This project examined the status of data-based research in applied linguistics through an analysis of published research studies in nine peer-reviewed applied linguistics journals (Applied Language Learning, The Canadian Modern Language Review / La Revue canadienne des langues vivantes, Current Issues in Language Planning, Dialog on Language Instruction, Language Learning, Language Teaching Research, Language Testing, The Modern Language Journal, TESOL Quarterly) recommended by the American Association for Applied Linguistics (AAAL), during a particular seven-year period (2002-2008), so as to determine the research methods used. It analyzed the implementation of statistical procedures in those studies that use quantitative research methodology, and classified qualitative studies according to research methodology. Mixed studies were categorized according to research methodology and statistical procedures.
The instruments of research methodology will allow researchers to maintain and express the power of their line of work. At its best, an energetic research methodology can give a boost to the passion that so often fades after researchers join the profession. The goal of the book is to introduce researchers to the many research tools that can be used to inform research as well as to ideas about how and when to deploy them effectively. Topics include qualitative and quantitative methods and design managing, trend research, cultural diversity, official and structural research practice, tactical discussions of research process, and case studies. The book demonstrates the transformation of theory into a richly satisfying and more reliably successful practice.
There is an ever increasing need and utilization of research-based knowledge as a basis for influencing educational policies and decisions. As a result, there has been a need for skills in research for those with special interest in the education industry. It is for this reason that all tertiary institutions and universities have mounted courses in research methods and methodology to train their students to read, understand, conduct and analyze educational research. This book is written for undergraduate and graduate students as well as educational practitioners. The aim is to familiarize students with basic terminologies in research methodology but more importantly to facilitate their grasp of these concepts so that they can use it to conduct and obtain valid and reliable research data for the purpose of solving basic educational problems.
Foreign language education has not been established as an independent academic discipline since the theoretical framework and the corresponding research methodology had not been adequately studied so that the concept was misinterpreted as part of applied linguistics. The reason for this misinterpretation is that relevant knowledge background in terms of curriculum and instruction, educational research methodology, research approaches and theories in applied linguistics was not fully developed to nurture such an independent academic discipline as foreign language education. Many years of persistent learning and teaching endeavor as well as substantial help from professors worldwide result in this methodology book, as one of the two books to establish foreign language education as one academic discipline, the other being Content-based Language Instruction: Principles and Practices, providing the theoretical framework for the discipline.
Research purifies human life. It improves its quality. It is search for knowledge. If shows how to Solve any problem scientifically. It is a careful enquiry through search for any kind of Knowledge. It is a journey from known to unknown. It is a systematic effort to gain new knowledge in any kind of discipline. When it seeks a solution of any educational problem it leads to educational research. The following book consists matters regarding meaning of Research Methodology, Research Design, Variables and hypotheses and Sampling.
The aim of this work is to review theoretical perspectives on social research methodology in order to evaluate the choice of methodological and ethical issues against the wide range of methods available. It is adapted from a fieldwork undertaken in Libya. This study is shaped with the research questions outlined in the abstract. Accordingly, the research design, data collection and analysis were all influenced by the research questions. This research, therefore, uses epistemological and ontological position, research design, qualitative research methods, data analysis and ethical issues, which arose during the research progress in the fieldwork to address the research questions.
The book focuses on the discussions and explanations of all the basic ideas, concepts and methods of research and thesis writing skills. The author presents the basic ideas, concepts and principles using a simple language which is easy to understand by both graduate and undergraduate students. This book consists of two parts. The first part deals with the basic ideas, concepts and principles of research Methodology. The second part deals with thesis writing from chapter one to chapter five. The methods for presentation, analysis, interpretation of data are explained. The book also provides a guide for evaluation of individual thesis work, research projects, as well as research papers. This book will be a resource to teachers and students of research methodology, research supervisors and those contemplating to do research work eventually writing their research reports.
