The focus area of this paper is on the assignment problem with budget constraints which is one of the application area of combinatorial optimization that operates on the domain of those optimization problems,in which the set of feasible solutions is discrete or can be reduced to discrete,and in which the goal is to find the best solution. It is particularly concerned with solving the unconstrained assignment problems with Hungarian algorithm and the constrained assignment problem by cutting plane or outer linearization algorithm for solving the Lagrangian dual problem in which, at each iteration,the function that approximates the dual function is optimized. The paper is divided in to two chapters. In the first chapter,the classical assignment problem,the problem of finding optimum (minimum or maximum) cost or profit assignment a set of workers or resources to jobs or activities to gather with its mathematical formulation,solution methods and special cases in assignment problems were considered. Under the second chapter, we have considered generalization of the classical assignment problem concerning resource(or budget) constraints, due to the variety of real life problems.
Assignment Problem is one of the first fundamental problems in the area of combinatorial optimization. Despite its historical roots, the problem has tremendous importance to date, due to its numerous real life applications in like facility location, personnel scheduling, job scheduling, production planning, project assignment, task assignment, time-tabling, vehicle routing, storage space allocation, etc. This book comprises some real life assignment and related problems involving imprecise cost/time parameters. In order to represent those imprecise parameters, interval numbers have been used here as this representation is the best among others. The associated problems have been solved using Genetic Algorithm efficiently. A salient feature of this book is that most of the algorithms have been written in a lucid manner with suitable examples using figures. This book should interest academicians, OR/GA practitioners and executives of different industries and business organizations.
A wireless mesh networks (WMNs) has emerged recently, WMN consist of two types of nodes mesh routers and mesh clients.WMN is dynamically self-organized and self-configured, with the nodes in the network automatically establishing and maintaining mesh connectivity among themselves. Channel assignment is a critical issue in WMN which is the mapping between the available channels and the radios at each node such that the network performance is optimized, and hence the focus of this work along with static channel assignment, multi-radio, multi-channel. Multi-radio MAC can potentially achieve higher network capacity than single-radio MAC. We design and implement a new agent (DSBCA) distributed channel assignment spanner base, the routing protocol Optimize the network performance considering the throughput, end-to-end delay, connectivity and the interference of our channel assignment algorithm. Base on the network simulations NS2.34 on Linux Fedora and our proposed channel assignment algorithm improved the throughput, minimal-connectivity preserving channel assignment algorithm.
This book examines 200 contractual problems which regularly arise on building and engineering projects and provides a detailed explanation of their solutions, citing standard contract conditions and key parts of legal judgements as authority. A succinct summary is provided at the end of each detailed solution. It covers problems together with their solutions in respect of: Procurement matters Tenders and bidding Design issues Letters of intent Contractor's programme Contractor's float Delays Concurrent Delays Extensions of time Liquidated/delay damages Unliquidated damages Variations Loss and expense/additional cost claims Acceleration Global claims Payment Damage to the works Exclusion clauses Retention of title Practical completion Defect correction Adjudication This book deals with a broad range of construction contracts including JCT Standard Form and Design and Build, New Engineering Contract NEC3, ICE and GC/Works/1. This book was first published under the title of One Hundred Contractual Problems and Their Solutions, with a second edition entitled One Hundred and Fifty Contractual Problems and their Solutions. This third edition adds 50 new problems and replaces 15 of those in the last edition. Of the remainder half have been the subject of revision. «Deserves a place on every site and in every office as the standard handbook on contractual problems» —Construction Law Digest
It is less common to remain in one job with one company for our entire working careers due to a variety of alternatives, including part time work, job sharing, virtual work, self-employment and contract work. As a contractual worker you are in charge of the work you do, you schedule your time and you can refuse or accept any projects. Contractual work, although may be more lucrative, does present with some degree of risk, such as employment uncertainty and lack of corporate benefits. The main goals of this study is to examine if a visible linkage exists between 1) the employment arrangement of a contractual worker and the work-family conflict, and 2) how their spouses/partner perceive their employment arrangement with regards to the work-family conflict. The analysis of the impact of contractual workers on work-family conflict has been made through a number of in-depth interviews with both contractual workers and their spouse/partner.
