Assignment is a crucial topic in commercial law, and this new work by Gregory Tolhurst is the most comprehensive work on the assignment of contractual rights ever published. It seeks to explain the existence, meaning and application of the rules governing the assignment of contractual rights and it does this by reference to the idea that assignments involve transfers. The book is logically structured to follow the issues that arise in planning, drafting and enforcing an assignment, including: - what is meant by 'assignment'; - what is the distinction between legal and equitable assignments; - how an assignable contractual right is identified; - what formalities apply to assignment; and - what rights and remedies are available to the parties to an assignment. The topic of assignment is of such universal importance to commercial lawyers that all practicing lawyers will find this work invaluable. However, the work will also be required reading for academics teaching contract, equity and personal property.
A sharp and incisive review of contractual arrangements in Philippine fisheries. Implicit in the present study is the belief that sound policies for the fisheries sector of the Philippines must be based on an understanding of the fundamental incentives underlying contractual arrangements in the fisheries sector of developing countries. If, in our reformist zeal, we do not pay enough attention to the underlying economic rationale of pre-existing contractual arrangements and their interconnections, and try to hack away parts of them, we may not always improve (and may even worsen) the lot of the poor tenant-laborer-borrower, the intended beneficiary of the reform program. A well-intentioned land redistribution program may, for example, be rendered counter-productive by the absence of a simultaneous program of credit reform; even in credit reform, public banks spreading to reach out to the peasants may meet with limited success in the face of the potential borrower interlocked in her credit-cum-land or –labor relationship with the local lender-landlord-employer.
This book is an investigation into the Islamic rules and principles that govern commercial contracts between Muslims and non-Muslims. It is an analytical study of primarily the four Sunni schools of Islamic jurisprudence along with other classical jurists belonging to the formative period to the 1800s, and complimented by contemporary juristic views. This book is a new and exciting investigation into a subject of manifest pertinence to Muslim lives, the field of knowledge and academia. It revisited the rules of commercial contracts with particular reference to non-Muslims and challenged some of the laws considered to be essentially integral to the validity of a contract in Islamic law. It not only proved that some of the contractual rules have been rendered impractical but also provides alternatives within the framework of Islamic law to replace those archaic rules. The research dynamics was based on being candid even though it went against the grain or the status quo.
The focus area of this paper is on the assignment problem with budget constraints which is one of the application area of combinatorial optimization that operates on the domain of those optimization problems,in which the set of feasible solutions is discrete or can be reduced to discrete,and in which the goal is to find the best solution. It is particularly concerned with solving the unconstrained assignment problems with Hungarian algorithm and the constrained assignment problem by cutting plane or outer linearization algorithm for solving the Lagrangian dual problem in which, at each iteration,the function that approximates the dual function is optimized. The paper is divided in to two chapters. In the first chapter,the classical assignment problem,the problem of finding optimum (minimum or maximum) cost or profit assignment a set of workers or resources to jobs or activities to gather with its mathematical formulation,solution methods and special cases in assignment problems were considered. Under the second chapter, we have considered generalization of the classical assignment problem concerning resource(or budget) constraints, due to the variety of real life problems.
This book will give you clear idea on innovative project on contractual dairy farming and effective livelihood approaches for poverty alleviation of the remote rural poor communities. Contractual dairy farming can be the solution of poverty and the sources of daily bread for the helpless poor in the northwest region of Bangladesh. The book will reflect the status of livelihoods indicating economic impact, social and to some extent of environment. The system of contractual dairy farming enhance the capabilities of managing small scale farming in effective manner. This also helpful in creating self employment with potential linkage through forward and backward linkage. Green fodder can increase milk production, health of the cattle population. The book will also emphasize on breed selection, improved management practices and intensive management of improved breeds and feeds for the population. The value chain of milk may increase income almost two times for the contract growers. The reimbursement process looks like very innovative avoiding any monetary transaction. Repayment has been done through selling of milk and cow dung in regular basis.
A wireless mesh networks (WMNs) has emerged recently, WMN consist of two types of nodes mesh routers and mesh clients.WMN is dynamically self-organized and self-configured, with the nodes in the network automatically establishing and maintaining mesh connectivity among themselves. Channel assignment is a critical issue in WMN which is the mapping between the available channels and the radios at each node such that the network performance is optimized, and hence the focus of this work along with static channel assignment, multi-radio, multi-channel. Multi-radio MAC can potentially achieve higher network capacity than single-radio MAC. We design and implement a new agent (DSBCA) distributed channel assignment spanner base, the routing protocol Optimize the network performance considering the throughput, end-to-end delay, connectivity and the interference of our channel assignment algorithm. Base on the network simulations NS2.34 on Linux Fedora and our proposed channel assignment algorithm improved the throughput, minimal-connectivity preserving channel assignment algorithm.
