From the mind behind HeadScratchers, a guide to getting more out of thinking We often hear about the importance of thinking critically and acting strategically. And yet, there are few resources that provide a business??“focused, non??“academic, practical
Critical thinking is an essential life skill required by most people in today’s complex world. Development of critical thinking is important in preparing students for post-secondary education and for competing economically in the global environment. A number of studies in developed countries have advanced some strategies for fostering critical thinking, however, few studies have been conducted in Sub-Saharan Africa. In Kenya, where this study was conducted, development of critical thinking is one of the objectives of teaching English in secondary schools. The purpose of this study was to explore how teachers of English in a secondary school foster critical thinking in their classes. The findings of the study revealed that while teachers acknowledge the importance of critical thinking in learning, they do not have a clear understanding of what it is.They were also aware of the suggested pedagogical practices for fostering critical thinking but these theoretical perspectives did not reflect in their teaching, as some of the practices were not fully explored.Teachers face challenges such as superficial understanding of critical thinking,time constraints among others.
In EFL contexts, the reading instruction practices do not do much to enhance students’ reading comprehension especially at higher levels. The instructional practices prevailing therein emphasize surface-level information processing techniques such as memorization and rehearsal at the expense of deeper processing such as elaboration and critical thinking. Given the importance of reading comprehension abilities and critical thinking skills, it seems to be imperative to raise EFL instructors’ awareness concerning the possible relationship between critical thinking and EFL reading comprehension performance. This book provides an investigation of students’ critical thinking ability and how they are related to the students’ gender and reading scores. From the perspective of professional practice, this study has the potential to make a significant contribution to the field in that it has provided further insights into the relationship between EFL reading comprehension performance and critical thinking. Moreover, EFL instructors can be made conscious of the importance of critical thinking and they could therefore apply its strategies at the EFL reading courses.
Despite the importance of writing and numerous approaches to the teaching of this skill, tackling EFL writing is still one of the challenging areas for teachers and students. In fact, an educated person in the process of writing needs not only a certain amount of L2 background knowledge but also metacognition to be a successful writer. There have been lots of researchers who showed how to incorporate basic thinking strategies into writing. Therefore, this book compares practicing critical thinking skills and self-assessment, which are both kinds of higher order thinking in the process of writing, to find out which one is more effective on writing achievement of EFL learners. Findings could be well-applied to writing classes and they are likely to be of great interest to teachers, syllabus designers, and researchers.
The development of critical thinking skills is a fundamental educational objective necessary for Higher Education. Students in Higher Education are expected to engage in complex reasoning and analysis activities; therefore, they need to be taught how to think rather than what to think. Critical thinking allows learners to develop the ability to demonstrate their thinking processes and to make reasoned judgment about everything they learn. It also helps students be active participants in the learning process and prepares them to be lifelong learners who are capable of facing challenges. This book emphasizes the importance of integrating critical thinking in Higher Education, and it shares the findings of a research study that was conducted in order to investigate attitudes of university teachers and students towards the appropriateness and the implementation of critical thinking in Moroccan Higher Education. The book is likely to interest researchers in Higher Education, and English Language Teaching & Learning. The findings of the study might be of use to university teachers and students. However, given the importance of the topic, the work might also interest general readership.
This work is an attempt to show the importance of Content and Language Integrated Learning as the appropriate methodology to help our students develop critical thinking. Through the presentation and analysis of a teaching sequence designed for Secondary Students of the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina, this book offers a plan of action to enhance students' autonomy as well as contribute to citizenship formation. The book covers a range of relevant principles related to CLIL, a specific curriculum design and task-based methodology to be implemented in the classrooms.
Critical thinking is a crucial component of the process of preparing future nurses. Yet their preparation heavily relies on the potentials of the educators. It is therefore essential to ensure that the educators enjoy knowledge and skills that qualify them to promote critical thinking among students. This book examines the critical thinking experience of nurse educators working in Jordanian Universities. A survey questionnaire consisting three parts was used in this study; the California Critical thinking Skill Test (CCTST), the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory (CCTDI), and the experience survey (ES). The CCTST measured critical thinking skills and the ES asked the participants to rate their practice of critical thinking. The ES included a qualitative component that invited nurse educators to describe a situation, which illustrated their experience of critical thinking in practice. The CCTDI measured disposition towards critical thinking.