The efficient management of Change Requests (CRs) is fundamental for successful software maintenance; however the assignment of CRs to developers is an expensive aspect in this regard, due to the time and expertise demanded. To overcome this, researchers have proposed automated approaches for CR assignment. Although these proposals present advances to this topic, they do not consider many factors inherent to the assignments, such as: developers’ workload, CRs severity, interpersonal relationships, and developers know-how. Actually, as we demonstrate in this work, CR assignment is a complex activity and automated approaches cannot rely on simplistic solutions. Ideally, it is necessary to consider and reason over contextual information in order to provide an effective automation. Beyond investigating all these aspects through an extensive systematic literature review, this work also proposes a context-aware architecture solution to semi-automated assignment of CRs.
The Evil Within: The Assignment – это первое из двух дополнение к The Evil Within, главной героиней которого является Джулия Кидман, напарница детектива Себастьяна Кастелланоса. В этом дополнении игроки получат часть ответов на те вопросы, которые у них остались после финала оригинальной игры.
A sharp and incisive review of contractual arrangements in Philippine fisheries. Implicit in the present study is the belief that sound policies for the fisheries sector of the Philippines must be based on an understanding of the fundamental incentives underlying contractual arrangements in the fisheries sector of developing countries. If, in our reformist zeal, we do not pay enough attention to the underlying economic rationale of pre-existing contractual arrangements and their interconnections, and try to hack away parts of them, we may not always improve (and may even worsen) the lot of the poor tenant-laborer-borrower, the intended beneficiary of the reform program. A well-intentioned land redistribution program may, for example, be rendered counter-productive by the absence of a simultaneous program of credit reform; even in credit reform, public banks spreading to reach out to the peasants may meet with limited success in the face of the potential borrower interlocked in her credit-cum-land or –labor relationship with the local lender-landlord-employer.
This book will give you clear idea on innovative project on contractual dairy farming and effective livelihood approaches for poverty alleviation of the remote rural poor communities. Contractual dairy farming can be the solution of poverty and the sources of daily bread for the helpless poor in the northwest region of Bangladesh. The book will reflect the status of livelihoods indicating economic impact, social and to some extent of environment. The system of contractual dairy farming enhance the capabilities of managing small scale farming in effective manner. This also helpful in creating self employment with potential linkage through forward and backward linkage. Green fodder can increase milk production, health of the cattle population. The book will also emphasize on breed selection, improved management practices and intensive management of improved breeds and feeds for the population. The value chain of milk may increase income almost two times for the contract growers. The reimbursement process looks like very innovative avoiding any monetary transaction. Repayment has been done through selling of milk and cow dung in regular basis.
Modern day public transport assignment faces lots of problems. Solutions may exist but needs some form of backings. A sensitivity analysis in most cases could just be sufficient to provide this backing. The developments in this book are very important for students, academic researchers and policy makers. The book provides an extensive review on transit assignment, sensitivity analysis and OmniTRANS. It highlights important conclusions such as:- - Passenger access-egress distances significantly affects their access stop choices. - The travel distance parameter of the generalized cost function has the highest influence on transit assignment - The number of transfers to be made by passengers significantly determines their generalized cost of travel - A carefully conducted partial sensitivity analysis can provide better predictions than a Monte-Carlo sensitivity analysis. As a policy advice to public transport operators in Flanders-Belgium, the developments in this book suggest that; to improve transit assignment, it is sufficient to reduce passengers access-egress distances & the number of transfers either through the institution of more direct transit lines or missing links.
In cellular mobile communication, since there will be conversation in progress in case of handover calls, GOS for them should be less than that for newly originating calls. Basically, there are three channel assignment schemes, fixed, dynamic & hybrid channel assignment schemes for handling newly originating and handover calls. In this study, capacity design for cellular mobile network in area inside ring road in Kathmandu valley has been done according to the findings of data collection and analysis of mobile communication service being provided by Nepal Telecom. Capacity planning has been done with GOS equal to 2% for newly originating calls and 1% for handover calls. In addition to capacity planning, efficient channel assignment scheme in terms of blocking and throughput has been evaluated with optimal utilization of the designed capacity for getting minimum blocking for both types of calls maintaining the blocking for handover calls always less than that for newly originating calls. The simulated values of GOS & throughput for all channel assignment schemes at different penetration have been compared and hybrid channel assignment scheme has been found to be most efficient.
