A study on the usage of lawsone with the aid of black powder to enhance latent fingerprints on paper materials which was then compared with ninhydrin was done. Fraction containing lawsone was obtained through extraction from the leaves of Lawsonia inermis.Materials such as newspaper, envelope, writing paper and tissue paper consisting, one week old and four months old fingerprints were used. Enhancement was done using ninhydrin standard solution, lawsone with the aid of black powder and the fraction containing lawsone with the aid of the black powder. The enhancement showed that the ninhydrin produced clear results for the new, one week old fingerprints on envelope and newspaper whereas unclear results for the new fingerprints on writing paper and old, four months old fingerprints on all the paper materials tested. Whereas both lawsone and the fraction containing lawsone with the aid of black powder produced clear results for both the new and old fingerprints instilled on paper materials such as envelope, writing paper and newspaper. Tissue paper could not be enhanced using ninhydrin, standard lawsone or fraction containing lawsone with the aid of black powder.
Fingerprints are the only means of absolute personal identification and their latent variant is the primary form found at the scene of crime. Latent fingerprints needs to be developed and identified to be of evidential value. In spite of availability of number of methods for developing latent fingerprints, new methods are still being developed through continuous research for encountering situations in practical conditions that include development of prints on surfaces of varied nature and under different environmental conditions. Chemical dyes due to their color and fluorescent properties can act as effective constituents in latent fingerprint development formulations. Therefore, in present work, dyes belonging to various chemical classes have been used in combination with different materials to develop new powders and reagents that can develop fresh as well as aged latent fingerprints on different surfaces. All the formulations possess characteristics like cost effectiveness, ease of preparation/application and longer shelf life. Detailed illustration of phase transfer catalyst based reagents for latent print development has also been included.
Composite materials are gaining acceptance and demand in several commercial markets including sporting goods, construction and transportation. For many of these applications however, such as aircraft, without a reliable damage detection approach, the total cost of ownership may become a limiting factor for the structure’s use. Several non-destructive evaluation techniques are compared on the basis of their strengths and weaknesses for in- service testing of composite materials. A procedure has been formulated for identifying and locating of damage in structures using Lamb wave propagation parameters as a base of the health monitoring of composite materials. The main focus was placed on ultrasonic based Lamb waves propagation method.The Ultrasonic based Lamb waves propagation method is totally a new approach for the problem of overlapping of the modes in the analysis of Lamb waves.
Design: Paper is the first in a new, informative series of design documentaries which offers the best of design in practice. You'll find a curated collection of approximately 300 exquisite designs, along with detailed essays from designers in the field surrounding the essence of creating designs using paper as the medium. This inspiring book also offers personal and professional insight from the authors—mini-workshops that dissect several projects featured in the book relating to materials, craft, and construction.
Presents the up-to-date information on the state of materials from electronic, magnetic, and photonic materials, light metals, materials processing and manufacturing, and structural materials which are of invaluable benefit to the global industry.
Scattering of light has long been a topic of great fascination for physicists right from the beginning of investigations on the properties of light. This work describes the ubiquity and versatility of the use of Inelastic Light Scattering (i.e. Raman and Brillouin Scattering) coupled with the two thermodynamic variables (i.e. pressure and temperature) to addresses discrete topics about different class of materials. Particularly, thermal, elastic, structural and bonding properties of materials, microscopic mechanism of thermodynamically driven phase transitions in several class of materials using inelastic light scattering is discussed. Basic phenomena of inelastic light scattering and pressure/temperature effects on material properties are also covered in the introduction.
Several materials and techniques have been developed and tested for enhancing periodontal regeneration. Although periodontal regeneration is a possible objective of several periodontal therapeutic modalities, outcomes of such modalities are not always predictable. Therefore, this book provides comprehensive review of all the regenerative materials also clinicians can bring periodontal regeneration into their practice.
This book is made of different research problems which have in common the presence of latent variables. In the first part undirected and directed graphical models are considered and in the case of Gaussian continuous variables the author shows that the specification of a complex multivariate distribution through univariate regressions induced by a Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG) can be regarded as a simplification. The Expectation-Maximization algorithm is considered for the maximum likelihood estimation of the model parameters and the author illustrates a method for obtaining an explicit formula of the observed information matrix by using the missing information principle. An essential background on the latent class model is given and its extension to study latent changes over time. The hidden Markov model is presented consisting of hidden states and observed variables both varying over time. The latent class cluster model is extended by proposing a latent model which also incorporates the longitudinal structure of the data by using a local likelihood approach. Some examples illustrate the use of the models in the social sciences. A detailed bibliograhy is provided.