The history of thinking process is as old as the education itself. It has been rooted with both the formal and informal education. This God-gifted ability strongly rooted with the human history. Thinking is highlighted more in ancient Greek, especially when the great scholar Socrates tended in modern discussions to be associated with a particular idea of teaching: one that is based on questions, and involves no direct transfer of information but rather allows the pupil to see the truth (Rowe as cited in Palmer, 2001). Socrates believes in the importance of reasoning things out. In his point of view, the best source for accepting any claim was the solid reasoning (Rowe, 2001). Aristotle also agrees with Socrates’ idea and defines a man “a rational animal” (Hobson as cited in Palmer, 2001). Both the scholars view not only focused on thinking but also elaborate beyond it. For example, the use of reasoning skill in thinking process leads to a deep thinking rather thinking at surface.
Reversing the long-term trend that had downplayed the media environment''s importance in Taiwan, media literacy has been gaining increasing interest among educators, government, researchers and observers in recent years. Given this context, this research 1) outlines the concerns and importance of media literacy education in Taiwan; 2) demonstrates how youth consciousness is oppressed and manipulated by ideologies of power in society and the media; 3) determines effective methods for improving university students'' critical thinking about television.
The present book reports on an empirical study aimed at investigating critical thinking ability among EFL students. Moreover, the effects of gender, major, and critical thinking-oriented instruction through a critical reading program were examined. A better understanding of EFL students’ critical thinking ability helps teachers improve the instruction of critical thinking and consequently students can benefit from it.
The concept of thinking styles and its relationship to schooling has been a focus of intellectual curiosity for sometimes now. This book explains the relationship between two common continuums of thinking styles scales, and between these and academic performance; basing on the research experience done in Tanzania. The book informs how the constructs of the two continuums of thinking styles share certain degrees of underlying similarities and calls for education planners and stakeholders in the community to incorporate reflective and deep thinking styles in teaching and learning process.
By introducing current debates in the field of critical thinking and posing new questions from contributing scholars, Critical Thinking and Learning examines the received wisdom in the field of critical thinking and learning. Examines the different perspectives in the field of critical thinking and learning Provides insights into critical thinking by posing new questions from contributing authors Introduces cross-cultural viewpoints into the dominant 'western'-based educational viewpoint Highlights differences among a variety of thinkers in the field
This research uncovers a potential for strengthening the status of mathematics studies in imparting higher-order thinking skills in various frameworks, in parallel with and beyond the formal program of studies. To conclude, critical thinking within the framework of mathematics education does not develop spontaneously but requires effort. It is not algorithmic, i.e. its patterns of thinking and action are not clear or predefined. Critical thinking skills rely on self-regulation of the thinking processes, construction of meaning, and detection of patterns in supposedly disorganized structures. Critical thinking tends to be complex and often terminates in multiple solutions that have advantages and disadvantages, rather than a single clear solution. It requires the use of multiple, sometimes mutually contradictory criteria, and frequently concludes with uncertainty.
Nation is the modern realization of medieval “ethnos-people” community. Nation is an example of ethnical psychology transformation through the creation of a new scheme of thinking – national identity, for which tradition of national identity, which reaches the transition of ethnos into a state system of organization by its psychological roots, is the basis. Because of politicized national identity as a result of the evolution of ethno-psychological stereotypes of the collective structure of consciousness, the evolution of ethnic organisms in our modern world obtains political importance.
This book explores perceptions of critical thinking and knowledge by New Senior Secondary Liberal Studies teachers in Hong Kong. The insights of the study have implications for the curriculum development and pedagogy, particularly regarding how we can improve training for the teaching of critical thinking. Factors such as work experience, personality, school training, and cultural identity affect ways of seeing, ‘critical thinking’ and ‘knowledge’. We can gain understanding of the difficulties and constraints of teaching critical thinking in Liberal Studies. The research is also a critical thinking process, which is explored in conversations with participants. The study asked them to reflect on what they thought and had experienced. The participants provided useful insights and suggestions into a better pedagogy in high order thinking.
