The inference drawn from conditional sentences that if p, q is often understood to mean if not p, not q, which in turn gives rise to the biconditional reading of if and only if p, q has been widely discussed in the pragmatic literature. The phenomenon involved here is known as Conditional Perfection. On the grounds of a Gricean account, prevalent theories consider this type of inference a conversational implicature, and more precisely, a scalar implicature. It follows that Conditional Perfection and classical scalar implicatures like those triggered by the quantifier 'some' can be captured by a uniform account. Based on this assumption, the question may arise whether the phenomenon of Conditional Perfection is related to quantified sentences in general. The present paper examines this relation and establishes a comparative account in that respect.
This monogram explores some new variations of domination problems on some special graphs. An attempt has been made to present an up to date survey of related works done on different graph classes. It is written in a way that it is self contained for independent study. The presentation is logical and simple. The lemmas and theorems have been stated in logical way and illustration are given whenever necessary. Also examples are given for algorithms. It is hoped that the readers will benefit immensely from this monogram.
Conditional cash transfers (CCTs) have become a popular social policy initiative for improving child health in developing countries since the mid 90s. The primary aim of CCTs is to improve the human capital of children via the provision of cash transfers to households under conditions relating to children’s health care, nutrition and education. To date, a number of studies have been conducted on CCTs’ impact on child health and nutrition but not much has been done to synthesise this body of evidence in relation to CCTs’ effectiveness in improving child health. This book, therefore, provides a comprehensive systematic review of the evidence around the effectiveness of CCTs in improving child health in developing countries. The analysis suggests that to a large extent, CCTs are effective in improving child health by addressing child health determinants such as access to health care, child and maternal nutrition, morbidity risk, immunisation/vaccination coverage and household poverty. The book is particularly useful to policy makers, the donor community, NGOs, health promoters and all other organisations concerned with child health promotion in developing countries.
The focus area of this paper is on the assignment problem with budget constraints which is one of the application area of combinatorial optimization that operates on the domain of those optimization problems,in which the set of feasible solutions is discrete or can be reduced to discrete,and in which the goal is to find the best solution. It is particularly concerned with solving the unconstrained assignment problems with Hungarian algorithm and the constrained assignment problem by cutting plane or outer linearization algorithm for solving the Lagrangian dual problem in which, at each iteration,the function that approximates the dual function is optimized. The paper is divided in to two chapters. In the first chapter,the classical assignment problem,the problem of finding optimum (minimum or maximum) cost or profit assignment a set of workers or resources to jobs or activities to gather with its mathematical formulation,solution methods and special cases in assignment problems were considered. Under the second chapter, we have considered generalization of the classical assignment problem concerning resource(or budget) constraints, due to the variety of real life problems.
A Conditional Cash Transfer Program (CCT) is a type of social safety net program that originated in Latin America during the early 1990’s. It is unique in that it targets the two major drivers of structural poverty: education and health. CCTs involve a cash transfer to beneficiaries only if they routinely send their children to school and health clinics. The rationale behind this concept is that investing in human capital will not only relieve the short-term symptoms of poverty, but also stop the cycle of inter-generational poverty. The programs’ successes in Latin America can be broken down into a list of criteria. These criteria are necessary for any CCT and anti-poverty program to be successful. The criteria are then applied to the anti-poverty programs in India to see if a large-scale implementation of CCTs would work in India. The bottom line surrounding the analysis of India’s anti-poverty programs using the CCT criteria is that a complicated bureaucracy, corruption, and lack of transparency drives the majority of the inefficiencies seen in India. If corrected for, CCTs can target the major contributors to poverty in India: poor health, lack of education, and social biases.
