The focus area of this paper is on the assignment problem with budget constraints which is one of the application area of combinatorial optimization that operates on the domain of those optimization problems,in which the set of feasible solutions is discrete or can be reduced to discrete,and in which the goal is to find the best solution. It is particularly concerned with solving the unconstrained assignment problems with Hungarian algorithm and the constrained assignment problem by cutting plane or outer linearization algorithm for solving the Lagrangian dual problem in which, at each iteration,the function that approximates the dual function is optimized. The paper is divided in to two chapters. In the first chapter,the classical assignment problem,the problem of finding optimum (minimum or maximum) cost or profit assignment a set of workers or resources to jobs or activities to gather with its mathematical formulation,solution methods and special cases in assignment problems were considered. Under the second chapter, we have considered generalization of the classical assignment problem concerning resource(or budget) constraints, due to the variety of real life problems.
Assignment is a crucial topic in commercial law, and this new work by Gregory Tolhurst is the most comprehensive work on the assignment of contractual rights ever published. It seeks to explain the existence, meaning and application of the rules governing the assignment of contractual rights and it does this by reference to the idea that assignments involve transfers. The book is logically structured to follow the issues that arise in planning, drafting and enforcing an assignment, including: - what is meant by 'assignment'; - what is the distinction between legal and equitable assignments; - how an assignable contractual right is identified; - what formalities apply to assignment; and - what rights and remedies are available to the parties to an assignment. The topic of assignment is of such universal importance to commercial lawyers that all practicing lawyers will find this work invaluable. However, the work will also be required reading for academics teaching contract, equity and personal property.
The Evil Within: The Assignment – это первое из двух дополнение к The Evil Within, главной героиней которого является Джулия Кидман, напарница детектива Себастьяна Кастелланоса. В этом дополнении игроки получат часть ответов на те вопросы, которые у них остались после финала оригинальной игры.
Assignment Problem is one of the first fundamental problems in the area of combinatorial optimization. Despite its historical roots, the problem has tremendous importance to date, due to its numerous real life applications in like facility location, personnel scheduling, job scheduling, production planning, project assignment, task assignment, time-tabling, vehicle routing, storage space allocation, etc. This book comprises some real life assignment and related problems involving imprecise cost/time parameters. In order to represent those imprecise parameters, interval numbers have been used here as this representation is the best among others. The associated problems have been solved using Genetic Algorithm efficiently. A salient feature of this book is that most of the algorithms have been written in a lucid manner with suitable examples using figures. This book should interest academicians, OR/GA practitioners and executives of different industries and business organizations.
A wireless mesh networks (WMNs) has emerged recently, WMN consist of two types of nodes mesh routers and mesh clients.WMN is dynamically self-organized and self-configured, with the nodes in the network automatically establishing and maintaining mesh connectivity among themselves. Channel assignment is a critical issue in WMN which is the mapping between the available channels and the radios at each node such that the network performance is optimized, and hence the focus of this work along with static channel assignment, multi-radio, multi-channel. Multi-radio MAC can potentially achieve higher network capacity than single-radio MAC. We design and implement a new agent (DSBCA) distributed channel assignment spanner base, the routing protocol Optimize the network performance considering the throughput, end-to-end delay, connectivity and the interference of our channel assignment algorithm. Base on the network simulations NS2.34 on Linux Fedora and our proposed channel assignment algorithm improved the throughput, minimal-connectivity preserving channel assignment algorithm.
This book contains a good literature survey of various mathematical models and routing & wavelengths assignment algorithms in WDM optical networks. Some of the new algorithms for optimization of blocking probability have aslo been covered. This book is good for researchers who are working on optical networks and advancements in fiber optics communication. Mathematical models covered in this book are simple and easy to implement. A good number of routing and wavelength assignment algorithms have also been covered in this book which can be used to reduce blocking probability of the optical network. This book can be very helpful to the research scholars.
Special Agent Fangs Enigma and his sidekick, werewolf Agent Puppy Brown, were recruited by secret intelligence agency MP1 (Monster Protection, 1st division) to stop the world's super(natural) villains and monster criminals from realizing their evil plans.
In this book we consider the Frequency Assignment Problem, where the objective is to minimize the cost due to interference arising in a solution. We use a quadratic 0-1 integer programming formulation of the problem as a basis to derive new lower bounds and problem reduction rules. A tree search algorithm that uses the lower bounds and dominance criteria is also presented. Computational results are shown on standard benchmark instances from the literature.
Mesh Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) is a promising access network to enhance channels utilization, extend access coverage using simple and cheap network components. Power management affects mesh WLAN network coverage, topology, throughput, traffic routing and end to end delay. Channel assignment affects the mesh nodes interference level and so the transmission capacity. It also controls the number of nodes share the same channel which increases the probability of collision and reduces the network throughput. In this book, the power management problem is formulated to show its impact on mesh WLAN network throughput. Then this formulation is used to propose a new ranking based cooperative game strategy. Mesh WLAN channel assignment problem is also formulated. Then different algorithms throughput and processing delay is analyzed. This analysis is based on evaluating average users’ data rate and processing delay for different assignment techniques in many mesh WLAN network configurations.
