Siqueiros, Gardner and Hauser grows and develops along with the technology of each era. With regards to the importance of this issue, this dissertation focuses on one of the oldest techniques, i.e. flat color but with a modern material, i.e. acrylic to further study the significant role of technique in the art of mural.In this book, our contributors are Katayoun Moghadam,Dr.Sabzali Musa Kahn, Jaffri Hanafi and Dr. Nik Nairan Abdullah from Universiti Teknologi Mara (UiTM)
The aim of this thesis is to investigate the asymptotic behavior of solutions of some viscoelastic problems in bounded domains. In this regard, we study several problems and establish exponential, polynomial and general decay rate results. The decay results are established in the absence, as well as in the presence of a source term. This thesis contains five chapters. In Chapter 1, we discuss the properties and significance of viscoelastic materials and we end the chapter by reviewing some literatures related to our problems. In Chapter 2, we present some principal concepts, some theorems on Sobolev embeddings and some lemmas which are of essential use in the proofs of our results. In Chapter 3, we study the asymptotic behaviors of solution of a viscoelastic problem when the relaxation function is decaying exponentially in the presence of a source term. In this regard, we establish a decay result which depends on the behavior of the external force. The case when the relaxation function is decaying polynomially in the absence of a source term is treated in Chapter 4. A general decay result for the finite history case is studied in the last chapter.
This book is very useful to the researcher in the field of morpho-anatomical study of cypsela. It is also helpful to the students of BSc. and MSc. to know the details of cypselas. They can distinguish among different taxa of Asteraceae on the basis of cypselar morpho-anatomical study.It is useful to the separation of taxa in the species level. The researcher on the field of this study can observe detailed morpho-anatomical features of cypsela which is very useful to carry out their study.
Poly Vinyl Chloride (PVC) units has became an important area of specialization in 1990’s in India because of its large scale use in industries, institutions and domestic. PVC has replaced almost entire market of galvanized iron and cast iron. With the kind of interest this subject was attracting, well written thesis, covering all aspects of PVC units was required. I have tried to fulfill this requirement through Problems and Prospects of PVC Units in Haryana. This thesis is aimed towards accomplishing the objective: (i) to identify the problems faced by PVC units (ii) to identify the prospects of PVC units. These objectives will have been accomplished if readers gain an understanding of PVC units in different functional areas. This thesis is divided into six chapters. Chapter 1 provides overview about the topic, its significance, objectives and scope of the study. Chapter 2 examines review of the literature with attention towards historical development of PVC, about Indian plastic industry, plastic statistics of India, products made up of PVC, standards used to test the quality of PVC material and products. Chapter 3 describes research methodology used to carry out the research.
Most of the real world systems are subject to online deterioration resulting in higher production cost, lower product quality and missed schedules. Thus the study of optimal repair, replacement and warranty strategies assumes a special significance. The objective of the present thesis is to propose and analyze a new class of models for deteriorating systems. Amongst the many approaches to model deteriorating system, shock models by virtue of their tractability and applicability to diverse areas has attracted the attention of modelers. Traditional shock models view system failure as a first passage problem of the cumulative damage process to cross a threshold. This thesis proposes a new class of shock models in which system failure is dependent on the frequency of shocks and explicitly obtains the various statistical characteristics of system failure. The thesis presents several optimal replacement problems of deteriorating systems within the ambit of the proposed class of models and explicitly obtains the optimal replacement times and the associated cost. The procedures are illustrated with numerical examples.
Africans face challenges from the African Traditional worldview. These challenges come in the form of witchcraft, magic, infertility and certain life crisis. It is during these times of crisis that African Christianity faces a challenge from the African Traditional Religious world. Consequently, the African Initiated Churches including the Followers of Christ Church of God have identified this urgent need for the Christian Church in Africa. This thesis critically reflects on Faith-healing as practised by the African Initiated Churches. The proposal of the thesis points to the need for a theology of healing in Africa. There is an urgent need for a pastoral theology of care and counseling especially in times of crisis. The thesis does not attempt to judge the praxis and theology of the African Initiated Churches, but it rather highlights the existential needs of Africans. Furthermore, it is a provocative document which invites theologians, scholars, missiologist, church leaders and other religious practitioners for further research and exploration into the African religious cosmology.
