Material Requirement Panning is a very important step in Production Management. It translates the product requirements into the requirements of raw material and components and ensures their timely acquisition. This work discusses in detail, the importance and various steps used in the operation management,such as Production planning, aggregate planning, Master production Schedule, Material requirement planning and Production control.
With the development of technology, software is becoming critical for the success of many large systems. There are many risks involved in creating high quality software on time and within budget. The success of software product, both functionally and financially is directly related to the quality of the requirements. Software requirement risk addresses the possibility of suffering a loss of any functional or non-functional requirement of the system. It refers to the uncertainties caused by differences between the requirements perceived by developers and user groups’ expectation of the system. Requirement risk can lower project performance therefore effective management of it is critical to achieve desired project performance. In our research work a Requirement Risk Prioritization Model (RRPM) has been proposed. Implementation of inspection technique is done to identify the key requirement risk factors responsible in achieving successful outcome and use a Bayesian network approach to prioritize the requirement risks that leads to fail a software project. These Results can be used to compute the overall risk metric associated with a project.
Security is one of the most important concerns of software development. However, today’s software development techniques do not pay enough attention to engineering of security into system analysis and design. Although there have been some efforts to incorporate security analysis in the requirements engineering phase, it has not yet specified how to achieve analysis automatically during the requirements engineering process. In this book, we provide a step by step process for modeling and formal description of security requirements and faults. We incorporate fault tolerance into the security requirement model of the target system by caring for partial satisfaction of security goals.
Water scarcity threaten national food security for millions of people, particularly in the arid and semi arid regions, more than 94% of Egypt area has an arid climate, where crop production needs supplemental irrigation. Limited surface water availability is a major constraint to increase grain production. Wheat is one of the most crops in Egypt and is cultivated in different agro-ecological regions of northern, southern and central parts of the country, under normal conditions, four to six irrigations are recommended for optimum wheat production in Egypt. Deficit irrigation has been practiced in the area with limited irrigation water resources; however it is important studying the limits of drought stress on the growth, yield and chemical content and physiological trait of wheat plant. The objectives of this study are to determine water requirement and study the effect of different water contents on growth, yield, its attributes, physiological, chemical and antioxidant enzymes responses to some wheat cultivars i.e. (Sakha 93 and Giza 168) under sandy soil conditions
Cobalt is an essential trace element in ruminants which can be used to synthesize vitamin B12 in the digestive tract by microbial action. When intake of Cobalt is inadequate, the microbial population in the rumen is altered, and synthesis of vitamin B12 is greatly lowered. Supplementing Cobalt in diets of ruminants could therefore help to supplement vitamin B12 needed for optimal microbial activities and subsequent breakdown of fibrous feeds. Cobalt supplementation could therefore help prevent growth retardation, weakness, emaciation and other abnormal situations experienced by young and adult ruminants in semi-arid environment.
An enterprise information system distinguishes itself from other types of software as it is developed to facilitate the operation of an organization hence its requirement reflects its strategies, plans, processes etc. The requirements in the form of domain knowledge acquired during the early stage of development can be organized and modeled in an Enterprise Architecture. Zachman Framework is one of the most widely used Enterprise Architectures Framework. However, in the original Zachman Framework, there is neither a rigorous meta-model nor a well-defined sequence in which to instantiate the cells, which prevents it from being used practically during the requirement engineering phase of an enterprise information system project. We develop a conceptual meta-model for the Zachman Framework by adapting and integrating the Bunge-Wand-Weber ontology and the Enterprise Ontology. Based on this meta-model, various requirement acquisition processes can be formulated by specifying a sequence to traverse the meta-model graph and instantiate its nodes and edges. In this thesis we present such a process, suitable for an enterprise system development project of a particular situation.
Pakistani Soils are calcareous in nature and about 90% Pakistani soils are deficient in phosphorus. Most Crops, including maize, grown on such soils suffer from phosphorus deficiency with severe yield losses. Moreover, phosphorus requirement of recently introduced maize hybrids differ from that required by indigenous maize varieties of Pakistan. This book describes the phosphorus adsorption characteristics of a calcareous soil. Critical internal and external phosphorus requirements are also illustrates. Conclusively, this book is useful for researchers and students of soil fertility and plant nutrition in planning and conducting research trials on related topics.