Do people understand Critical Thinking across the world differently? or not? Critical Thinking could harm people life? or not? Critical Thinking could affect the society security? or not? What are the differences between Eastern Culture and Western culture in terms of understanding critical thinking? Does Teachers' perceptions affect the improvement of students critical thinking skills? All these questions are answered through this book.
A comparative study of convent, government and private school students in relation to divergent thinking and intelligence is the study of different secondary school students to identify the divergent thinking, creativity, fluency, flexibility, origionality in relation to convergent thinking and intelligence. The assessment of divergent thinking and intelligence has a long yet controversial matter. In the lay literature, one often hears about the testing of divergent thinking rather than intelligence. Here we study about the process whereby individuals acquire knowledge from the environment. Thus the term divergent thinking and intelligence refers to the highest level of various mental processes such as perception, memory, abstract thinking, critical thinking, logical thinking, creativity, reasoning, problem solving etc In this competitive world secondary school system of education is the turning point of an individual to achieve the perceived goals, so that secondary school system of education should be overlooked and need to identify the qualities, potentialities, creativeness and dreams of a student.
A proven program for enhancing students' thinking and comprehension abilities Visible Thinking is a research-based approach to teaching thinking, begun at Harvard's Project Zero, that develops students' thinking dispositions, while at the same time deepening their understanding of the topics they study. Rather than a set of fixed lessons, Visible Thinking is a varied collection of practices, including thinking routines?small sets of questions or a short sequence of steps?as well as the documentation of student thinking. Using this process thinking becomes visible as the students' different viewpoints are expressed, documented, discussed and reflected upon. Helps direct student thinking and structure classroom discussion Can be applied with students at all grade levels and in all content areas Includes easy-to-implement classroom strategies The book also comes with a DVD of video clips featuring Visible Thinking in practice in different classrooms.
Scholars agree that applying critical thinking is a systematic way to solve problems. More often it is being used in both professional and personal settings; in classrooms, in clinical practices, in politics, in social issues and in relationships. Moreover, on a daily basis, we are infiltrated with information at the click of a button. Critical thinking can be applied to what we read, hear, see or communicate in order to know what to do. For decades, scholars have debated the definition of critical thinking as well as the application of critical thinking. Consequently, this book provides a comprehensive look at the definition of critical thinking and the application of critical thinking across disciplines. The book will be very useful to educators who are interested in learning critical thinking and teaching critical thinking to students. The book is also for students who want a competitive edge in critical thinking among their peers. Managers and trainers of employees can use critical thinking to find solutions to problems. Professionals in clinical practices, such as marriage & family therapists, licensed professional counselors, or social workers can also use this book.
A thoroughly updated introduction to the concepts, methods, and standards of critical thinking, A Practical Guide to Critical Thinking: Deciding What to Do and Believe, Second Edition is a unique presentation of the formal strategies used when thinking through reasons and arguments in many areas of expertise. Pursuing an interdisciplinary approach to critical thinking, the book offers a broad conception of critical thinking and explores the practical relevance to conducting research across fields such as, business, education, and the biological sciences. Applying rigor when necessary, the Second Edition maintains an informal approach to the fundamental core concepts of critical thinking. With practical strategies for defining, analyzing, and evaluating reasons and arguments, the book illustrates how the concept of an argument extends beyond philosophical roots into experimentation, testing, measurement, and policy development and assessment. Featuring plenty of updated exercises for a wide range of subject areas, A Practical Guide to Critical Thinking Deciding What to Do and Believe, Second Edition also includes: Numerous real-world examples from many fields of research, which reflect the applicability of critical thinking in everyday life New topical coverage, including the nature of reasons, assertion and supposing, narrow and broad definitions, circumstantial reasons, and reasoning about causal claims Selected answers to various exercises to provide readers with instantaneous feedback to support and extend the lessons A Practical Guide to Critical Thinking Deciding What to Do and Believe, Second Edition is an excellent textbook for courses on critical thinking and logic at the undergraduate and graduate levels as well as an appropriate reference for anyone with a general interest in critical thinking skills.