Magnetic materials play a crucial role in presentdays technological advance. Smart materials such asmagnetostrictive materials exhibit both sensing andactuation behavior. Magnetostrictive sensors havevarious applications in Sonar, Aerospace design,Marine industries and several other applications. Itis well known that microstrcture of materialsdrastically affects the magnetic properties. Thepresent work is divided in two parts. Part I mainlydeals with understanding the effects ofmicrostructural modification as well assubstitutional effects by other elements such as Mnin cobalt ferrite. The results of variousprocessing parameters affecting the magnetostrictionhave been discussed. The materials were obtained bytechniques such as ceramic method and otherestablished low temperature methods of synthesis suchas combustion synthesis to get bulk and nano powdersrespectively. Part II of the work is about the effect of Fesubstitution on the magnetic and structuralproperties of lanthanum manganites.
While doing studies on fingerprints, an idea came into our mind to collect all our findings and projects inside a single cover. The objective of this book is to focus on discussing different aspects of fingerprints as a biometric identifier, and its features, applications and recognition systems. Biometrics is one of the biggest tendencies in human identification and fingerprint is the most widely used biometrics. Be it the early cave drawings of finger ridge patterns; the case of dissimilarity even in identical twins; the use as biometrics access controller; or forensic usage; fingerprints have managed to generate a lot of curiosity, and make a place in our lives. We have also discussed about other identifiers and biometrics in detail in order to establish the superiority of fingerprints.
The phenomenon of spin-crossover has a large impact on the physical properties of a solid material, including its colour, magnetic moment, and electrical resistance. Some materials also show a structural phase change during the transition. Several practical applications of spin-crossover materials have been demonstrated including display and memory devices, electrical and electroluminescent devices, and MRI contrast agents. Switchable liquid crystals, nanoparticles, and thin films of spin-crossover materials have also been achieved. Spin-Crossover Materials: Properties and Applications presents a comprehensivesurvey of recent developments in spin-crossover research, highlighting the multidisciplinary nature of this rapidly expanding field. Following an introductory chapter which describes the spin-crossover phenomenon and historical development of the field, the book goes on to cover a wide range of topics including Spin-crossover in mononuclear, polynuclear and polymeric complexes Structure: function relationships in molecular spin-crossover materials Charge-transfer-induced spin-transitions Reversible spin-pairing in crystalline organic radicals Spin-state switching in solution Spin-crossover compounds in multifunctional switchable materials and nanotechnology Physical and theoretical methods for studying spin-crossover materials Spin-Crossover Materials: Properties and Applications is a valuable resource for academic researchers working in the field of spin-crossover materials and topics related to crystal engineering, solid state chemistry and physics, and molecular materials. Postgraduate students will also find this book useful as a comprehensive introduction to the field.
This study is focused on NGOs that are operating in the livelihood’s category and specific focus is on the Traditional Irrigation and Environmental Development Organization (TIP) in Tanzania. This study was set out to investigate the effect of donor driven financial policies on sustainability of TIP and projects implemented by TIP. The assessed independent variables related to internal control, procurement, governance structures, management, policy environment, ICT, accounting procedures and budgeting, reporting and auditing systems have generally fallen into two parts: i) a moderate risk assessment in the relevant area with some capacity enhancement required to improve capability and ii) low to moderately low risk assessment in the relevant area with little to no capacity enhancement required to improve capability. Finally, several recommendations to improve TIP’s performance towards its sustainability are proposed.
We've come a long way from the Peashooter Era: with the advent of modern household products and office supplies - binder clips, clothespins, rubber bands, ballpoint pens, toothpicks, paper clips and plastic utensils - the everyday junk drawer can hold all the materials needed to create pocket-sized weaponry. Toy designer John Austin provides detailed, step-by-step instructions for each project, including materials and ammo lists, clear diagrams, and construction tips, for mayhem-loving MacGyvers. The 35 devices include catapults, slingshots, minibombs, darts, and combustion shooters. Build a tiny trebuchet from paper clips and a D-cell battery. Wrap a penny in a string of paper caps to create a surprisingly impressive "bomb." Several of the projects even include variations where combatants mount laser pointer sights to their shooters to increase their accuracy.
