Modern day public transport assignment faces lots of problems. Solutions may exist but needs some form of backings. A sensitivity analysis in most cases could just be sufficient to provide this backing. The developments in this book are very important for students, academic researchers and policy makers. The book provides an extensive review on transit assignment, sensitivity analysis and OmniTRANS. It highlights important conclusions such as:- - Passenger access-egress distances significantly affects their access stop choices. - The travel distance parameter of the generalized cost function has the highest influence on transit assignment - The number of transfers to be made by passengers significantly determines their generalized cost of travel - A carefully conducted partial sensitivity analysis can provide better predictions than a Monte-Carlo sensitivity analysis. As a policy advice to public transport operators in Flanders-Belgium, the developments in this book suggest that; to improve transit assignment, it is sufficient to reduce passengers access-egress distances & the number of transfers either through the institution of more direct transit lines or missing links.
The problem of distributing goods from depots to consumers plays an important role in the management of many distribution systems, and therefore when it is programmed efficiently it may yield significant savings. In a typical distribution system, trucks provide pick-up and delivery services to customers that are geographically dispersed in a given area. In many of its applications, the main objective of distribution is to find a set of routes for such trucks, satisfying a variety of constraints, so as to minimize the total distribution cost. This work focuses on a decision model for a real world problem. The problem reveals itself as assignment of trucks to routes by Latex Foam Rubber Products Limited-Kumasi, Ghana. This study addresses the problem of finding an efficient assignment of the limited number of trucks at the company’s disposal to the routes they ply while serving its customers outside the metropolis. In this work we use a solution procedure based on Munkres Assignment Algorithm for optimal assignment of non-homogenous fleet of trucks to a given set of routes, where Latex Foam Rubber Products Limited-Kumasi, distributes its products to its customers.
A wireless mesh networks (WMNs) has emerged recently, WMN consist of two types of nodes mesh routers and mesh clients.WMN is dynamically self-organized and self-configured, with the nodes in the network automatically establishing and maintaining mesh connectivity among themselves. Channel assignment is a critical issue in WMN which is the mapping between the available channels and the radios at each node such that the network performance is optimized, and hence the focus of this work along with static channel assignment, multi-radio, multi-channel. Multi-radio MAC can potentially achieve higher network capacity than single-radio MAC. We design and implement a new agent (DSBCA) distributed channel assignment spanner base, the routing protocol Optimize the network performance considering the throughput, end-to-end delay, connectivity and the interference of our channel assignment algorithm. Base on the network simulations NS2.34 on Linux Fedora and our proposed channel assignment algorithm improved the throughput, minimal-connectivity preserving channel assignment algorithm.
In recent years, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of communication networks. This is because they are widely used in all walks of life, and this trend continues increasing. The research on computer communication networking field has also grown explosively due to a large variety of combinatorial optimisation problems. One of these problems is the Terminal Assignment Problem which implies fixing the minimum cost links to construct a network between a specified set of terminals and concentrators. A good solution for this problem should maintain small distances between concentrators and terminals assigned to them without exceeding the capacity of any concentrator. Additionally, it should also maintain a balanced distribution of terminals among concentrators. The intractability of this problem is a motivation for the pursuits of different approximation algorithms. In this book, we explore several metaheuristics applied to the Terminal Assignment Problem and other similar problems. Simulation results verify the effectiveness of these algorithms.
The focus area of this paper is on the assignment problem with budget constraints which is one of the application area of combinatorial optimization that operates on the domain of those optimization problems,in which the set of feasible solutions is discrete or can be reduced to discrete,and in which the goal is to find the best solution. It is particularly concerned with solving the unconstrained assignment problems with Hungarian algorithm and the constrained assignment problem by cutting plane or outer linearization algorithm for solving the Lagrangian dual problem in which, at each iteration,the function that approximates the dual function is optimized. The paper is divided in to two chapters. In the first chapter,the classical assignment problem,the problem of finding optimum (minimum or maximum) cost or profit assignment a set of workers or resources to jobs or activities to gather with its mathematical formulation,solution methods and special cases in assignment problems were considered. Under the second chapter, we have considered generalization of the classical assignment problem concerning resource(or budget) constraints, due to the variety of real life problems.