This book has been written as a reference book covering different units and their sub-units of Research Methodology in Language Education. It has four units written in simple language so that the readers of the book can take advantage of it. Unit one deals with the basic concepts of research or theoretical concept of research. This unit primarily covers meaning, definition, characteristics of research, its purposes, variables, sampling procedure, sources and tools of data collection and different ways of analyzing the data. Second unit of this book deals with different types of research designs based on the various criteria. Third unit covers with different phases of research activities. It also deals with different operational levels in research. Lastly, last unit discusses the practical ideas/guidelines for preparing a research proposal and thesis writing. Beside these four units, it also has chapter wise subjective and objective questions along. This book will be beneficial for any persons who are interested to build up confidence in research methodology.
The book targets bringing hope to both postgraduate students and lecturers. It helps the former not only to complete their dissertations in time but also enjoy the subject; and the latter to climb the academic ladders through publishing. It does this by solving some of the common problems of research which are never covered in other research methodology books. For instance, it brings in an aspect of writing styles that is assumed unproblematic. The book introduces writing styles such as 5Ws and H, the inverted pyramid and CREDIT. It also includes such topics such as looking for a research topic, ingredients of a research proposal, how to handle literature review, aspects of measurement in both quantitative and qualitative research, how to go about making a researcher-made questionnaire and interview skills.
ASEAN’s different perceptions to China’s rise is my research work for Master Degree at Tsinghua University. The research question is about why does ASEAN as an organization but ASEAN views China’s rise in different perceptions? In this research, it took me one year for studying this question and find out by using case studies methodology. I have to thank to Professor Qi Haixia, my academic adivisor, who supported me everything in this particular research until I finished up. Also, I would like to thank Professor Sun Xuefeng who is the expert in Southeast Asia and helped me to review my research writing and I would like to thank Professor Yan Xuetong who taught me how to write an academic research and methodology.
Research is a scientific and systematic search for pertinent information on a specific topic. In fact, research is an art of scientific investigation. Research is an academic activity and as such the term should be used in a technical sense. Research comprises defining and redefining problems, formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions, collecting, organising and evaluating data, making deductions and reaching conclusions, and at last carefully testing the conclusions to determine whether they fit the formulating hypothesis. This book covers each aspect of research methodology in detail. I am thankful to Dr.Babita Raghuwanshi and Dr. Sonali Rai for their contribution in making it possible.
This book is meant to introduce new researchers in business studies with research techniques. The language used in writing this book is very simple and to the level of new researchers. The book can also be used by lecturers teaching business undergraduate research units. This book contains nine topics namely, introduction to research methodology, types of research designs, reviewing literature, formulation research questions, preparing research designs, data collection and ethical issues, processing and analyzing data, reporting the findings and the main components of a research proposal.
This book provides researchers with the skills and knowledge needed to successfully accomplish milestones during the early stages of research activity. Specifically, it assists researchers in developing a skill set that includes developing a research question, writing the literature review, choosing a methodology, and creating a research proposal.
To design an impressive research proposal or methodology, one should have gone through intensive search. Basic steps in research process are: formulating the research problem, extensive literature review, developing the objectives, preparing the research design including sample design, collecting the data, analysis of data, generalization and interpretation and preparation of the report or presentation of results-formal write ups of conclusions reached. Thus appropriate research methodology is the backbone of any research and needs thorough understanding. It will be very helpful for designing a descriptive, correlational, explanatory, exploratory scientific write up. For impressive write up one should work on searching of related review literature, compilation of data and subsequent interpretation by statistical analysis. In addition, it will be able to answer most frequently asked questions like determines the data needs, specifies the sources of data, suggests which type of research is likely to be more appropriate, determines the most appropriate technique of analysis and contributes to the development of theory.
A constant concern of academics and practitioners have been helping small and medium enterprises (SMEs) to achieve the same benefits of information technology (IT) than large companies. Many instruments and techniques have been proposed for this, but they have limited application in SMEs. This thesis aims to develop a methodology to help improve the use of IT in SMEs. The methodology was called IT-QSM (Information Technology - Quick Scan Methodology). IT-QSM was developed using action-research and case study.