The problem of distributing goods from depots to consumers plays an important role in the management of many distribution systems, and therefore when it is programmed efficiently it may yield significant savings. In a typical distribution system, trucks provide pick-up and delivery services to customers that are geographically dispersed in a given area. In many of its applications, the main objective of distribution is to find a set of routes for such trucks, satisfying a variety of constraints, so as to minimize the total distribution cost. This work focuses on a decision model for a real world problem. The problem reveals itself as assignment of trucks to routes by Latex Foam Rubber Products Limited-Kumasi, Ghana. This study addresses the problem of finding an efficient assignment of the limited number of trucks at the company’s disposal to the routes they ply while serving its customers outside the metropolis. In this work we use a solution procedure based on Munkres Assignment Algorithm for optimal assignment of non-homogenous fleet of trucks to a given set of routes, where Latex Foam Rubber Products Limited-Kumasi, distributes its products to its customers.
This study is situated within the field of instructional design and sought to identify competencies specific to online designers-by-assignment in high school learning environments. Since existing instructional design standards currently available to guide designers-by-assignment differ from one another, a lack of clarity remains about which specific standards actually benefit this emerging professional group in the process of developing and revising courses they eventually teach. The purpose of this qualitative Delphi study was to identify, through expert agreement, instructional design competencies that can benefit high school online designers-by-assignment and the instructional design profession. This study employed the qualitative Delphi design to achieve consensus among experts in five fields (high school online practitioners, instructional design academics, university pre-service instructors, online high school administrators and high school online instructional designers).
This book contains a good literature survey of various mathematical models and routing & wavelengths assignment algorithms in WDM optical networks. Some of the new algorithms for optimization of blocking probability have aslo been covered. This book is good for researchers who are working on optical networks and advancements in fiber optics communication. Mathematical models covered in this book are simple and easy to implement. A good number of routing and wavelength assignment algorithms have also been covered in this book which can be used to reduce blocking probability of the optical network. This book can be very helpful to the research scholars.
This book explains the port operations and proposes approaches that aim to improve the most important successive steps in container terminal management activities. A multi-period assignment problem that seeks to allocate vessels to berthing spaces and quay cranes is proposed to handle the quayside operations. Subsequently, on the yard side, a discrete-event simulation model for the real life detailed processes performed during the handling of import containers is developed. In particular, the model focuses on the storage assignment problem at the operational level in a container terminal with a multiple-berth structure. An approach by means of a hierarchical structure is adapted to partition the assignment problem into two sub-problems and solve each of them using separate decision rules. Suggested storage policies are evaluated in view of the overall performance of the container terminal.
Revision with unchanged content. This study investigated the influence of computer-generated reminders on the rate in which distance learners submitted assignments and completed courses. The computer-generated reminders, sent via email, served as a time management support strategy. Participants were randomly divided into two groups: control and treatment. Both groups received a list of target due dates for course assignments. The control group did not receive reminders. The treatment group received reminders when they failed to submit an assignment by a target due date. The results indicated no significant difference between the control and treatment groups in terms of assignment submission rates and course completion rates. However, results of this study did reveal that the number of assignments in a distance course influences the timeliness of assignment completion and the likelihood of course completion.
The highly competitive environment in today's wireless and cellular network industries is making the management of systems seek for better and more advance techniques to keep masses of data, complexity of systems and deadline constrains under control with a lower cost and higher efficiency. Therefore, the management is getting significant attentions by researchers in order to increase the efficiency of the resource usage to provide high quality services. Two of the cornerstones of the management system in wireless and cellular network are carrier assignment and packet scheduling. Therefore, this work focuses on analysis and development of carrier assignment and packet scheduling methods in multi-band Wi-Fi and LTE-A networks.
When dealing with stress assignment on the word level, many exceptions to hitherto defined principles can be found in the English language. While some exceptions can be explained by word or morpheme boundaries, others do not fit so easliy into the underlying systematicity of English stress behaviour. Some are often described as simply being idiosyncratic. A new statistical analysis reveals that many of these exceptions do share some common features to a certain extent, in particular in their orthography. Can this kind of features be used to establish additional rules in order to account for exceptional cases of English stress assignment? Or is there no other means but to consider these cases as lexcially exceptional?
In the first of a six part series discussing contract law regimes of selected Asian jurisdictions, this volume examines the remedies for breach of contract and how each jurisdiction addresses the common problems encountered in contractual disputes.
In this book we consider the Frequency Assignment Problem, where the objective is to minimize the cost due to interference arising in a solution. We use a quadratic 0-1 integer programming formulation of the problem as a basis to derive new lower bounds and problem reduction rules. A tree search algorithm that uses the lower bounds and dominance criteria is also presented. Computational results are shown on standard benchmark instances from the literature.