Bovine tuberculosis is zoonotic, chronic infectious disease of cattle caused by intracellular bacterium Mycobacterium bovis characterized by progressive granulomatous lesions or tubercle in the lung tissues, lymph nodes and other organs. The disease has both economic and public healthy importance. The book contains introduction, literature review and case study. The introduction describes cause, source of infection, prevalence, public health importance and economic impact of Bovine tuberculosis in Ethiopia. The literature review intended to provide an in depth information on the etiology, pathogenesis, mode of transmission, potential risk factors, geographical distribution, diagnostic modalities, prevention and control measures of Bovine tuberculosis both in animals and humans separately. Case study on assessment of the epidemiology and public health importance of Bovine Tuberculosis using comparative intradermal tuberculin test, post-mortem examinations, bacteriological analysis, molecular typing and questionnaire survey was included. The authors hoped the book would provide information on the epidemiology and public health significance of bovine tuberculosis to all stakeholders.
Monograph on Production, Optimization and Significance of the versatile Polysaccharide - Dextran provides a comprehensive study of the polysaccharide - Dextran which has enormous utility in the areas of medicine,food industry and environmental applications. It covers basics such as the isolation, characterization, confirmation of the organism Leuconstoc mesenteroides and about its polysaccharide product the structure, types,significance and the optimization of various factors for its maximum production. The style, sequence and the presentation of the material in this book would be useful for students, scholars and researchers to understand the underlying facts, about the concepts, significance and the numerous benefits of microbial products in the field of industrial microbiology and biotechnology.
The conceptual framework for the book was developed from the writings of Hans-Georg Gadamer and also from writers who engaged with Gadamer, most notably, Paul Ricoeur and Jurgen Habermas. The subject matter of this thesis is timely because religious identity issues are of critical significance at this time in Catholic education. The hermeneutic orientation of this thesis highlighted the elements of understanding, interpretation and meaning, and these elements are given some prominence in the more recent research literature on the change process. The researcher was actively involved in the events investigated in the case study, and a case narrative was developed from the researcher’s experience as a change agent. Change agentry was presented in this thesis as unfolding in a middle space between the familiarity of current practice and the unfamiliarity of the new world that a change process seeks to open up. Hermeneutics has long understood that that interpretation would be impossible if the expressions of life were totally alien and unnecessary if there was nothing alien in them.
The rapid development of Internet caused a set of challenging problems regarding security. Everyone can duplicate the digital data without permission. Therefore, it raised the awareness of the copyright problems in the e-commerce age. Digital watermarking is a technique of embedding a hidden signal into digital contents to identify the legitimate owner, track unauthorized use or detect intentional tampering. To increase the robustness of watermark, many research papers have been proposed to embed the watermark in different frequency domains rather than in spatial domain. For the same reason, this thesis focuses on embedding the watermark into the Curvelet Transform developed by Candµes and Donoho. In tradition, Curvelet watermarks are embedded into all frequency bands. However, the study of individual band or mixed bands behavior and their usage on watermarking have not been reported. Thus, this thesis provides a detailed study of the watermarking using individual band or mixed-bands based on the Curvelet Transform.
Simulating membrane computing in digital computers cannot be without the mathematical modelling of a membrane structure and its inherent inter- and intra-regional molecular interactions together with the rules governing such interactions. Before now there has not been a flexible representation of membrane structure. This thesis opens up a new dimension in the study of membrane computing by providing current synthesis of knowledge concerning the structure of membranes. The main aim of the thesis is to design a mathematical tool for representing a membrane structure, called a tree structure. It uses a suitable multiset permutation rather than a Venn diagram or a tree diagram for the representation in a one-to-one correspondence. Since a Venn diagram or a tree diagram representation of a membrane structure is not readily available to the computer at programming level, the use of tree structures can be exploited.