Writing a research is the final step for dental students to obtain their academic degree. During this process, the students become acquainted with the latest advances in science and learn the techniques of research and scientific writing. Since theses are among the most important research sources of the universities, they should be authored according to the international standards of scientific writing. This work focuses on evaluating the accuracy of the methodology section of graduate and post-graduate theses conducted in Shahid Beheshti Medical University, School of Dentistry, in order to reveal their weakness points. By recognizing these weaknesses, supervisors can take measures to eliminate them and improve the quality of researches. Moreover, this work gives a brief survey of important points for a dental candidate to be kept in mind when conducting a research project.
For those embarking on or engaged in property law research, this is a unique resource which includes contributions from twelve international scholars who each analyse a different research approach, addressing its value, associated methodology and the challenges involved in pursuing it.
A detailed yet concise handbook clarifying all the major terms needed for a thorough understanding of key research methodology concepts in business and management. An invaluable guide for students at all levels seeking assistance with projects, research proposals, dissertations and theses; including case studies and suggestions for further reading.
Covering approaches to second-language research that in some way conforms to the agenda of linguistics, this book presents the actual methodology and results of research rather than just the conclusions or interpretations. It covers the main current theories, research methods and techniques, and it considers the crucial problems involved in relating second-language acquisition to linguistics.
This book presents a well-detailed approach and clearly outlined steps and concepts to research theory and practice. Using relevant illustrations, Dr. Ndikaru takes the reader through an in-depth understanding of various areas and concepts of research such as: nature and meaning of social research; stages in research process; research design; research questions and research hypothesis; conceptual and theoretical framework; literature review; measurement in research and sampling design; case study and survey methods; techniques of interviewing; data collection instruments; validity and reliability of research instruments; data collection, processing, analysis and interpretation; writing a research report; and writing a bibliography. The book is a very resourceful handbook to undergraduate and graduate students. It is also very useful to NGOs, government ministries and other policy makers dealing with research and development issues.
The authors have explored the challenges of conducting academic research to come out with this book, that focus on academic research in practice, as their contribution to knowledge and better understanding of research in our institutions of higher learning. In writing this book, the authors adopted a participatory research approach that examined the challenges faced by students in their quest to adopt and apply an appropriate research concept in practice. The data was collected after years of teaching research and also supervising academic research in Sunyani Polytechnic-Ghana, Cambridge International College-UK and Commonwealth MBA Distance Learning at Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST)-Ghana. Substantial literature was also collected from books, journals and publications on the internet. Focus group discussions were obtained as feedback from students. We hope this book would make research methodology easier for students of research and also academia supervising research at higher insitutions.
The book is essential for student, scholars, Researchers, teachers and professionals in all fields of study where research is required for academic excellence. At the fundamental level, the basic knowledge and technique of carrying out research is very essential. The book Fundamentals of Research methodology and Data collection aims at providing necessary steps and guidelines to researchers and postgraduates who are more often faced with the challenges of how to start and what to do at a given stage. It serves as a textbook for both researchers at various levels of academic endeavors as well as a guide for supervisors supervising researcher at various levels.
Stereological methods provide researchers with unparalleled quantitative data from tissue samples and allow for well-evidenced research advances in a broad range of scientific fields. Presenting a concise introduction to the methodology and application of stereological research in neuroscience, Neurostereology provides a fuller understanding of the use of these methods in research and a means for replicating successful scientific approaches. Providing sound footing for future research, Neurostereology is a useful tool for basic and clinical researchers and advanced students looking to integrate these methods into their research.
The methodology aims towards an assessment of a website and prescribe a remedial to achieve more usability. This paper studies two affairs of a website - one is usability assessment and other one is remedial guidelines. I have developed a simple excel spreadsheet to demonstrate the methodology that I have developed for this study. In order to prove the concept and the methodology, I have considered a website as a case. The case website has been assessed using my methodology and remedial has been prescribed based on the assessment result. As a part of usability comparison study, I have also considered another website as a best case which is the benchmark for this research.