Different crops have unlike nutrient requirements and different soil types vary in their capacity to provide nutrients. Therefore, we need to study the optimum requirement of nutrients for particular crops on different soil types and in different agro climatic conditions. Several methods of fertility management have been proposed from time to time to maintain the soil fertility and improve the crop productivity. Of late, the close association between the nutrient status of leaves and yield of crop is considered as one of the most important factor. Nutrient indices are worked out in many crops to monitor the adequate and balanced fertilization. DRIS not only helps to identify the nutrient(s) that are deficient but also the order of their severity and requirement is prioritized. This helps the farmer to know which nutrient should be corrected first before attempting to correct the next deficient nutrient through its application. Such an identification of multiple nutrient deficiencies or imbalances is not possible through the conventional methods. The present work will help to understand and identify the nutritional imbalances in sunflower through DRIS and work out the schedule.
Mobile news service for can be obtained easily way and flexibility to access the rural news criteria at any time in any location that this service can provide. This research introduces a prototype “local news WAP/WEB application” that provides the people in the rural communities with the appropriate news services that could help those people to view the various news via this prototype. By using this prototype, the user of this service from the rural communities can easily get necessary information that makes those users in touch with the different news updating in these areas. The proposed prototype provide the user to post the occur news that related for these areas.
The rapid mining of soil potassium (K) is the major yield limiting factor in cotton production in Pakistan and elsewhere. Potassium influences cotton yield and quality due to its versatile roles in the physiology and biochemistry of cotton. Interestingly, cotton requires K as much as nitrogen, during entire growth and development, to offer optimum yield. However, in many parts of the world, K fertilization is a very costly agricultural input. Hence, the farming community, especially in developing countries, seldom include K fertilization in crop production programs. Recent literature on K nutrition of cotton has witnessed that K requirement of cotton varies among genotypes. Modern, insect-resistant, high yielding cotton varieties require more K as against obsolete varieties. This monograph reports the comparative K requirement of Bt and non-Bt cotton genotypes and identifies cotton genotypes for their suitability to fit well under low and high K input sustainable agriculture systems. This book is a dependable compendium for the students, teachers and researchers working in the domains of K nutrition of cotton and nutrient-use-efficient genotypes.
In the pharmaceutical, medical device, food, blood establishments, tissue establishments, and clinical trials industries, validation is the documented act of demonstrating that a procedure, process, and activity will consistently lead to the expected results. It often includes the qualification of systems and equipment. It is a requirement for good manufacturing practices and other regulatory requirements. Since a wide variety of procedures, processes, and activities need to be validated, the field of validation is divided into a number of subsections including the following: Cleaning validation Process validation Analytical method validation Computer system validation this book give the basic idea to the student for under standing to how to validate the process an other cleaning validation
Most of the Pakistan soils (> 90 %) are deficient in available P and the native P supply cannot cope with P mining due to continuous cropping where as the over fertilization of P posses direct threat to environment. Soils have different P adsorption capacities, which are rarely taken into account while applying P fertilizers. This book emphasizes to calculate the site as well as crop specific phosphorus needs for fodder production because “The more fodder, the more flesh; the more flesh, the more manure; the more manure, the more grain”
Boron (B) and zinc (Zn) deficiencies are widespread in alkaline, calcareous and low organic-matter soils of Pakistan. In the present study, the Cotton crop responded positively to application of B and Zn fertilizers. Plant growth, productivity and nutritional value of cottonseeds were improved, very cost-effectively, by optimizing B nutrition. Fertilizer B requirement was 1.0 kg B ha-1 and HCl extractable soil B critical range appears to be 0.5–0.6 mg kg-1 soil. . Similarly, use of Zn fertilizer in cotton promoted seed cotton yield, boll bearing, boll weight, and seed index. Zn application at rate of 7.5 kg ha?1 was most cost-effective. Certain plant physiological parameters, such as membrane integrity and chlorophyll content, were improved with better Zn nutrition of plants. Moreover, both B and Zn fertilizers showed residual effects in cotton – wheat system.