The Evil Within: The Assignment – это первое из двух дополнение к The Evil Within, главной героиней которого является Джулия Кидман, напарница детектива Себастьяна Кастелланоса. В этом дополнении игроки получат часть ответов на те вопросы, которые у них остались после финала оригинальной игры.
Global business interacts efficiently despite the heterogeneity of social, economic and legal cultures which, according to widespread assumptions, cause insecurities and uncertainties. Breaches of contracts may occur more frequently and business relationships may be terminated more often in international than in domestic trade. But most business people engaged in exporting or importing products or services seem to operate in a sufficiently predictable environment allowing successful ventures into the global market. The apparent paradox presented by cultural/institutional diversity and contractual efficiency in cross-border business transactions is the focus of this volume of essays. The wide range of approaches adopted by contributors to the volume include: the Weberian concept of law as a tool for avoiding the risk of opportunism; economic sociology, which treats networks and relationships between contractual parties as paramount; representatives of new institutional economics who discuss law as well as private governance institutions as most efficient responses to risk; comparative economic sociologists who point to the varieties of legal cultures in the social organisation of trust; and national and international institutions such as the World Bank which try to promote legal certainty in the economy. The purpose of the volume is to build on this interdisciplinary exercise by adding empirical evidence to ongoing debates regarding enabling structures for international business, and by critically reviewing and discussing some of the propositions in the literature which contain interesting hypotheses on the effects of the internationalization of markets on market co-ordination institutions and on the role of the state in the globalising economy.
Assignment Problem is one of the first fundamental problems in the area of combinatorial optimization. Despite its historical roots, the problem has tremendous importance to date, due to its numerous real life applications in like facility location, personnel scheduling, job scheduling, production planning, project assignment, task assignment, time-tabling, vehicle routing, storage space allocation, etc. This book comprises some real life assignment and related problems involving imprecise cost/time parameters. In order to represent those imprecise parameters, interval numbers have been used here as this representation is the best among others. The associated problems have been solved using Genetic Algorithm efficiently. A salient feature of this book is that most of the algorithms have been written in a lucid manner with suitable examples using figures. This book should interest academicians, OR/GA practitioners and executives of different industries and business organizations.
Global business interacts efficiently despite the heterogeneity of social, economic and legal cultures which, according to widespread assumptions, cause insecurities and uncertainties. Breaches of contracts may occur more frequently and business relationships may be terminated more often in international than in domestic trade. But most business people engaged in exporting or importing products or services seem to operate in a sufficiently predictable environment allowing successful ventures into the global market. The apparent paradox presented by cultural/institutional diversity and contractual efficiency in cross-border business transactions is the focus of this volume of essays. The wide range of approaches adopted by contributors to the volume include: the Weberian concept of law as a tool for avoiding the risk of opportunism; economic sociology, which treats networks and relationships between contractual parties as paramount; representatives of new institutional economics who discuss law as well as private governance institutions as most efficient responses to risk; comparative economic sociologists who point to the varieties of legal cultures in the social organisation of trust; and national and international institutions such as the World Bank which try to promote legal certainty in the economy. The purpose of the volume is to build on this interdisciplinary exercise by adding empirical evidence to ongoing debates regarding enabling structures for international business, and by critically reviewing and discussing some of the propositions in the literature which contain interesting hypotheses on the effects of the internationalisation of markets on market co-ordination institutions and on the role of the state in the globalising economy.
On 11 January 2009, Regulation (EC) No 864/2007 on the law applicable to non-contractual obligations (Rome II) became applicable in twenty six EU Member States. The Rome II Regulation provides conflict of law rules for tort and delict, unjust enrichment, negotiorum gestio and culpa in contrahendo. In particular, the Rome II Regulation sets out specific rules governing product liability, unfair competition and acts restricting free competition, environmental damage, infringement of intellectual property rights, and industrial action. This book is a comprehensive guide to the Rome II Regulation. It presents the rules designating the applicable law according to Rome II and explores the raisons d'etres behind these rules. The book presents numerous case scenarios and explains what the applicable law should be under the Rome II Regulation. As such it is a comprehensive handbook providing the practitioner with explanations of how the regulation could and should be interpreted and applied.
This book contains a good literature survey of various mathematical models and routing & wavelengths assignment algorithms in WDM optical networks. Some of the new algorithms for optimization of blocking probability have aslo been covered. This book is good for researchers who are working on optical networks and advancements in fiber optics communication. Mathematical models covered in this book are simple and easy to implement. A good number of routing and wavelength assignment algorithms have also been covered in this book which can be used to reduce blocking probability of the optical network. This book can be very helpful to the research scholars.