Stress in Moroccan Arabic, and also in other languages, poses challenging problems for phonological theory. This is due to the fact that stress exhibits conflicting properties; which makes it difficult to provide answers to a number of issues. This book provides an investigation into a prominent aspect of prosodic phonology in Moroccan Arabic (a case study of the dialect of Rabat city), namely, stress assignment in the grammatical category of verbs within the framework of optimality theory as proposed in Prince and Smolensky and McCarthy and Prince. It particularly addresses a range of issues such as: the position of stress, the basis on which stress is located, the factors on the basis of which stress location is effected, the importance of the perceptual and the instrumental tests in shedding light on stress assignment, and the extent to which the optimality theoretic analysis confirm or disconfirm the results of the perceptual and the instrumental tests concerning stress placement. This book will be of interest to linguistics, teachers, researchers and to anyone interested in language study and phonological theory.
Loney takes issue with popular attitudes toward race and gender, whereby to be born a woman or a member of a visible minority is to enter life at a disadvantage and therefore be entitled to compensatory provision. Arguing that social class not group membership determines life chances, he refutes the claims of those who detect systemic prejudice and discrimination and reap considerable public subsidy in return. From the release of the Abella report to the present, Loney sets the growth of federal involvement in preferential hiring in the context of a growing industry whose success depends on the constant affirmation of group grievance based on gender or race. He argues that preferential hiring policies and a muddled multiculturalism leads to the continual assertion of the primacy of race even as the government officially opposes racial thinking. Loney discusses many up-to-date and high profile examples, including Bob Rae's preoccupation with skin and gender politics, Brian Mulroney's attempts to strengthen the Conservative Party's ethnic constituency by funding ethnic groups and maintaining high levels of immigration, and former defence minister David Colinette's extensive use of public funds to court ethnic voters in his Toronto constituency. The Pursuit of Division will be essential reading for anyone concerned about where government-mandated policies on equity and multiculturalism may be taking us and about the implications of emphasizing the politics of difference over that of shared community.
The effect of low temperature on the cellular behavior of roots and shoots of Triticum aestivum cv. Katepwa (spring; sw) and cv. Beaver (winter; ww) was studied. To distinguish cellular responses, parallel measurements were carried out on embryogenic callus. Seedlings were grown either at 20?C (control treatment), or at 20?C followed by transfer to 4?C for 14 d and then returned to 20?C (cold treatment). The growth response of both cultivars was reduced at 4?C but the shoot meristem of ww at 4?C exhibited a faster relative growth rate and a shorter tissue doubling time than sw. This suggests that vernalization stimulates cell division in the shoot meristem. Interphase cells in the root meristem of both cultivars/treatments were smaller but had larger nuclei than those in the callus. More cells accumulated in G1 at 4?C in ww than at 20?C. In vitro and, to a lesser extent in vivo, the majority of cells were polyploid irrespective of cultivar/treatment. The interphase cell protein content increased significantly with increased nuclear DNA C-value regardless of cultivar/treatment. For ww in vivo, protein/C-value remained unchanged by transfer to 4?C, but that for sw decreased.
The WTO dispute settlement system plays an important role in clarifying and enforcing the legal obligations contained in the WTO Agreement. It has gained a strong practical relevance as more than 300 disputes have been brought from 1 January 1995 through October 2003. While dispute settlement is certainly not the only activity taking place within the WTO, it has become an important part of the practical reality of the Organization. WTO dispute settlement has also become an important tool in the management by WTO Members of their international economic relations at large. The objective of this handbook is to give the general reader a good understanding of the practical operation of this system. Working through this guide, the reader will be introduced to all elements of the dispute settlement process, from the initiation of a case through to the implementation of the decision. The reader will find it useful to have the "Legal Texts" (i.e. a text of the WTO Agreement, especially Annex 2 containing the Dispute Settlement Understanding) at hand whenever working with the present material and to look up each of the cited provisions in order to understand the primary sources. Формат: 16 см x 24 см.
In this book we consider the Frequency Assignment Problem, where the objective is to minimize the cost due to interference arising in a solution. We use a quadratic 0-1 integer programming formulation of the problem as a basis to derive new lower bounds and problem reduction rules. A tree search algorithm that uses the lower bounds and dominance criteria is also presented. Computational results are shown on standard benchmark instances from the literature.
