In this study we analyzed the IP addresses streams in a backbone router to predict the future IP addresses and pre-fetch them into the cache (forwarding) table before the router requests them. Thus, a new replacement algorithm was developed based on the prediction of the IP addresses. We showed how we collected real IP addresses from data traffic in a backbone router. We compared the previous replacement algorithms against our new technique. Also, the Implementation of a backbone router using our algorithm is proposed. This technique could be implemented in any devices that use addresses to forward traffic.
The communications in MANETs, VANETs and DSRC/WAVE systems are adversely affected by the link failures in the network layer, and by the hidden station, mobile hidden station, neighborhood capture and asymmetric radio link problems in the MAC layer. All the problems are highly affected by mobility of the stations. This book addresses the characterization and solution of these problems. Couple MAC protocols are analyzed with respect to the mentioned problems. This book also addresses how the DSRC/WAVE systems are affected by the above mentioned problems, and how a cross-layer treatment can be applied to make safety critical information dissemination in DSRC/WAVE systems efficient. Discrete time Markov chain (DTMC) and OMNeT++ are used as analyzing tools.
Globalization and acculturation: Focus on Igbo language and culture addresses the most compelling issue facing humanity all over the world, - Globalization. It looks at how the concept of globalization has affected the Igbo language and culture given that the Igbo race travel widely and are believed to have presence in all the parts of the world. The book addresses how the Igbo race have opened their doors to the forces of globalization and how resilent they have been in the global village as regards their language, values and their ways of life generally. The book has some implications for language variation studies and cultural assimilation.
Mark C. Murphy addresses the question of how God's ethics differs from human ethics. Murphy suggests that God is not subject to the moral norms to which we humans are subject. This has immediate implications for the argument from evil: we cannot assume that an absolutely perfect being is in any way bound to prevent the evils of this world.
Book DescriptionAccounting Principles, Seventh Edition addresses the issues that our customers-- instructors and students-- have said are important. These include student success, student motivation, student problem-solving skills, student decision-making skills, and technology to assist learning and technology to assist teaching. Click on www.wiley.com/college/wkk for details on how we address each of these issues.
Growth is at the top of every company's agenda, and managers are expected to deliver regardless of external factors like the economy or the competition. This guide addresses pressing growth challenges today's CEOs and senior managers face, and offers insights and strategies for how to find new opportunities in customer segments, partnerships and acquisitions, and more.
Ethics and values, the cornerstone of good social work practice, are vital in upholding the dignity of service users. Written by a group of global experts, this book addresses questions such as, 'How can the ethical demands of the values of human rights, social justice and professional integrity be understood for contemporary social work practice?'
Most people would be surprised at how ceramics are used, from creating cellular phones, radio, television, and lasers to its role in medicine for cancer treatments and restoring hearing. The Magic of Ceramics introduces the nontechnical reader to the many exciting applications of ceramics, describing how ceramic material functions, while teaching key scientific concepts like atomic structure, color, and the electromagnetic spectrum. With many illustrations from corporations on the ways in which ceramics make advanced products possible, the Second Edition also addresses the newest areas in ceramics, such as nanotechnology.
The purpose and meaning in life has a lot to do with salvation. It is possible to say that within each human individual there is a tendency to search for meaning and purpose of life. Pauline Theology of salvation deals with the basic meaning of life and addresses the crucial causes of all human problems in line with sin. Salvation is needed because there is sin. In other words, if there is no sin in humanity, there would have been no need of salvation. Hence, salvation is God’s reaction on sin. Meanwhile, how does salvation apply to humankind? How can human individuals have and maintain a restored relationship with God? What are the significances of the Christological events with regard to the provision of salvation for human beings? PAULINE SOTERIOLOGY addresses these and other important questions and gives relevant responses to all.
Book DescriptionBennett-Alexander and Hartman's, Employment Law for Business, 4/e, addresses law and employment decisions from a managerial perspective. It is intended to instruct students on how to manage effectively and efficiently with full comprehension of the legal ramifications of their decisions. Students are shown how to think and analyze employment law facts using concrete examples of management-related legal dilemmas without clear-cut solutions. The methods of arriving at resolutions are emphasized, so that when the facts of the workplace problem are not quite the same, the student can still reach a good decision based on the legal considerations required by law, which remain relevant.