In recent years, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of communication networks. This is because they are widely used in all walks of life, and this trend continues increasing. The research on computer communication networking field has also grown explosively due to a large variety of combinatorial optimisation problems. One of these problems is the Terminal Assignment Problem which implies fixing the minimum cost links to construct a network between a specified set of terminals and concentrators. A good solution for this problem should maintain small distances between concentrators and terminals assigned to them without exceeding the capacity of any concentrator. Additionally, it should also maintain a balanced distribution of terminals among concentrators. The intractability of this problem is a motivation for the pursuits of different approximation algorithms. In this book, we explore several metaheuristics applied to the Terminal Assignment Problem and other similar problems. Simulation results verify the effectiveness of these algorithms.
The aim of this study was to investigate the perceptions of football players and officials on the provision of employee assistance programs by football clubs in South Africa. The study used interviews to collect data from ten football players playing for different football clubs in the Premier Soccer League (PSL) of South Africa, two officials from the PSL and two officials from South African Football Players Union. The results of this study indicate that football players believe that employee assistance programs need to be made available by football clubs. Although football officials consider the provision of employee assistance programs to be significant, they shifted the responsibility for its provision to football clubs. The results led to the conclusion that South African clubs must provide EAPs to improve the morale and performance of players. Direction for future research could focus on investigating the provision of EAPs by football clubs in Africa and in Europe to compare the differences between clubs that offer EAPs and clubs that do not.
This study aimed at investigating factors influencing provision of education for pastoralists’ children in mobile primary schools in Marsabit North District, Kenya. Mobile schools provide a critical alternative link to provision of education services to communities in arid and semi-arid lands in Kenya. Despite efforts to promote pastoral education by the government and educational stakeholders, over 80% of the school going age in nomadic pastoralists’ areas still do not access the Free Primary Education introduced in 2003 by the then government.
This research aims to explore those challenges which restrict the performance of NGOs in provision of services to the community. These challenges are primarily socio-political and institutional nature. This study is carried out in two different villages Hangrai and Talhatta of tehsil Balakot, District Mansehra KPK, Pakistan. The political pressure, corruption, lack of co-operation and weak hierarchical management system in governmental sector are those factors that restrict the performance of NGOs. This study also highlights the compatibility of NGOs with the guidelines provided by ERRA and PERRA government of Pakistan
This empirical research of water service provision in South Africa evaluates how the municipality of eThekwini, which is often cited as a best practice example for water and sanitation provision, compares to currently discussed local-level IWRM approaches. The evaluative framework is based on principles that are identified in a discussion of livelihood-centred approaches to water service provision. It is assessed how eThekwini approaches a ‘needs-based’ and adaptive planning process and to which extent an understanding of local water use practices is reflected in the implementation of water service provision. The level of interaction between the water service provider and its water users are evaluated with regard to its impact on the sustainability of service provision. The diverging perceptions of the interviewed stakeholders from the formal water supply side, local water users of three peri-urban case studies and actors from the interface provide evidence for a gap between the formal water supply side and local realities. Despite municipal efforts for improved communication with its users, mutual understanding is constrained by deficits in the structure and accountability of intermediary actors, the tradition of a technology-driven approach to service provision and the marks of the past Apartheid legislation.
Savar Pourashava, a satellite town is located on the north-west corner of the Dhaka district. With the increase of industrialization, the transportation sector also starts to improve in this area. The industrial development also creates job opportunities. So, job opportunities; good transport system with Dhaka city; low land price and house rent; and pollution free environment attracts people to live. With the increasing population, the demand for different utility services and community facilities are also increasing here. At present in Savar, there are provisions of different utility services and community facilities. But the existing provision of utility services and existing number of different community facilities are not well enough to meet the present demand of the municipal dwellers. To increase the capacity of the Pourashava to provide adequate utility services and community facilities and improve the quality of existing utility services and community facilities, there needs to address the problems and ensure the utilization of local resources through an effective integration in all level of infrastructure provision in a planned way.
Modern day public transport assignment faces lots of problems. Solutions may exist but needs some form of backings. A sensitivity analysis in most cases could just be sufficient to provide this backing. The developments in this book are very important for students, academic researchers and policy makers. The book provides an extensive review on transit assignment, sensitivity analysis and OmniTRANS. It highlights important conclusions such as:- - Passenger access-egress distances significantly affects their access stop choices. - The travel distance parameter of the generalized cost function has the highest influence on transit assignment - The number of transfers to be made by passengers significantly determines their generalized cost of travel - A carefully conducted partial sensitivity analysis can provide better predictions than a Monte-Carlo sensitivity analysis. As a policy advice to public transport operators in Flanders-Belgium, the developments in this book suggest that; to improve transit assignment, it is sufficient to reduce passengers access-egress distances & the number of transfers either through the institution of more direct transit lines or missing links.
