Writing is probably the most critical and challenging of the four language skills, even for native speakers of a language. Finding ways of helping language learners improve their writing ability, therefore, has always been a challenge for language teachers and researchers. Several attempts have already been made and a few techniques and activities have been proposed including controlled, guided, and free writing activities. This book compares the effectiveness of these activities on the cohesiveness of the argumentative writing of learners in an EFL context. It includes a theoretical review and an empirical analysis of the issue. This book may be useful for EFL learners as well as teachers who teach writing.
This study examines the use of cohesive devices and cohesive chains in the argumentative essays by Polish undergraduates majoring in English, using both quantitative and qualitative analysis. The analysis is based on the Halliday and Hasan (1976) framework on cohesion in texts. The book is divided into three chapters: two concerned with a discussion of the necessary theory of cohesion in texts and argumentative writing, and the third one is focused on the application of the theory- the analysis of essays. The analysis includes the distribution of cohesive ties and chains, some problems with using cohesive ties, and a comparative study of essays as regards the use of cohesive devices in two proficiency levels and in relation to writing quality. This study sheds some light on the concept of cohesion in written texts and how EFL students use cohesive features to express meanings in their writing.
Learners’ experience with writing in general and argumentative textual productions in particular, requires a great deal of lexical and syntactic knowledge that grant them the ability to discover and put into words their ideas.Thereupon, the motivation for conducting this study which is a self-possessed analysis of learners’ argumentative essays, is basically to explore the use of substantive words and complex sentences in their argumentative writing at Moulay Ismail University. The book makes an endeavor to examine the extent to which overusing these elements affect their overall scores in textual productions. With regard to the comparative analysis of the results, it is demonstrated that complex sentences are not used numerously in argumentative writing. Students do not give too much interest to this type of sentence. As for substantive words, it can be asserted to some extent that most students use them with a lucid and observed quantity.
The separation of teaching reading and writing has been a dominant feature of educational practice at the school level for many years. The literature on reading and writing reveals that much has been written on both skills separately but there is a lack of research on the relationship between the two. Recent research, however, has shown an emergence of interest in the reading/writing connection. Current movements in education have fostered that instruction in the language arts can be enhanced by integrating reading and writing. The fundamental issue this book examines is the interaction between reading and writing skills in English as a foreign language. It investigates whether 'effective' reading is transferable to 'effective' writing. The present book aims not only at exploring in greater empirical detail the interaction between domains which have been previously studied independently but also at testing the findings of earlier research. Undoubtedly, this book will raise a number of challenging and interesting questions as well as offer the reader an opportunity to keep abreast of developments in various fields related to the teaching of reading and writing skills.
This study was conducted in an attempt to provide insights toward deepening understanding of associations between culture and writing by building, assessing, and refining a conceptual model of second language writing. The Concepts of culture and coherence and the relationship between them were examined through a mixed methods research design in the research context of Contrastive Rhetoric, comparing the coherence quality in argumentative essays written by undergraduates in mainland China and their U.S. peers. In order to analyze the complex concept of argumentative coherence, five linguistic theories of coherence were synthesized: Halliday’s (1976) cohesion theory, Carroll’s theory of coherence (1999/2007), Enkvist’s theory of coherence (1990), Topical Structure Analysis (Lautamatti, 1978) and Toulmin’s Model (1956/2003). This book is aimed at providing implications for conceptualizing argumentative coherence and contrastive rhetorical research.
METADISCOURSE AND GENRE LEARNING explores how using and learning to use metadiscourse—non-propositional linguistic features guiding readers through texts and facilitating writer-reader communication—facilitates Chinese EFL undergraduates' learning of the genre of English argumentative writing in the pedagogical context of composition classrooms in China. Drawing on insights from genre theories, the literature on genre-based pedagogies, research on English argumentative writing, and metadiscourse studies, the researcher closely examines both student and teacher perspectives on student metadiscourse selections, and their practices of learning and teaching metadiscourse in the lessons of English argumentative writing through a qualitative design and a multimethod approach involving text analysis, individual interviews, classroom observation, and focus group interviews.
This study compares the functions of abstract nouns previously defined as “shell nouns” (Schmid, 2000) to create cohesion in academic texts written by professional published authors and international graduate students. To make this comparison, two corpora of research papers, one by international graduate students and one by published authors, were collected from 6 different academic disciplines (Art and Design, Biology, Computer Science, Economics, Environmental Engineering, and Physics and Astronomy). The 35 shell nouns (Hinkel, 2004) were investigated in order to find out the frequency patterns in both corpora. The six shell nouns identified as the most common ones in the published corpus were qualitatively compared between published authors’ and international graduate students’ writings, and further analyzed for cohesive functions through different lexico-grammatical patterns in the two corpora.