Mesh Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) is a promising access network to enhance channels utilization, extend access coverage using simple and cheap network components. Power management affects mesh WLAN network coverage, topology, throughput, traffic routing and end to end delay. Channel assignment affects the mesh nodes interference level and so the transmission capacity. It also controls the number of nodes share the same channel which increases the probability of collision and reduces the network throughput. In this book, the power management problem is formulated to show its impact on mesh WLAN network throughput. Then this formulation is used to propose a new ranking based cooperative game strategy. Mesh WLAN channel assignment problem is also formulated. Then different algorithms throughput and processing delay is analyzed. This analysis is based on evaluating average users’ data rate and processing delay for different assignment techniques in many mesh WLAN network configurations.
Multinational organizations need to develop internationally sophisticated and skilled managers in order to compete with the competitive global environment. Organizations are finding it increasingly difficult to find employees who are willing to accept international assignments, one of the most powerful means to shape effective global leaders. Furthermore, organizations do not have an adequate understanding of what factors influence employees'' willingness to accept an international assignment. This study analyzes the impact of multiple factors which may influence an individual''s willingness to accept an international assignment. Prior research that investigated individuals'' willingness to accept an international assignment mainly focused on one particular aspect. Findings of this research include: students are generally more willing to accept a short-term than a long-term international assignment; male and female students are equally willing to accept international assignments; students are equally willing to accept international assignments within or outside of Europe; from seventeen European countries, students are most willing to work in the UK, Switzerland, Spain and Sweden.
This project is aimed at downloading and uploading online assignments for students; with each assignment having information about the instructions, description, deadline, and submission details. The main goal of this thesis is to design and implement online assignment submission and provide an interface use for uploading test program (Nant script file) by instructors, who would be able to evaluate assignments automatically. The system provides an interface for testing assignments such that they can be plugged in by the teachers. This testing could invoke a compiler and make a test-run of the compiled code and check the result or test for plagiarism, existence of certain documents or simply check the file type (extension). The most obvious advantage offered by online assignment submission is that it offers faster transmission of assignments than using traditional way by using online system. The interface use to invoke different testing program by teachers, So Save the time and cost for teachers by enabling them to put up a fast response for students as well as increasing the quality of the feedback provided to students.
Sale of goods contracts involving the sea carriage largely differ from traditional domestic sales contracts. CIF and FOB contracts represent the most commonly used shipment contracts. The author demonstrates the practical problems resulted from the distinctive characteristic of CIF and FOB contracts in terms of risk distribution in English law. The book contemplates to address the following problems: How the passage of risk in shipment terms affects the title of cargo interest to sue the carrier for the damage in transit; In this regards, the author discusses the contractual claims covering the endorsement issue of the bill of lading and non-contractual claims including tort, bailment and implied contract device. The author presents the problems with risk distribution and provides the practical solutions; analyses the issues concerning the passage of the property, to demonstrate that in practice the passage of property does not play a vital role to determine the title to sue. The second half of the book focuses on the detailed analysis of all the contractual remedies available for CIF and FOB seller and buyer covering all variations of shipment contracts.
During the last century, dominating economic interest sparked an evolution of American contracting practices. Mass-market industries, including cell phone carriers, car industries, and hospitals enacted contractual practices that facilitated business agreements with thousands while judicial rulings empowered business interests. Today, businesses contract from a position of such superior bargaining power that the American non-drafting party is vulnerable to victimization. The contractual relationship between empowered businesses and non-drafting consumers is the focus of this book. Through the analysis of judicial and legislative history, this note will explore where subversive contracts exist in society and what consumers need to be conscious of when contracting. This discussion will argue for the adoption of protectionary measures to shield consumers from overly empowered business contracts.
The book is intended to give the reader an overview, with a fair amount of details, of the major topics concerning conflict of law rules and international jurisdiction in Turkey. It is hoped that this collection of 13 articles will be of some use to foreign practising lawyers and scholars as preliminary reference and key to the basic private international law concepts of Turkish law. The collection starts with articles giving general remarks on Turkish Private International Law, followed by some conflict of law rules on divorce, matrimonial property, adoption, maintenance, contractual and non-contractual relations. The last articles in this book are concerned with the international jurisdiction of Turkish courts and the recognition and enforcement of foreign court decisions and arbitral awards in Turkey.