Materials based on pi-Conjugated molecules have attracted a considerable attention as a novel class of semi-conductors and are frequently studied because of their interesting optical and electronic properties which make them a good candidate for Opto-electronic applications. Because the importance of this type of materials in science and technology, a considerable effort has been made in their physico-chemical properties and modeling analysis and intensive research works stimulated by the above mentioned discoveries not only gave rise to a Nobel Prize (2000) in chemistry, but also to the several papers, devoted to the synthesis, characterization, theoretical studies and processing of these new generations of organic semi-conductors. It is difficult to prepare a review covering in details various aspects of these materials (design, synthesis, characterization and properties)We will, therefore, concentrate our discussion in this work on the different interesting papers published by our research group in several international journals.
This research is based on the following papers, referred to by Roman numerals I – III. I. G.Selka et al " Numerical study of thermal behaviour of building walls containing a phase change material" Mechanika 2014 Vol 20 N°4. II. G.selka et al " Dynamic thermal behaviour of building using PCMs for latent heat storage. Thermal Science, 2014. III. Selka.G et al "Thermal analysis of habitat using phase change materials for insulation" jith2013 Maroc.
In our society everything revolves around the notion of VALUE. In engineering the Value is the judgment made on the product, based on user expectations and motivations, expressed by a dimension that increases or remains at least equal when the satisfaction of user needs increases and/or the product related expenses decrease. Based on the experience in the field of the Value Analysis approach, the authors suggest a new method for optimizing the selection of materials. In this paper the authors highlight and present: – the Value Analysis approach, – a valid and useful guide for the specialists to optimize the value/cost ratio of the alloys for equipment parts. Therefore, apparently a part, a component of an alloy could not be approached using the Value Analysis approach. However, if we penetrate within its structure, at micro level we notice that our part is made of several constituents, of several components. In the case of an assembly with several constituents/alloying elements we can apply the Value Analysis approach to this assembly, which is the alloy of the part. This approach, to the knowledge of the authors, is unique and the first of this kind in the specialty literature.
In hot and humid areas, the liquid desiccant air-conditioning systems based on evaporative cooling was proposed as an alternative to the traditional vapour compression systems due to its advantage in, removing the air latent load, friendly environment, removing of pollutants from the process air and reduction the electrical energy.The main purpose of the desiccant is to attract water vapor from the air; thus, it can be classified into solid and liquid. Several types of solid materials can hold water vapor such as silicas, polymers, zeolites, alumina, hydratable salts, and mixtures. Other available liquid desiccants are calcium chloride, lithium chloride, lithium bromide, tri-ethylene glycol, a mixture of 50% calcium chloride and 50% lithium chloride, and sodium chloride.
Electrostatically assembled organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructures based on mineral nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes and polymers/oligomers have been investigated in this work. Depending on the nature of the elementary building blocks, different types of complexes are formed, including stable singlet nanocolloid, core-shell coacervates, fractal aggregates and decorated tubes. They possess interesting bulky and interfacial properties which can be used for generating functional interfaces and materials. The influence of the formulation process/pathway on the nanostructure and morphology of these hybrid complexes is then discussed; the possibility of developing a large variety of morphologies from limited chemicals is highlighted. Finally, the spontaneous and controlled growth of heterostructured materials directly from an interface is reported and several hypotheses on the mechanism are put forward. This approach is suggested to be used in surface functionalization and patterning applications.
Photorefarctive materials are by far the most suitable medium to generate optical phase conjugation. In particular, BaTiO3 is an attractive one among the candidates of photorefractive materials because of its large electrooptic coefficient that leads to strong coupling for two- and four-wave mixing. High phase conjugate reflectivity is always desired as well as diffraction efficiency for their different potential applications. This book contains the experimental observations of a unique enhancement of the transient diffraction efficiency and phase conjugate reflectivity with steady-state grating in an undoped BaTiO3 crystal. A theoretical explanation behind this enhancement has been proposed for the first time. This book may very helpful for the future researchers on the relevant field.