A wireless mesh networks (WMNs) has emerged recently, WMN consist of two types of nodes mesh routers and mesh clients.WMN is dynamically self-organized and self-configured, with the nodes in the network automatically establishing and maintaining mesh connectivity among themselves. Channel assignment is a critical issue in WMN which is the mapping between the available channels and the radios at each node such that the network performance is optimized, and hence the focus of this work along with static channel assignment, multi-radio, multi-channel. Multi-radio MAC can potentially achieve higher network capacity than single-radio MAC. We design and implement a new agent (DSBCA) distributed channel assignment spanner base, the routing protocol Optimize the network performance considering the throughput, end-to-end delay, connectivity and the interference of our channel assignment algorithm. Base on the network simulations NS2.34 on Linux Fedora and our proposed channel assignment algorithm improved the throughput, minimal-connectivity preserving channel assignment algorithm.
Conditional Cash Transfer (CCT) programs are a recent and popular approach in developing countries to improve health and education prospects of poor families through conditional financial incentives. However, due to sub-optimal transfers and administrative difficulties in identifying needy families, many CCT programs suffer from incomplete coverage of needy families and/or low financial efficiencies. De Janvry and Sadoulet (2003) have shown that their targeting method (the DJS method), which uses binary regression models to identify needy families and optimal transfer amounts, can effectively overcome these problems. This dissertation tackles two issues encountered in implementing the DJS method: the need for an appropriate methodology to compare binary models, and the need to develop binary models with high external validity. For targeting of CCT programs, binary models need to be analyzed comprehensively beyond the overall goodness-of-fit. For example, policy makers may need to know the rates of false positive and false negative predictions of various models and choose the most appropriate model for given policy priorities.
Assignment is a crucial topic in commercial law, and this new work by Gregory Tolhurst is the most comprehensive work on the assignment of contractual rights ever published. It seeks to explain the existence, meaning and application of the rules governing the assignment of contractual rights and it does this by reference to the idea that assignments involve transfers. The book is logically structured to follow the issues that arise in planning, drafting and enforcing an assignment, including: - what is meant by 'assignment'; - what is the distinction between legal and equitable assignments; - how an assignable contractual right is identified; - what formalities apply to assignment; and - what rights and remedies are available to the parties to an assignment. The topic of assignment is of such universal importance to commercial lawyers that all practicing lawyers will find this work invaluable. However, the work will also be required reading for academics teaching contract, equity and personal property.
The Evil Within: The Assignment – это первое из двух дополнение к The Evil Within, главной героиней которого является Джулия Кидман, напарница детектива Себастьяна Кастелланоса. В этом дополнении игроки получат часть ответов на те вопросы, которые у них остались после финала оригинальной игры.
Assignment Problem is one of the first fundamental problems in the area of combinatorial optimization. Despite its historical roots, the problem has tremendous importance to date, due to its numerous real life applications in like facility location, personnel scheduling, job scheduling, production planning, project assignment, task assignment, time-tabling, vehicle routing, storage space allocation, etc. This book comprises some real life assignment and related problems involving imprecise cost/time parameters. In order to represent those imprecise parameters, interval numbers have been used here as this representation is the best among others. The associated problems have been solved using Genetic Algorithm efficiently. A salient feature of this book is that most of the algorithms have been written in a lucid manner with suitable examples using figures. This book should interest academicians, OR/GA practitioners and executives of different industries and business organizations.
In construction contracts, a 'performance bond' is a bond taken out by the contractor, for the benefit of and at the request of the employer, in the event of the contractor's default, repudiation or insolvency. There are two types of performance bonds: Conditional bond or default bond, whereby the surety accepts 'joint and several' responsibility for the performance of the contractor's obligations under the contract; and Unconditional bond or on-demand bond, which is a covenant by the surety to indemnify the employer following contractor's default, subject to stated terms and up to a sum commonly 5% of the main contract sum. However, in Malaysia, the question of whether the performance bond in a construction contract is a conditional or an unconditional guarantees is one of the issues relating to performance bond that has been discussed. Thus, in order to determine the types of performance bond applicable in a contract, a thorough understanding of the content of the bond is required. Therefore, the objective of this research is to determine the phrase(s) in the Performance Bond in a construction contract that determine whether the performance bond is a conditional or unconditional.