This research was focused on the prevalence and significance of HPV types in cervical cancer in Chennai, South India. The study was carried out by analyzing HPV by PCR in the biopsy of cervical cancer patients. The molecular pathogenesis of HPV was analyzed by correlating the data with the expressions of different cell cycle associated molecules such as p53, bcl-2 and PCNA in the biopsy. The data was also correlated with the level of ATRA in the serum of cervical cancer patients.The highlight of the research findings are:i)Carcinogenic high risk HPV types 16 and 18 are more prevalent in Tamil Nadu (Chennai),India. ii)HPV infection establishes its carcinogenicity through altered cell cycle control molecules such as p53, bcl-2 and PCNA iii)Retinoid ATRA level has a major role during carcinogenesis and it was found to be associated with the oncopotency of HPV types. Hence,the research Concludes that Uterine cervical cancer is more prevalent in Chennai, India and it is highly associated with the oncogenic HPV types 16 and 18.
Low Back Ache is one of the greatest afflictions. Most of Physicians/Surgeons/Physiotherapists preferred to diagnose disc herniation through MRI. But some of the studies have proved that MRI is not reliable as it gives false positive findings in asymptomatic patients also. As many as 1377 patients with low back ache participated in this descriptive study.The Physicians preferred radiological tools to diagnose LBA as follows: X-Ray (76%), CT Scan (19%), Discography (0%), Myelography (8%) and MRI (54.61%).However, in 37.92% cases, MRI reports showed abnormalities in the disc, whereas on clinical examination no such problem appeared in the patients. The Study established a statistically significant relationship between Clinical diagnosis, Radio diagnosis and Electrodiagnisis in PIVD. However, it is not at all suggestive in PIVD cases & MRI associated with high false positive results. Similarly, electrodiagnosis is found to be a valid, sensitive, non-invasive, cost effective and useful method to assess the lumbosacral nerve root functions in patients with lumbar disc herniation. It must be incorporated in the routine investigations of the patients suffering from PIVD.
This book is based on original research data, primary data, collected by researchers on the subject Significance of ART Adherence to Curb HIV infection among Children. This is a maiden study and publication work on ART Adherence, particularly among children. Women and children are increasingly becoming vulnerable to HIV/AIDS. Adherence is a major factor in determining the degree of viral suppression achieved in response to ART. Poor adherence can lead to virologic failure. Prospective adult and pediatric studies have shown the risk of virologic failure to increase as the proportion of missed doses increases. Adherence is a complex health behavior that is influenced by the regimen prescribed, patient and family factors, and characteristics of health care providers. Here at this juncture, the studies on adherence enhancing/influencing are of great important, essential in order to yield maximum fruits of the Govt. Programmes for the HIV/AIDS infected/affected. This publication (work) could be the pioneer work on Adherence of ART in India. This reading definitely be helpful for the researchers and policy makers in the field of HIV/AIDS, for the sake of quality of life of any community.
This Thesis has been written as a computational and analytical approach to the study of the optical properties of the Thin Film using Beam propagation Technique in conjunction with Lippmann-Schwinger Equation and its counterpart Dyson''s Equation as key Mathematical tools.In keeping with the approach and the idea of the work, the readers are guided through the understanding of the application of the beam propagation method in the study of thin film /nanoscience in general and the efficacy of the use of the above mentioned mathematical tools for such work. "
Human relationship with nature is no more of equal partners, but of domination and rampant exploitation. Unjust treatment of nature particularly trees, forest causes ecological crises in the world. In this context the religious significance of tree upheld in the Vedic period perhaps has an ecological relevance. In the Sruti, the term tree is classified into several categories. The Sanskrit term ?k?vr applies to large trees bearing conspicuous flowers and fruit. Vanaspati, ‘forest-lord’ was given to certain select trees and plants such as the Soma; small trees bearing both fruit and flowers are called Vanaspatya. Herbs that had healing and medicinal properties were called oshadhi. Creeping plants were lata (or Valli), bulbs were kandasaka and yavasa refer to grasses. Vedic Hindus considered trees as conscious and are therefore praised and worshipped. To plant tree was considered sacred and religious act. Trees were belief to have supernatural power and therefore should not be destroyed or cut-off as different gods and goddess reside in them. Such an understanding of tree has ecological significance for us today and this is the special interest of study in this book.