This essay is intended as an exploratory investigation to determine whether international transfer prices were abusively established at a multinational company during the period 1988-1996. Four different ethical frameworks are analyzed. Most of them draw vague conclusions. One, however, specifically addresses the central question and confirms the thesis that the multinational company was acting unethically. Next, some recommendations are offered on how the multinational company, as well as for management in general, should have handled this and similar situations.
This study is about Housing projects assigned in architecture design studio as they are considered as an exercise having several pedagogical objectives which constitute a suitable ground of maturation for students after completing their first and second year design studio. The aim of the research is to make an overview of the way housing design projects are conducted in the third year architectural design studio at the Middle East Technical University Department of Architecture, focusing on the last five years in particular. But in the first place, the background of housing assignments is reviewed in order to understand how teaching methods and problem definitions have evolved in the past. The objectives and the learning outcomes expected from these studio exercises, the approaches and tendencies that determine the way the project exercises are examined and lastly the teaching methods, strategies and tools are studied.
If how we are treated is determined by how we are SEEN then the question in order is what filters the eye? With wide access to cable, boosting entertainment networks and ‘Dream of Californication’, Hollywood Films are now the major factor of how cultural identities are re/set. This paper shows that the representation of Asians in mainstream Hollywood is still a sensitive terrain of cultural collide as the Hollywood films continue to work as a mechanism to reinforce Colorism. But how films fabricate who’s who? Why do audiences give in? How body politics is integrated? What are the latest avenues of Asian/ body at odd stereotypes? When wrapped with ‘popular’ stuffs and technological might, is there any resistance possible? Find out.
This book conducts a comparative climate policy culture analysis in Canada and Norway. It addresses first, how political leaders in each country use discourse as a tool to influence climate policy culture. Second, it examines the relationship each federal government has with scientific and Aboriginal communities. The research addresses how two countries, both rich with natural resources including fossil fuels, have come to view climate responsibility on exceedingly different terms.
Tenets drawn from the social learning theory, semiotics and the schema theory formed the conceptual framework that was used to elucidate gender spaces in Maragoli children’s play poetry in this book. This underpins how the poems are loaded with meanings that are decoded. The analytical research design was used to interpret the poems while the hermeneutic method was used to analyze the poems used in the book. The book underscores the children’s portrayal of spaces assigned to each gender and the common spaces for both masculine and feminine genders in the play poems. The feminine gender spaces are mainly domestic and the public spaces assigned to females are scripted thereby curtailing the feminine gender’s perspectives about issues. On the contrary, the masculine gender spaces are public thus opening males to outer horizons. Some play poems show that formal education has enabled both genders to go to school which is a public space and so share poems, including those that were hitherto, reserved for one gender only. The book emphasizes children’s gendered bodies and the subversion of their cultural norms. The style and language in the play poems demonstrate gender spaces.
The state-of-the-art information retrieval systems lack the geographical intelligence needed to effectively answer geography-dependent questions. Two importance research objectives with respect to the above mentioned challenges are addressed in this thesis: how to mine and analyse the geographical information implicit in text, and how to use the geographical knowledge obtained in this way to build models for answering geography-dependent user questions. More specifically, we seek answers to the following – (1) how can place names, geographical adjectives and the names of people be used to automatically determine the geographical scopes of documents? (2) how well do the automatically determined scopes of documents compare to human assigned scopes? (3) how best to evaluate of scope resolution systems? (4) how effective is the document’s scope in aiding toponyms resolution? (5) how best to evaluate toponym resolution systems? (6) how effective is relevance feedback for Geo-IR? (7) how effective is a scope-controlled toponym selection scheme in relevance feedback procedure? (8) how can scope and type information be incorporated into the document ranking procedure for Geo-IR?
Why are there so many books about getting into relationships, maintaining them and improving them? About how to impress, how to seduce, how to have sex… We find only a few books, maybe no book at all, about how to end a relationship… True, there are heaps of books about the causes and the statistics of divorces, lots of legal advice, hundreds of tips about how to avoid a divorce and how to get over its consequences. But no one has written about the event, the actual break-up. There are no common nor general solutions. People are different, and their relationships are different. But this small book can perhaps be of some help to everyone. If there is nothing left to try, learn to say ‘good-bye’.
If you've ever wondered how Linux carries out the complicated tasks assigned to it by the IP protocols - or if you just want to learn about modern networking through real-life examples - Understanding Linux Network Internals is for you. Like the popular O'Reilly book, Understanding the Linux Kernel, this book clearly explains the underlying concepts and teaches you how to follow the actual C code that implements it. Although some background in the TCP/IP protocols is helpful, you can learn a great deal from this text about the protocols themselves and their uses. And if you already have a base knowledge of C, you can use the book's code walkthroughs to figure out exactly what this sophisticated part of the Linux kernel is doing.