This monograph presents an application of the first- order conditional moment closure (CMC) approach to modelling turbulent non-premixed flames of methane, propane and ethylene, with particular attention given to sooting flames. One objective of the current research is to investigate the practicability of incorporating gas-phase chemical mechanisms of varying length and complexity into calculations of turbulent non-premixed flames. Another objective is to extend the current scope of CMC combustion modelling by incorporating calculations of detailed gas-phase chemistry, soot formation and oxidation, and radiative heat transfer. Overall, predictions are in far better accord with experimental data when differential diffusion is accounted for in the model, and realistic prediction of soot levels are not possible without the incorporation of such effects. Given the simplicity and relative accuracy of the model described, it offers potential for future development to cover a wide range of hydrocarbon fuels, including the high hydrocarbons used in practical combustors, as well as for application in complex combustor''s geometries.
The purpose of this honors thesis is to find an appropriate GARCH (Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity) Model for the daily closing returns of the NASDAQ Computer Index, given a ten-year time series of closing prices. On the one hand, Standard GARCH Models are not sufficient enough, if consider the leverage effects, that is, the volatility responds to good news and bad news differently. In this case, asymmetric GARCH Models are better, and, in particular, Exponential GARCH (EGARCH) Model is the best. On the other hand, EGARCH Models with alternative conditional distributions perform better than that with the default Normal Conditional Distribution. In particular, the Skew Generalized Error Distribution is found to be a good fit that generate large P-values against the null hypotheses in various tests. In conclusion, among all of the models investigated, the EGARCH Model with the Skew Generalized Error Distribution is the best.
Времена глагола в английском языке объясняются без использования словосочетаний: Present simple, Past simple, Future simple, Present perfect, Past perfect, Future perfect, Conditional, Conditional perfect, Present continuous, Past continuous, Future continuous, Present perfect continuous, Past perfect continuous, Future perfect continuous, Conditional continuous, Conditional perfect continuous, Passive voice.
This book contains a good literature survey of various mathematical models and routing & wavelengths assignment algorithms in WDM optical networks. Some of the new algorithms for optimization of blocking probability have aslo been covered. This book is good for researchers who are working on optical networks and advancements in fiber optics communication. Mathematical models covered in this book are simple and easy to implement. A good number of routing and wavelength assignment algorithms have also been covered in this book which can be used to reduce blocking probability of the optical network. This book can be very helpful to the research scholars.
The purpose of the present work is to introduce and investigate a new class of sets called (i, j)-Ps– open sets, and use this class to define and study new concepts in bitopological spaces such as continuity and separation axioms. At the beginning of this work, we define the class of (i, j)-Ps– open sets which contained in the class of j-preopen sets and also contained in the class of (i, j)-gp– open sets. It is shown that the family of (i, j)-Ps– open sets form a supratopology on X. We prove that the family of (i, j)-Ps– open sets and the family of j-preopen sets are identical when (X, ?i) are semi-T1-spaces. Finally, some separation axioms such as T0, T1 and T2 spaces are defined in bitopological spaces, also R0, R1 and Urysohn spaces are defined and the relation between them are found by using the new type of graph functions called (i, j)-Ps – closed graph. It is noticed that if (X, ?1, ?2) is (i, j)-Ps–Tk, then it is (i, j)-Ps–Tk-1, for k=1, 2. It is proved that a bitopological space (X, ?1, ?2) is (i, j)-Ps–T1 if the (i, j)-Ps– derived set of every point of X is empty.
In this book we consider the Frequency Assignment Problem, where the objective is to minimize the cost due to interference arising in a solution. We use a quadratic 0-1 integer programming formulation of the problem as a basis to derive new lower bounds and problem reduction rules. A tree search algorithm that uses the lower bounds and dominance criteria is also presented. Computational results are shown on standard benchmark instances from the literature.