Research has indicated that writing argumentative essay is difficult for L2 students of English, as such the current project intended to examine the difficulties which Iranian EFL students have in writing argumentative essays and also to investigate similarities and/or differences in the way they structure their English and Persian argumentative essay before and after instruction. This study also attempted to portray how students transfer rhetorical patterns in L2 to L1 compositions. This study shed further light into the impact of explicit and implicit genre-based approach in comparison with the no-instruction approach on the argumentative genre. After conducting TOFEL test, 79 subjects were selected. The selected subjects were randomly divided into three groups. All of the three groups did 4 pre- and post-tests. The results show that the participants used basic structure of English argumentative papers in both their Persian and English pre-essays; however, they were weak at handling oppositional structures. The quantitative analysis of the post-argumentative essays revealed that the experimental group outperformed the implicit and no-formal instruction groups.
A three-volume essay writing course for students in American English. Academic Writing Skills 2 takes students through a step-by-step process of writing expository, argumentative, and compare and contrast essays. It is appropriate for students wishing to focus on specific essay types that require the use and integration of sources to complete academic writing tasks.
In this rapidly changing information, thinking critically is a vital requirement for individuals. In response to this, Indonesian EFL teachers are given responsibility to assist their students to acquire critical thinking skills while learning English. This is done to give them adequate practice in critical thinking so that they can actively participate in the international community particularly in the global workplace.This book presents results of a study aims to investigate students’ critical thinking as demonstrated in their argumentative essays. Argumentative writing has been believed as an effective means to portray students’ critical thinking. It assists students in making ideas of their own, clarifying opinions or beliefs and sorting out the evidence which are part of critical thinking realization. In addition, this book also provides explanation regarding students’ consciousness on their own critical thinking. In this sense, information regarding their awareness as to whether they show critical thinking and individual voice in their argumentative texts has been the object of this book to discuss.
Over the last decades of war in Afghanistan, educational development aspects have been ruined dramatically. Teaching methodologies has stayed as it was and teachers have not been trained professionally with the effective methodologies. Furthermore, university students are not equipped enough to develop a cohesive and coherent piece of writing. The purpose of this study is to evaluate students’ difficulties, goals and perceptions regarding English writing and teaching instruction in composition courses in Afghanistan. Data were collected from an English Department in a university in the western part of Afghanistan. The subjects are English major university students, teachers, and administrators who completed the questionnaires. The results of this study revealed the predominant teaching instruction in composition courses in Afghanistan. Results suggest that this methodology did not equip students with writing skills which would enable them to compose a cohesive and coherent piece of writing. The study also recommends a more effective approach to writing instruction and presents elements of a proposed curriculum / syllabus for the English Department.
Academic Writing has been written for intermediate level students who are preparing to study, or are already studying, in an academic environment and need to improve their writing skills. Academic Writing provides students with: - a variety of group, pair and individual planning and writing tasks. - plenty of practice to help with each stage of the writing process. - models of writing that are based on real assignments. Academic Writing takes students from paragraph structuring to essay writing through a process approach. It teaches learners how to order and link paragraphs into cohesive and coherent essays and to create the various paragraph types that are used in written assignments. Academic Writing includes work on how to generate ideas, organise material, draft, review and revise written work. There are extra sample and reference materials at the back of the book, including models of essay development and a punctuation guide, to help students learn to evaluate their own work. Academic Writing includes a complete answer key and can be used in class or as a self-study book.
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Throughout the long history of language acquisition in general, and the acquisition of the written medium in particular, different theories have emerged and, consequently, different views to account for and explain the mysteries of written language acquisition have seen light. The understanding and discussion of these theories and views will not only shed light on the essence of writing and its place in the whole process of second language acquisition, but also give more insight into the second language teaching methods these theories advocate, especially composition teaching methods. Accordingly, this book investigated the effect of reading model essays and writing practice on Moroccan EFL students’ persuasive writing performance. The major purpose behind this study was to compare the impact of reading and writing practice on the development of Moroccan students’ argumentative writing performance and shed more light on the reading writing relationship
As the complexity of hardware designs is increasing rapidly day-by-day with the introduction of newer technologies, it is very important to ensure the correctness of these designs. During verification, the primary objective is to measure the coverage of the verified functionalities of a design and, hence, indicate the completeness of the verification effort. Since it is widely believed that the future of design verification lies in the co-existence of both simulation and formal property verification techniques, unifying the coverage goals for both of these contrasting verification technologies is becoming very essential. The inter-relationships among the simulation test plans, assertions and test benches are very important to the success of verification, but they are often loosely tied. In this monograph, we attempt to relate then more formally to achieve a potentially better strategy for cohesive coverage management in verification. We believe that the methods presented in this monograph will lead to wider adoption of the cohesive coverage management techniques in the design validation flow.