Digital image processing is rapidly evolving field with growing application in science and engineering. Edge enhancement plays a vital role in Digital image processing.Here proposed a novel technique for automatic edge enhancement in indoor digital images.A robust and unsupervised edge enhancement algorithm based on a combination of wavelet coefficients at different scales is applied. An example of the operation on simulated images can be first considered. The images are denoised and performed filtering using sobel filter. The result obtained after edge enhancement using wavelet transform is one pixel wide. Moreover, the correct performance of the method is also observed despite the diversity of scenarios.By extending the proposed method to harware, can be applied in Robotics. The method can also be used for assisting physically challenged and impaired people.
An action-packed collection of 100 simple science experiments using easily-sourced materials. Combines hands-on fun with scientific investigation and covers the basics of physics, chemistry and biology. Includes making crystals, electrical circuits, paper planes, kaleidoscopes, balloon rockets, shadow puppets and much more.
Reading in a second language is an essential skill that students strive to improve, yet they are often unable to seek information or entertainment in reading materials. One of the most difficult tasks of a language teacher today is to foster a positive attitude toward reading, with the intention of expanding on vocabulary acquisition. For several years researchers have advocated the importance of teaching vocabulary in reading comprehension. The review of literature in this paper compare between different theories from the Grammar Translation approach to Computer Assisted Language Learning. These approaches vary from drawing inference to using dictionaries, glossaries or computer and hypertext. Also motivation and storytelling are discussed because they are considered as contributing factors in learning vocabulary.
Materials science is an applied science concerned with the relationship between the structure and properties of materials. Chemists who work in the field study how different combinations of molecules and materials result in different properties. They use this knowledge to synthesize new materials with special properties. This Book contains three chapters. The first chapter is based on Microwave chemistry. The second chapter is based on the development of Scanning tunneling microscope(STM) as a new imaging tool. The third and final chapter is based on the interesting physics and chemistry of foams.
This book is written based on research work in pigs fed on animal fat. This book materials will be useful for the people engaged in Animal Nutrition research, especially for pig nutritionist and also for pig farmers. This book has seven chapters starting from introduction, review of literature, materials and methods, results, discussion, summary and references. More than 200 references including several research articles were listed for further reading.
This book presents a reliable correlation between micro-mechanical failure events on fibre reinforced composite materials and their acoustic emission (AE) signature. Several fields of knowledge were involved on the research behind this book, for instance, composites theory was applied on the manufacturing of the testing coupons and the understanding of the micro-mechanical failure modes, ultrasound theory for the understanding of generation, transmission and recording of waveforms on composite materials. Finally, artificial neural networks for the classification and clustering of AE events recorded from the material. During pilot testing, the characterization of the recording system was defined, along with the study of the testing settings and physical factors that influence frequency response from fibre reinforced composite materials. The post analysis for each test involved the extraction and classification of the first and second highest frequencies by means of a self-organizing map algorithm. The resulting plots from this analysis showed 5 different classes of acoustic emission events; each class was successfully correlated to a different micro-mechanical event.
Rock fill dams are mostly constructed using blasted rock fill materials obtained by blasting rocks or alluvial rock fill materials collected from the riverbeds. In this paper, two modeled rock fill materials is investigated by using Medium tri-axial cell. Drained tri-axial tests have been conducted on various sizes of modeled rock fill materials used in the two dams. Tests data has been analyzed, Stress-strain and volume change behavior of rock fill material is studied and effect of size and confining pressure on axial strain, volumetric strain, Elastic parameter have been studied.
Wood is the main source of raw material for pulp and paper industry in the world.If we can introduce more non-wood species as raw materials, it will help to save the forest decreasing pressure on the forest. In this study, it was tried to find out the pulp quality of two species which are not used for valuable purposes. It is possible to reduce the cost using the low price raw materials. It will also help to keep the continuity of the production of pulp and paper by introducing new raw materials.
Socially responsible performance of business activity is getting more importance and interest now-a-days. This paper explores the existing status and the key areas of corporate social responsibility practice in Bangladeshi business enterprises. An extensive desk study has been conducted to gain a detailed view of the current status and the key areas of CSR practices in the enterprises of Bangladesh. This study also focuses on the problems those are facing by the organization in performing CSR. Based on the secondary data the paper argues that social responsibility is inevitable for the success of Bangladeshi business enterprises. The paper concludes that Bangladesh lags behind in making the expected headway because of the existence of several obstacles. It also suggests some policy prescriptions for the success of business enterprises.