The UE population is experiencing a continual growth in average life expectancy, giving rise to the need to prolong working years for every single individual. How could it be feasible to achieve these objectives during a period of economic crisis, weighed down by soaring unemployment rates and deep cuts to the welfare system? The EU looks to “Flexicurity” which refers to a policy of LLL implementations, for the formulas that will help us to address such challenges. After examining the various existing Flexicurity models and assessing the model adopted in Italy, before and after the reform introduced with law 92/2012, we will proceed to specify how Italy can ensure the implementation of the Italian Constitution. In order to perform such check, it is useful to examine the tools (which are both public and contractual) available to ensure that Over50 workers will be in a position to adapt their professional backgrounds continually over time in order to retain working capabilities/skills and ensure greater employability. The analysis is carried out focusing on the “LLL” instrument, with a focus on the existence of a right to, and corresponding duty to engage in, Life Long Learning
In this book we consider the Frequency Assignment Problem, where the objective is to minimize the cost due to interference arising in a solution. We use a quadratic 0-1 integer programming formulation of the problem as a basis to derive new lower bounds and problem reduction rules. A tree search algorithm that uses the lower bounds and dominance criteria is also presented. Computational results are shown on standard benchmark instances from the literature.
In recent years, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of communication networks. This is because they are widely used in all walks of life, and this trend continues increasing. The research on computer communication networking field has also grown explosively due to a large variety of combinatorial optimisation problems. One of these problems is the Terminal Assignment Problem which implies fixing the minimum cost links to construct a network between a specified set of terminals and concentrators. A good solution for this problem should maintain small distances between concentrators and terminals assigned to them without exceeding the capacity of any concentrator. Additionally, it should also maintain a balanced distribution of terminals among concentrators. The intractability of this problem is a motivation for the pursuits of different approximation algorithms. In this book, we explore several metaheuristics applied to the Terminal Assignment Problem and other similar problems. Simulation results verify the effectiveness of these algorithms.
Special Agent Fangs Enigma and his sidekick, werewolf Agent Puppy Brown, were recruited by secret intelligence agency MP1 (Monster Protection, 1st division) to stop the world's super(natural) villains and monster criminals from realizing their evil plans.
The problem of distributing goods from depots to consumers plays an important role in the management of many distribution systems, and therefore when it is programmed efficiently it may yield significant savings. In a typical distribution system, trucks provide pick-up and delivery services to customers that are geographically dispersed in a given area. In many of its applications, the main objective of distribution is to find a set of routes for such trucks, satisfying a variety of constraints, so as to minimize the total distribution cost. This work focuses on a decision model for a real world problem. The problem reveals itself as assignment of trucks to routes by Latex Foam Rubber Products Limited-Kumasi, Ghana. This study addresses the problem of finding an efficient assignment of the limited number of trucks at the company’s disposal to the routes they ply while serving its customers outside the metropolis. In this work we use a solution procedure based on Munkres Assignment Algorithm for optimal assignment of non-homogenous fleet of trucks to a given set of routes, where Latex Foam Rubber Products Limited-Kumasi, distributes its products to its customers.
Mesh Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) is a promising access network to enhance channels utilization, extend access coverage using simple and cheap network components. Power management affects mesh WLAN network coverage, topology, throughput, traffic routing and end to end delay. Channel assignment affects the mesh nodes interference level and so the transmission capacity. It also controls the number of nodes share the same channel which increases the probability of collision and reduces the network throughput. In this book, the power management problem is formulated to show its impact on mesh WLAN network throughput. Then this formulation is used to propose a new ranking based cooperative game strategy. Mesh WLAN channel assignment problem is also formulated. Then different algorithms throughput and processing delay is analyzed. This analysis is based on evaluating average users’ data rate and processing delay for different assignment techniques in many mesh WLAN network configurations.
Modern day public transport assignment faces lots of problems. Solutions may exist but needs some form of backings. A sensitivity analysis in most cases could just be sufficient to provide this backing. The developments in this book are very important for students, academic researchers and policy makers. The book provides an extensive review on transit assignment, sensitivity analysis and OmniTRANS. It highlights important conclusions such as:- - Passenger access-egress distances significantly affects their access stop choices. - The travel distance parameter of the generalized cost function has the highest influence on transit assignment - The number of transfers to be made by passengers significantly determines their generalized cost of travel - A carefully conducted partial sensitivity analysis can provide better predictions than a Monte-Carlo sensitivity analysis. As a policy advice to public transport operators in Flanders-Belgium, the developments in this book suggest that; to improve transit assignment, it is sufficient to reduce passengers access-egress distances & the number of transfers either through the institution of more direct transit lines or missing links.