India''s 1.1 million-strong army and paramilitary forces has recorded an annual average of 100 suicides in recent years, mainly due to stress, mental health problems and other personal issues. The purpose of the study was to compare Occupational Stress, Frustration Tolerance and Mental Health among BSF, PAC and CISF.For this study, one fifty male subordinate officers and other personnel of different rank categories (Sepoy to Sub Inspector) from each force of various battalions and places were randomly selected as a subject and the age of the subjects were ranging from 19-24 years. All the subjects belonged to different states and union territories of India and all the subjects had a minimum of three years job experience.The qualitative measurement of each subjects were taken with the help of Occupational Stress Index (OSI), Frustration Tolerance (FRTO) Inventory and Mental Health Battery (MHB). In order to ascertain significance of difference among the three groups the analysis of variance was employed and the level of significance was set at 0.5.
The study was an attempt to investigate the challenges for intelligence oversight in transitional States, using Uganda as a case study. The study compounds it that the absence of intelligence oversight is likely to manifest in; misuse of and failure of the intelligence service. The study examined the challenges that could be hindering opening up the intelligence services. The specific objectives of the study were; to explore the significance of secrecy in intelligence services, to examine the effectiveness of the existing intelligence oversight mechanisms and analyse the significance of opening up of the intelligence service to control and oversight bodies. The study reveals that the intelligence service in Uganda like in most transitional democracies is much closed with little oversight and the culture of secrecy in intelligence is so entrenched. The study therefore, recommends that intelligence services in Uganda should undergo reforms especially to do with the culture of secrecy. Some aspects of the intelligence should be opened up and there should be training and sensitization of the stakeholders and strengthening the oversight mechanism in the country.
This book deals with the significance and importance of medicinal plants which includes an account of the numerous physiological activities, right from the primitive age with particular emphasis on chemistry of flavonoidal constituents of Leguminosae plants. It incorporates the applications of modern techniques for separation, isolation and structural establishment of bioactive flavonoidal constituents of following Leguminosae family 1. Cassia sophera Linn. 2. Dolichos lablab Linn. 3. Acacia arabica Willd. So this book is very useful for the systematic phytochemical analysis of Flavonoidal constituents present in different medicinal plants.
The combination of two dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry in protein biochemistry, is an established powerful strategy for the analysis of quantitative and qualitative differences between two or more related biological states. For this thesis work we applied those methods to investigate certain light responses of a phototrophic bacterium, of which we hope they would correlate with the function of a unique photoreceptor the organism expresses.
This thesis deals with the Estimation of total solar irradiance from sunspot number. Thus, the present thesis has five chapters. Chapter one deals with background of the study that addresses the research question, purpose, significance, scope (delimitation), limitation and definition of operational terms. In chapter two different literature are reviewed regarding the variables treated from international perspective. It also, provides a comprehensive literature review on the total solar irradiance (TSI), sunspot numbers and the estimation techniques of TSI from different proxies. Moreover, the solar cycle, solar activity and climate change are presented in detail. In chapter three we discussed about design, instrument, procedure and data analysis technique. Chapter four deals with the detail analysis of the research finings and discussions. Finally, chapter five contains the conclusion, and recommendation for further research work.