Fuzzy classification is one of methods used for pattern classification, which is germane to many engineering applications. An output from fuzzy classification is an assignment of patterns to fuzzy classes. There are several methods for fuzzy classification; in this paper we propose a new method based on the soft margin support vector machines classifier (C-SVM). These classifiers are based on statistical learning theory and they are widely used in pattern classification. In our approach, the decision boundary and slack variables obtained from C-SVM are used for the definition of a new optimization problem. The goal is to find an optimal parametrized transformation function T , which transforms the distance of a pattern from de-cision boundary to its membership degree. Quadratic programming is used to find suitable values for the parameters of T . The development of the full scope of this new fuzzy classification method is still in progress.
Assignment is a crucial topic in commercial law, and this new work by Gregory Tolhurst is the most comprehensive work on the assignment of contractual rights ever published. It seeks to explain the existence, meaning and application of the rules governing the assignment of contractual rights and it does this by reference to the idea that assignments involve transfers. The book is logically structured to follow the issues that arise in planning, drafting and enforcing an assignment, including: - what is meant by 'assignment'; - what is the distinction between legal and equitable assignments; - how an assignable contractual right is identified; - what formalities apply to assignment; and - what rights and remedies are available to the parties to an assignment. The topic of assignment is of such universal importance to commercial lawyers that all practicing lawyers will find this work invaluable. However, the work will also be required reading for academics teaching contract, equity and personal property.
This introduction to circuit design is unusual in several respects. First, it offers not just explanations, but a full course. Each of the twenty-five sessions begins with a discussion of a particular sort of circuit followed by the chance to try it out and see how it actually behaves. Accordingly, students understand the circuit's operation in a way that is deeper and much more satisfying than the manipulation of formulas. Second, it describes circuits that more traditional engineering introductions would postpone: on the third day, we build a radio receiver; on the fifth day, we build an operational amplifier from an array of transistors. The digital half of the course centers on applying microcontrollers, but gives exposure to Verilog, a powerful Hardware Description Language. Third, it proceeds at a rapid pace but requires no prior knowledge of electronics. Students gain intuitive understanding through immersion in good circuit design.
Blended Learning Improves Oral Skills The objectives of this book were to investigate the effect of using blended learning on EFL students'' oral skills and teacher and student perceptions of its utility and their suggestions to improve the use of BL in the Jordanian schools. The book improves that BL enhanced the oral skills of students. Second, EFL teachers played new roles while implementing BL to teach the oral skills. The implementation of BL lessons occurred through three stages; pre-lab stage, lab stage, and post lab stage. Third, EFL teachers'' perceptions indicated that they used the term supplement because they did not frequently replace face-to-face classes with online classes. They supplemented classes with interactive teaching pedagogy. Fourth, the results of EFL students'' perceptions suggested that by combining elements of both face-to face and online courses, blended courses could create a positive learning environment. Finally, the respondents suggested more training programs in the implementation of BL, financial support for schools to prepare a suitable infrastructure for the best implementation of BL.
When dealing with stress assignment on the word level, many exceptions to hitherto defined principles can be found in the English language. While some exceptions can be explained by word or morpheme boundaries, others do not fit so easliy into the underlying systematicity of English stress behaviour. Some are often described as simply being idiosyncratic. A new statistical analysis reveals that many of these exceptions do share some common features to a certain extent, in particular in their orthography. Can this kind of features be used to establish additional rules in order to account for exceptional cases of English stress assignment? Or is there no other means but to consider these cases as lexcially exceptional?
The size of the population in proportion to the food production is highly relevant in the level of development of a nation, as it has a direct bearing on the quality of life of the inhabitants. As the population of the Rajshahi division in Bangladesh grows rapidly and its trend varies regionally, it is important for the socio-economic planning purposes for a region to follow the regional trends of the dynamics of population and food production, both in space and through time. Considering the spatio-temporal dynamics and distinctiveness, the relationship between population growth and food supply in the Rajshahi division deserves special investigation. The Rajshahi division is situated in the north western corner of the Bangladesh facing various natural calamities like drought, frequent flood, river bank erosion etc. The population of Rajshahi division was increased at high rate during 1974, 1981 and 1991 and it was decreased in 2001. The food grain requirement is increased as well as population growth. It increased at 76.39 percent in the last 25 years. The food production was almost doubled in 2007-08 than the year of 1981-82.