Creativity is the fastest growing business in the world. Companies are hungry for people with ideas - and more and more of us want to make, buy, sell and share creative products. But how do you turn creativity into money. In this newly rewritten edition of his acclaimed book, leading creative expert John Howkins shows what creativity is, how it thrives and how it is changing in the digital age. His key rules for success include: Invent yourself. Be unique. Own your ideas. Understand copyright, patents and IP laws.
Membrane proteins play critical roles in diverse cellular processes such as energy conversion, cellular transport, signal transduction and cell division. Many bacterial inner membrane proteins are co-translationally inserted into the membrane, in most cases by the well-studied Sec pathway using signal recognition particle and the SecYEG protein insertion channel. The more recently discovered YidC/Oxa1 membrane protein insertion system represents an alternative to the canonical Sec Pathway. How do the protein insertion mechanisms compare? How are the two insertion systems connected? The Author Rebecca Kohler presents an introductory overview of co-translational membrane protein insertion and discusses the characteristics of the Sec and YidC/Oxa1 insertion systems. A structural and functional study of the YidC/Oxa1 system forms the basis for the following analysis. This book addresses researchers and students in life sciences as well as scientific employees in the biotech industry.
This study addresses the question how income affects health care utilization by the population aged 50 and over in the United States and a number of European countries with varying health care systems. The probabilities that individuals receive several medical services (visits to general practitioner, specialist, dentist, inpatient, or outpatient services) are analyzed separately using probit models. In addition to controls for income and demographic characteristics, controls for health status (both subjective and objective measures of health) are used. We analyze how the relationship between income and health care utilization varies across countries and relate these cross country differences to characteristics of the health care system, i. e., per capita total and public expenditure on health care, gate-keeping for specialist care, and copayments.
One of the serious problems which Japanese EFL (English as a foreign language) learners face during reading is their lack of reading fluency. Therefore, this study addresses the process of how Japanese EFL readers recognize minimal information processing units, which are called chunks, and how these chunks are incorporated into the readers' entire comprehension. This study has three major purposes: (1) to examine the effects of phrase-based chunk-cues on reading comprehension, (2) to measure readers’ autonomous chunking units, and (3) to investigate the effects of chunk-cues with reference to (1) and (2). The results of six experiments can be summarized as follows. First, the effects of chunk-cues vary according to readers’ autonomous chunking, rather than readers' L2 reading proficiency and working memory span. Second, transitivity, one of the verb biases, affects autonomous chunking.
This book analyses the impact of drought and famine in Kerio Valley, Kenya, among the Keiyo community. In particular, it assesses the impact of drought and famine on people and their environment. The book explains how the Keiyo community strategically copes with drought and famine using their indigenous traditional knowledge. The main question this study addresses is: How relevant are indigenous traditional strategies in averting food insecurity in Kerio Valley and other parts of Kenya? Consequently, the author observes that indigenous traditional drought and famine coping strategies are still very relevant today in mitigating food insecurity. This book is a must-read for all scholars in Environmental Studies particularly those dealing with sustainable food security.
On January 29, 2001, President George W. Bush signed an executive order creating the White House Office of Faith-Based and Community Initiatives. This action marked a key step toward institutionalizing an idea that emerged in the mid-1990s under the Clinton administration--the transfer of some social programs from government control to religious organizations. However, despite an increasingly vocal, ideologically charged national debate-a debate centered on such questions as: What are these organizations doing? How well are they doing it? Should they be supported with tax dollars?-solid answers have been few. In Saving America? Robert Wuthnow provides a wealth of up-to-date information whose absence, until now, has hindered the pursuit of answers. Assembling and analyzing new evidence from research he and others have conducted, he reveals what social support faith-based agencies are capable of providing. Among the many questions he addresses: Are congregations effective vehicles for providing broad-based social programs, or are they best at supporting their own members? How many local congregations have formal programs to assist needy families? How much money do such programs represent? How many specialized faith-based service agencies are there, and which are most effective? Are religious organizations promoting trust, love, and compassion?The answers that emerge demonstrate that American religion is helping needy families and that it is, more broadly, fostering civil society. Yet religion alone cannot save America from the broad problems it faces in providing social services to those who need them most.Elegantly written, Saving America? represents an authoritative and evenhanded benchmark of information for the current-and the coming-debate.