In the work «Optimization methodology of hierarchical control of orbit constellations» a new approach is proposed to the research of hierarchical optimization problem of large control systems. The unique methods are developed which allow determining the laws of spacecraft optimal control during the different flight stages without the use of complicated calculation procedures of boundary tasks solution. The development of hierarchical principles of optimization is one of the tendencies for methodology improvement of research of control operations in different areas of science and technology. The proposed methodological approach can be widely used in the fields of space navigation, aviation, machine building, monitoring of near earth space, mathematical modelling, optimal control.
This book is on a methodology adopted in one PhD research, thus, it provides an example of step by step involved in one research attempt, systematically. It could serve as a guide for student-researcher when undertaking their research as well as writing their research methodology chapter. Comprises of ten sections altogether from introduction, designing the research aims and questions, justifying methodological positions, research design, detail description of the effort involved in data collection and analysis and how to report findings, the author also included sample of corresponding emails and letters with respondents during data collection processes. The comprehensive description of each step taken in the research process is shared which will be very useful when anyone wishes to replicate the effort. I hope that this book comes handy to student-researcher in particular or other beginner in social sciences research.
The main aim of this study was to explore the trends of methodology applied in academic educational research in Bangladesh. Mixed method research approach was used to conduct this study. The institutions and educationist were selected purposively. While the research/thesis reports were selected randomly considering the decades. Document review check list and interview schedule were used as data collection tools. Through mixed methods analyses, it was found that majority researchers used quantitative research approach to conduct their study. They used teachers and students as their research population and used non probability sampling techniques. A large number of researchers used questionnaire and interview as data collection tools. Majority researchers used quantitative analyses methods and they conducted this type of analyses manually and also used table to presents their findings. Finally a representative number of researchers presented their study data to some extend related to methodology. For this reason, to improve our educational research field the mixed method research approach and the action research method might be used.
This book focuses on the need of training teachers to apply CLIL methodology to the current education system. There is already research written on the need of applying CLIL methodology to the present education system in order to satisfy the needs of the global society in which the command and the appropriate use of languages is becoming essential in the world today. In fact, there have already been some initiatives at different centers in Spain to apply this methodology. However, after considering these previous experiences, I believe in the imperative need of training teachers to apply successfully CLIL methodology. Therefore, this book presents an experiment in which students of English philology at Universitat Jaume I elaborated a didactic unit for a subject in secondary education to be implemented following CLIL methodology. These didactic units were analyzed empirically and the results showed information and data that could identify some student’s characteristics and needs, which in further research may determine the way to prepare a training plan for future teachers to implement CLIL methodology efficiently in secondary education.
The field of educational philosophy is spreading fast but the research activity in this field has yet to assume a height of intensity. Development in philosophy over last decades has made little impact on educational research. From philosopher’s point of view, it is tempting to say that educational researchers have simply not tried to understand what the philosophers have been saying. Most of the researches carried out in this area have adopted the historical, documentary and descriptive methodology which, in fact, should not be considered as proper methodologies for the study of philosophical data. The lack of appropriate methodology has caused persistence of many ambiguities and confusions in the field of educational concepts and practices. This calls for ascertaining a theoretical model of research for a reliable study in the field of educational philosophy.The present book has taken up an approach which purports to apply an analytical method to determine a theoretical model proper to a philosophical research. A particular type of the methodology of content analysis is presented with its why, what and how.
The Realistic Theory for Scientific Research is a contemplative, unambiguous theory for experienced researchers looking for alternative tools and analysis of things of nature, their ways in our times. This book will offer new insights into an innovative methodology for both social and natural sciences. It is exhaustive and comprehensive going deep to unravel the unknown. Scientific research currently is largely based on a mechanistic statistical modelling. The realistic theory of scientific research, goes beyond mere empiricism and interpretative theories. It is setting a new phase in the theory of knowledge.