This study is on the development of a remote Fiber Optic Communications laboratory. The system developed was based on the iLabs Shared Architecture. This architecture is a three-tiered platform that enables development, deployment and sharing of online experiments, as a supplement to conventional laboratories. The core objective of the research was to extend the functionality of the iLabs Shared Architecture to support experimentation in Fiber Optic Communications. A functioning prototype of the Interactive iLabs Architecture was implemented, and experiments in Bidirectional Fiber Optic Link and Wavelength Division Multiplexing design and tested. They were executed on the EMONA FOTEx board, an add-on board to the NI ELVIS II and powered by LabVIEW. Documentation that involved writing of Concept Paper, Proposal, System Requirements‘ Specification Document, Design Specification‘s Document, Research thesis and a scientific paper was also undertaken. This resulted in not only curriculum support through the designed experiments, but also tremendous capacity development in regards to software development, research, writing, organizational and presentation skills.
Gladiolus is one of the most important bulbous flower crops of high commercial value grown in India and abroad predominantly for cut flower production. Unavailability of sufficient amount of planting material of a desirable cultivar is one of the major limitations of gladiolus cultivation on a commercial scale. Increasing planting material of gladiolus by successful division of corms and further manipulating its growth with the application of plant growth regulators like GA3 can overcome the above limitation to a certain extent. The size of the planting material is another main factor to be taken into account for the production of high quality cut flowers. Therefore, optimum size of cut corm segment should be used for obtaining good vegetative growth and superior quality spikes in gladiolus.
- Build multiplication & division skills.- Boost confidence.- Develop a love of learning.Designed to give children a real sense of achievement easy learning practice books improve essential skills taught at school through activity-packed fun.The colourful, motivating activities help to boost confidence and develop good learning habits for life.Answers and parents' notes are included to help you to support your child's learning at home.
This book contains a good literature survey of various mathematical models and routing & wavelengths assignment algorithms in WDM optical networks. Some of the new algorithms for optimization of blocking probability have aslo been covered. This book is good for researchers who are working on optical networks and advancements in fiber optics communication. Mathematical models covered in this book are simple and easy to implement. A good number of routing and wavelength assignment algorithms have also been covered in this book which can be used to reduce blocking probability of the optical network. This book can be very helpful to the research scholars.
Women with primary and graduation education level had higher support from friends. As far the support from relatives is considered, women with primary and middle school education level had higher social support. Women with primary education background had significantly higher social support from other sources. On the whole, again women with primary level of education had higher social support compared to Iranian women with other educational levels. Occupation-wise analysis revealed that those women on temporary government job and shop keeping had higher support from friends. However, occupation did not influence social support from relatives, neighbors', other sources and total social support.
Many projects for support for orphans and vulnerable children (OVC)have focused almost entirely on their physical needs. However, the needs of orphans and vulnerable children go beyond simply meeting their physical needs. Psychosocial support is an ongoing process of meeting physical, emotional, mental and spiritual needs of OVC, all of which are considered to be essential elements for meaningful and positive human development. Such projects have not provided the emotional support these children often need. Most of the managers of such projects lack information on the problems and are therefore unable to offer emotional support. Project managers do not know how to identify psychosocial and social problems and consequently fail to offer individual and group attention. This book discusses the provision of psychosocial support to OVC in a case of 90 orphans, 90 caregivers and 10 community leaders in Bumula division, Kenya. The urgent need to expand and improve current intervention programmes not only to meet the basic needs but also to include psychosocial support and counseling services for all stakeholders dealing with OVCs is also emphasized.
The Lab manual in Applied Chemistry mainly facussed on quantitative estimations.A number of experiments were presented with detailed informations of procedure,tabulation,and calculations. Each experiment consists of aim,principle,Apparatus and chemicals required,procedure,tabulation and calculation method etc. A student opting Applied Chemistry practical will defintely find this manual helpful and very effective. A few experiments based on Calorimetric estimation is also included.
