This book is an informative source both for seasoned and novice researchers and provides them with practical and straightforward guides to organize, write, submit, and revise their scientific papers in all disciplines. The materials covered in this book conform to the very recent and up-to-date principles and are on the basis of practical experience of researchers who have published several papers and books in international journals and data-bases. The following invaluable and straightforward features have made study of the book vey necessary for researchers. Some of them include perspectives and information about the: • Scientific and precise use of language and grammar in scientific papers • Instructions and techniques required for writing standard scientific paper • Choosing appropriate journal for your paper • Choosing appropriate format for your cover letter to the editor and submission of your paper • The review process and ethics of publication • An appendix that provides succinct grammatical advice necessary for standard paper writing
An e-writer called Ali or Alix will write to order anything you like, provided that you are prepared to enter the story as yourself and take the risk of leaving it as someone else. You can be the hero of your own life. You can have freedom just for one night. But there is a price to pay.
This book mainly focuses on households willingness to pay for electricity connection options in rural areas of Ethiopia. The objective of this book is to know whethear investment on electricity connection is cost recovery or not in addition to identifying socio-economic factors that affect households willingness to pay. There is also an interesting econometrics application methods in the book. So i would like to reccomend all interested schoolars to read.
It is an undeniable fact that Mother-to-Child Transmission (MTCT) of HIV/AIDS accounts for the highest single mode of infection in children (UNAIDS, 1998). But, are pregnant women aware of the possibility of Preventing Mother-to-Child Transmission (PMTCT) of HIV/AIDS; are they Willing-to-Pay (WTP) for PMTCT of HIV/AIDS; and how much are they willing to pay? Using Ghana as a case study, this book employs the Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) to provide answers to these and other questions…
Certainly one good way to learn how to write is to follow the example of those who can write well. “You have to read, read, and read” says Walter Ong (1979, as cited in Eschholz, 1980, p. 5). “There is no way to write unless you read, and read a lot” (p. 12). Eschholz (1980) states that in reading, writers see the printed words, the shape and order of sentences, and the texture of paragraphs. He believes that the prose model approach to the teaching of writing holds that writers can develop and improve their writing skills through directed reading. Ferris and Hedgcock (1998, as cited in Abe, 2008) argue that L2 writers have to be exposed to various types of reading material since it is difficult to acquire L2 writing skills by only writing. Similarly, Eschholz (1980) points out that what L2 learners write depends on what they read and they can improve their L2 writing skills by reading. He also argues that given the opportunities to learn rhetorical modes, L2 learners can eventually apply their knowledge about those modes to their writing. . Thus, some researchers believe by model essays, readers can pay attention to the various aspects of TL (e.g., Hyland, 2003; ; Hanaoka, 2007).
A major problem that confronts many urban areas in the world is the provision of potable water on constant basis. One reason for this occurrence is the inability of service providers to meet the growing demand partly is attributable to ineffective pricing which is below cost recovery levels. In this study we investigate household’s willingness to pay for improved water provision together with the factors that determine households willingness to pay using the contingent valuation method (CVM) and the ordered probit econometric model. The study used a cross section data collected from a sample of 315 households drawn from different areas in the Accra-Tema metropolis through a discrete choice with follow-up elicitation format using face-to-face interview. Results from our analysis indicated that, households in the Accra-Tema metropolis are prepared to pay on the average about 7 times more than what they are paying currently. Policy recommendation emanating from the study is that, governments should improve on water infrastructure and consequently water supply and increase tariffs since people are prepared to pay more for improved water supply.
Increasing level of generation of municipal solid waste have long posed serious threats to local environmental quality and human health.Municipal solid waste management is the responsibility of local governments consuming a greater percentage of their budgets in developing countries.However budget constraints have made Metropolitan,Municipal and District Assemblies unable to meet the cost in managing the ever increasing volumes of waste.Improvements in solid waste management is required; however to obtain such improvements, a higher payment is also anticipated. In line with this, it is very important to explore the possibility of cost sharing by households and for this we need to explore their willingness to pay for such services. This book therefore explores this area of interest
Perception of Wetlands benefits has been noted to be one of the major foundations upon which successful implementation of any sustainable management plans for these Wetlands relies on. This becomes essential as the immediate Wetland community dwellers need to be involved in the design and implementation of these plans so as to achieve greater efficiency , effectiveness and equity. This book thus delves into the perception of different types of benefits (values)by the immediate Wetland dwellers in Southwest Nigeria. Also, it brings to light factors that motivate people to participate as well as pay for sustainable management of Wetlands. This is an invaluable resource and a must read for students, policy makers, environmental scientists and everyone interested in the care and sustainable use of the environment.
Abstract Background: Willingness to pay data are rarely collected or used as part of designing health insurance schemes in developing countries. The objective of this study was to assess household heads’ willingness to pay for community health insurance and its determinants. Methodology: It was a descriptive cross-sectional study. Sample size of 360 was determined using Fishers formula and multistage sampling technique was used to select respondents. Semi structured interviewer administered questionnaire was used and data analysis was done using Epi-info version 3.4.1. Results: Respondents were willing to pay was 522.0 + 266.3 Naira per annum per household member (3.26 + 1.66 US Dollars). The factors that affect Willingness to pay were age, sex, educational attainment, income, household size, and past health expenditure. Conclusion: The amount of premium that should be fixed for Community Health Insurance in these rural communities should range between 250 Naira to 1,200 Naira (1.56 + 7.50 US Dollars) per annum per household member. Target Group 1. Public Health students 2. Health Insurance Companies 3. Non-Governmental Organizations 4. Governments leaders at various levels
This book assessed the conflict management and community development initiatives of Buffer Zone in Chitwan district of Nepal during the year 2007-2008. The sample was selected by using stratified random sampling technique. Eighty tourists were selected randomly to evaluate the recreational value of Chitwan National Park. It was found that the major causes of conflict were insufficient natural resources collection period, ineffectiveness of animal preventive measures, inadequate compensation to human, domestic animals and crop damage and monsoon flooding. The tourism created the local employment opportunities to local people but it was unplanned and location specific. To enhance conflict management efficiently, the policy recommendations are made focusing the major conflicting issues in natural resource sharing. Similarly, an annual direct benefit of the park was found NRs. 346 million in 2007-2008. The study examined how much Park visitors were willing to pay to visit the Park. Annual benefits from the Park were considerable - the total annual consumer surplus obtained from recreation in the Park was approximately NRs. 233 million.
To tackle a bundle of resources for writing a research paper is not an easy task for an experienced instructor. Even worse, it is a confusing one for a student who is asked for the first time to write a research paper after studying several courses of essay writing. Writing a research paper needs not to be a frightening task. A research paper may be longer than most of all college essays, but a student will be given more time to complete it. Having a plan for work will make the process go smoothly. Over the years, I have arrived at a time-saving, ten-step, simple strategy for this. The first five steps prepare the student to write and the remaining steps helps in writing the documented paper.This book goes through these steps giving some examples from online resources.