In recent years, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of communication networks. This is because they are widely used in all walks of life, and this trend continues increasing. The research on computer communication networking field has also grown explosively due to a large variety of combinatorial optimisation problems. One of these problems is the Terminal Assignment Problem which implies fixing the minimum cost links to construct a network between a specified set of terminals and concentrators. A good solution for this problem should maintain small distances between concentrators and terminals assigned to them without exceeding the capacity of any concentrator. Additionally, it should also maintain a balanced distribution of terminals among concentrators. The intractability of this problem is a motivation for the pursuits of different approximation algorithms. In this book, we explore several metaheuristics applied to the Terminal Assignment Problem and other similar problems. Simulation results verify the effectiveness of these algorithms.
Special Agent Fangs Enigma and his sidekick, werewolf Agent Puppy Brown, were recruited by secret intelligence agency MP1 (Monster Protection, 1st division) to stop the world's super(natural) villains and monster criminals from realizing their evil plans.
In this book, we are interested in the area of nonparametric prediction of time series. Therefore, the relationship between a current observation and past observations is considered, where the conditional density function plays an important role. Two aspects of the conditional probability density function, the mode and the quantiles are studied. Firstly, in the case of the mode, we state some sufficient conditions under which the joint kernel estimator of the conditional mode taken jointly at a finite number of distinct points is asymptotically normally distributed. Secondly, a new multivariate estimator for a multivariate conditional quantile is proposed, based on the reweighted Nadaraya-Watson estimator for the conditional cumulative distribution function. The efficiency of the proposed estimator is tested by giving two applications. The book also, involves a review which covers in sufficient details the up to date literature on kernel estimation for conditional mode and quantiles.
The problem of distributing goods from depots to consumers plays an important role in the management of many distribution systems, and therefore when it is programmed efficiently it may yield significant savings. In a typical distribution system, trucks provide pick-up and delivery services to customers that are geographically dispersed in a given area. In many of its applications, the main objective of distribution is to find a set of routes for such trucks, satisfying a variety of constraints, so as to minimize the total distribution cost. This work focuses on a decision model for a real world problem. The problem reveals itself as assignment of trucks to routes by Latex Foam Rubber Products Limited-Kumasi, Ghana. This study addresses the problem of finding an efficient assignment of the limited number of trucks at the company’s disposal to the routes they ply while serving its customers outside the metropolis. In this work we use a solution procedure based on Munkres Assignment Algorithm for optimal assignment of non-homogenous fleet of trucks to a given set of routes, where Latex Foam Rubber Products Limited-Kumasi, distributes its products to its customers.
Mesh Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) is a promising access network to enhance channels utilization, extend access coverage using simple and cheap network components. Power management affects mesh WLAN network coverage, topology, throughput, traffic routing and end to end delay. Channel assignment affects the mesh nodes interference level and so the transmission capacity. It also controls the number of nodes share the same channel which increases the probability of collision and reduces the network throughput. In this book, the power management problem is formulated to show its impact on mesh WLAN network throughput. Then this formulation is used to propose a new ranking based cooperative game strategy. Mesh WLAN channel assignment problem is also formulated. Then different algorithms throughput and processing delay is analyzed. This analysis is based on evaluating average users’ data rate and processing delay for different assignment techniques in many mesh WLAN network configurations.
Modern day public transport assignment faces lots of problems. Solutions may exist but needs some form of backings. A sensitivity analysis in most cases could just be sufficient to provide this backing. The developments in this book are very important for students, academic researchers and policy makers. The book provides an extensive review on transit assignment, sensitivity analysis and OmniTRANS. It highlights important conclusions such as:- - Passenger access-egress distances significantly affects their access stop choices. - The travel distance parameter of the generalized cost function has the highest influence on transit assignment - The number of transfers to be made by passengers significantly determines their generalized cost of travel - A carefully conducted partial sensitivity analysis can provide better predictions than a Monte-Carlo sensitivity analysis. As a policy advice to public transport operators in Flanders-Belgium, the developments in this book suggest that; to improve transit assignment, it is sufficient to reduce passengers access-egress distances & the number of transfers either through the institution of more direct transit lines or missing links.