Research suggests that mobile phones can support science teaching and learning by providing authentic learning opportunities that connect the classroom with the outside world. Furthermore, both the functions and the attributes of mobile phones offer a variety of opportunities to enhance the effectiveness of science teaching and learning. Recognizing the potential offered by mobile phones, the focus of this book is on issues of pedagogy related to the use of mobile phones in science education in Sri Lanka, throughout the teaching cycle, from planning a lesson, implementation in the classroom to evaluation and reflection. The functions and attributes of mobile phones that are useful during the teaching cycle of science lessons and how they can be complemented by integrating mobile phones with ICT based tools are discussed. Three conceptual frameworks that describe teacher’s pedagogical practices involving mobile phones during planning, implementation and evaluation and reflection stages of a science lesson based on two well-known theories in pedagogy, ‘Shulman’s pedagogical reasoning model’ and ‘Alexander’s conceptual framework for educational practice’ are also presented.
Mesh Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) is a promising access network to enhance channels utilization, extend access coverage using simple and cheap network components. Power management affects mesh WLAN network coverage, topology, throughput, traffic routing and end to end delay. Channel assignment affects the mesh nodes interference level and so the transmission capacity. It also controls the number of nodes share the same channel which increases the probability of collision and reduces the network throughput. In this book, the power management problem is formulated to show its impact on mesh WLAN network throughput. Then this formulation is used to propose a new ranking based cooperative game strategy. Mesh WLAN channel assignment problem is also formulated. Then different algorithms throughput and processing delay is analyzed. This analysis is based on evaluating average users’ data rate and processing delay for different assignment techniques in many mesh WLAN network configurations.
Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease which has a significant impact on the economy and livestock productivity of affected countries. This studies involved investigation of the epidemiology of FMD in a potentially free (Tanintharyi) and an endemic (Sagaing) region of Myanmar. The animal level sero-prevalence in the Sagaing was high (42%, 95% CI 37.7 - 47.1) in contrast to that in Tanintharyi Division (11.7%, 5.9 - 17.4). The traditional Dutaik meeting approach which is conducted in rural area of Myanmar, was developed as a participatory disease tool and was validated with data collected from serological surveys and questionnaire interviews to use for detecting FMD with the significant advantages of time and cost effectiveness. A partial budgeting model with Monte Carlo simulation was also developed to understand the influence of FMD on the economics of animal draught power, which is the major livestock input into the nation's agricultural enterprise. The animal movement study was done at two studied area and these movement data support the decision to develop a potential free zone area for FMD without vaccination in the Tanintharyi Division.
The fundamental goal of multi-agent robotics is simple: how to create control laws and behaviors that, when executed by each individual robot, some desirable global behavior emerges. The global behavior may range from something as simple as the robots meeting at a single point, to something as complex as a collective search and rescue mission. Our research focuses on one of the more fundamental issues in multi-agent, mobile robotics: the formation control problem. The idea is to create controllers that cause robots to move into a predened formation shape. This is a well studied problem for the scenario in which the robots know in advance to which point in the formation they are assigned. In our case, we assume this information is not given in advance, but must be determined dynamically. This thesis presents an algorithm that can be used by a network of mobile robots to simultaneously determine ecient robot assignments and formation pose for rotationally and translationally invariant formations. This allows simultaneous role assignment and formation sysnthesis without the need for additional control laws.
A partition of n is a division of n into any number of positive integral parts. Then the sum of the integral parts is n. The order of the parts and arrangement in a division of n are irrelevant and the parts are arranged in descending order. We denote the number of partitions of n by P(n). We introduce a brief survey of Ramanujan’s partitions congruences. We mainly concern with combinatorial aspects of the congruences moduli 5, 7 in terms of the rank and crank of vector partitions separately.
With the growing number of student’s population every year, access to IT Lab resources is proving to be a great challenge to Universities. The ideal solution would perhaps be to increase the amount of investment for expansion of these resources, but the greatest challenge is the limited finance and lack of appropriate funding towards expansion. This has led to sharing of IT labs among various Schools and faculties within learning institutions, disadvantaging especially those students (IT students) who require specialized resources and more hours of lab work in comparison to students from other fields of study. This book has dwelt on the deployment of a virtual IT lab using open source solution, where users are able to access virtualized IT resources without necessarily being in a physical Lab. With this the author is able to demonstrate how learning institutions would be able to reduce costs, minimize space usage, increase flexibility and simplify systems administration by deploying virtualized IT Lab.