The fundamental goal of multi-agent robotics is simple: how to create control laws and behaviors that, when executed by each individual robot, some desirable global behavior emerges. The global behavior may range from something as simple as the robots meeting at a single point, to something as complex as a collective search and rescue mission. Our research focuses on one of the more fundamental issues in multi-agent, mobile robotics: the formation control problem. The idea is to create controllers that cause robots to move into a predened formation shape. This is a well studied problem for the scenario in which the robots know in advance to which point in the formation they are assigned. In our case, we assume this information is not given in advance, but must be determined dynamically. This thesis presents an algorithm that can be used by a network of mobile robots to simultaneously determine ecient robot assignments and formation pose for rotationally and translationally invariant formations. This allows simultaneous role assignment and formation sysnthesis without the need for additional control laws.
When dealing with stress assignment on the word level, many exceptions to hitherto defined principles can be found in the English language. While some exceptions can be explained by word or morpheme boundaries, others do not fit so easliy into the underlying systematicity of English stress behaviour. Some are often described as simply being idiosyncratic. A new statistical analysis reveals that many of these exceptions do share some common features to a certain extent, in particular in their orthography. Can this kind of features be used to establish additional rules in order to account for exceptional cases of English stress assignment? Or is there no other means but to consider these cases as lexcially exceptional?
This project is aimed at downloading and uploading online assignments for students; with each assignment having information about the instructions, description, deadline, and submission details. The main goal of this thesis is to design and implement online assignment submission and provide an interface use for uploading test program (Nant script file) by instructors, who would be able to evaluate assignments automatically. The system provides an interface for testing assignments such that they can be plugged in by the teachers. This testing could invoke a compiler and make a test-run of the compiled code and check the result or test for plagiarism, existence of certain documents or simply check the file type (extension). The most obvious advantage offered by online assignment submission is that it offers faster transmission of assignments than using traditional way by using online system. The interface use to invoke different testing program by teachers, So Save the time and cost for teachers by enabling them to put up a fast response for students as well as increasing the quality of the feedback provided to students.
These essays, first delivered at the SPTL/UKNCCL conference in September 1996, offer a scholarly and practical analysis of the consequences of contractual failure. The contributors include many of the UK's leading contract and restitution law scholars, joined by a select number of French and German compartists. The essays range broadly over all aspects of contractual failure, including the issue of loss and gain, remedies for breach, the proprietary consequences, restitution in EU law under Article 85 (EC), the duty to re-negotiate, contractual liability, as well as more general restitutionary issues. Contributors: Malcolm Clarke; Gerhard Dannemann; Brice Dickson; Steve Hedley; Alison Jones; Christian Lapoyade Deschamps; Hector MacQueen; Richard Nolan; Janet O'Sullivan; Edwin Peel; Geoffrey Samuel; Erich Schanze; Eltjo Schrage; John Stevens; Robert Stevens; Felicity Toube; Janet Ulph; Peter Watts; Sarah Worthington.
Stress in Moroccan Arabic, and also in other languages, poses challenging problems for phonological theory. This is due to the fact that stress exhibits conflicting properties; which makes it difficult to provide answers to a number of issues. This book provides an investigation into a prominent aspect of prosodic phonology in Moroccan Arabic (a case study of the dialect of Rabat city), namely, stress assignment in the grammatical category of verbs within the framework of optimality theory as proposed in Prince and Smolensky and McCarthy and Prince. It particularly addresses a range of issues such as: the position of stress, the basis on which stress is located, the factors on the basis of which stress location is effected, the importance of the perceptual and the instrumental tests in shedding light on stress assignment, and the extent to which the optimality theoretic analysis confirm or disconfirm the results of the perceptual and the instrumental tests concerning stress placement. This book will be of interest to linguistics, teachers, researchers and to anyone interested in language study and phonological theory.
In cellular mobile communication, since there will be conversation in progress in case of handover calls, GOS for them should be less than that for newly originating calls. Basically, there are three channel assignment schemes, fixed, dynamic & hybrid channel assignment schemes for handling newly originating and handover calls. In this study, capacity design for cellular mobile network in area inside ring road in Kathmandu valley has been done according to the findings of data collection and analysis of mobile communication service being provided by Nepal Telecom. Capacity planning has been done with GOS equal to 2% for newly originating calls and 1% for handover calls. In addition to capacity planning, efficient channel assignment scheme in terms of blocking and throughput has been evaluated with optimal utilization of the designed capacity for getting minimum blocking for both types of calls maintaining the blocking for handover calls always less than that for newly originating calls. The simulated values of GOS & throughput for all channel assignment schemes at different penetration have been compared and hybrid channel assignment scheme has been found to be most efficient.
Vienna, 1966. To be wrongly accused of murder once is a misfortune. Twice - and it's a conspiracy. It is the height of the Cold War. When a defector from Eastern Europe mysteriously returns to the village of his birth, it's a chance for disgraced detective Brano Sev to redeem himself. Being framed for a murder should just be part of his cover story. Or is it? Exiled suddenly to Vienna, treacherous city of spies, Sev finds himself caught up in a cat-and-mouse game where survival is the only prize. But in a world where no good deed goes unpunished, loyalty can be the biggest crime of all...