The problem of distributing goods from depots to consumers plays an important role in the management of many distribution systems, and therefore when it is programmed efficiently it may yield significant savings. In a typical distribution system, trucks provide pick-up and delivery services to customers that are geographically dispersed in a given area. In many of its applications, the main objective of distribution is to find a set of routes for such trucks, satisfying a variety of constraints, so as to minimize the total distribution cost. This work focuses on a decision model for a real world problem. The problem reveals itself as assignment of trucks to routes by Latex Foam Rubber Products Limited-Kumasi, Ghana. This study addresses the problem of finding an efficient assignment of the limited number of trucks at the company’s disposal to the routes they ply while serving its customers outside the metropolis. In this work we use a solution procedure based on Munkres Assignment Algorithm for optimal assignment of non-homogenous fleet of trucks to a given set of routes, where Latex Foam Rubber Products Limited-Kumasi, distributes its products to its customers.
When dealing with stress assignment on the word level, many exceptions to hitherto defined principles can be found in the English language. While some exceptions can be explained by word or morpheme boundaries, others do not fit so easliy into the underlying systematicity of English stress behaviour. Some are often described as simply being idiosyncratic. A new statistical analysis reveals that many of these exceptions do share some common features to a certain extent, in particular in their orthography. Can this kind of features be used to establish additional rules in order to account for exceptional cases of English stress assignment? Or is there no other means but to consider these cases as lexcially exceptional?
This book answers the question as to how, and to what extent, women's social welfare needs are provided for in Jordan. Using a liberal feminist approach to social welfare policy, and acknowledging the role played by the specific historical and political experiences of states in the developing world, this book examines the provisions of Jordanian women's social welfare needs by the state in the public arena, by the family in the private arena and by Civil Society Organisations which negotiate the space between the two arenas. This book demonstrates that the state has systematically failed to translate constitutional commitments to women as equitable citizens deserving of equitable social welfare provisions into reality. Its symbolic relationship with traditional social forces has ensured that patriarchal norms and practices continue to prevail within Jordanian family and tribal life, creating a situation in which women exchange the provision of their basic social needs by the family in return for subordinating themselves to a second-class status of dependency and vulnerability.
This project is aimed at downloading and uploading online assignments for students; with each assignment having information about the instructions, description, deadline, and submission details. The main goal of this thesis is to design and implement online assignment submission and provide an interface use for uploading test program (Nant script file) by instructors, who would be able to evaluate assignments automatically. The system provides an interface for testing assignments such that they can be plugged in by the teachers. This testing could invoke a compiler and make a test-run of the compiled code and check the result or test for plagiarism, existence of certain documents or simply check the file type (extension). The most obvious advantage offered by online assignment submission is that it offers faster transmission of assignments than using traditional way by using online system. The interface use to invoke different testing program by teachers, So Save the time and cost for teachers by enabling them to put up a fast response for students as well as increasing the quality of the feedback provided to students.
The fundamental goal of multi-agent robotics is simple: how to create control laws and behaviors that, when executed by each individual robot, some desirable global behavior emerges. The global behavior may range from something as simple as the robots meeting at a single point, to something as complex as a collective search and rescue mission. Our research focuses on one of the more fundamental issues in multi-agent, mobile robotics: the formation control problem. The idea is to create controllers that cause robots to move into a predened formation shape. This is a well studied problem for the scenario in which the robots know in advance to which point in the formation they are assigned. In our case, we assume this information is not given in advance, but must be determined dynamically. This thesis presents an algorithm that can be used by a network of mobile robots to simultaneously determine ecient robot assignments and formation pose for rotationally and translationally invariant formations. This allows simultaneous role assignment and formation sysnthesis without the need for additional control laws.
The purpose of the study was to explore nurses’ perceptions about their provision of mental health care to PLWHA in Blantyre district. A quantitative study was conducted to explore nurses’ perceptions about their provision of mental health care to PLWHA in Blantyre. Permission was granted by relevant authorities to conduct the study. Between March and April 2010, 165 nurses were randomly sampled from all wards and other departments at a central hospital and five selected health centres. They gave a written consent before joining the study. 151 questionnaires which were completed at participant’s convenient time were personally collected. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse data and nonparametric tests were also used to explore associations amongst variables. This study found that nurses’ perceptions about their provision of mental health care to PLWHA vary. Most nurses reported positive perceptions about caring for PLWHA who have MHP in general settings although some had negative perceptions. It was apparent that a relationship exists between nurses’ willingness to deal with MHP and perceptions about their knowledge, skills & access to support from mental health specialist.
Transport regulation enforcement has determines over all operation of transportation. Many countries formulate regulation contextually to achieve safe transportation. Meanwhile, due to various impediments they fail to achieve the desired output. Consequently leads deprive of social, political and economic right of citizen. To bring successful achievement and operation of transportation, the engagement of stakeholder is indispensable. Beside to this, trained man power and capacitating the institutions is a key tool to implement transport regulation enforcement.
Critical care nursing is the field of nursing with a focus on the utmost care of the critically ill or unstable patients. The patient’s oral care is a key component of nursing care. Oral care is often considered primarily an intervention for patient’s comfort, a characteristic that may reduce its priority and hence frequency. When patients are hospitalized for critical illness in the ICU, the oral flora is altered, accompanied by a decrease in salivary volume and an increase in dental plaque. Hospitalization also alters a patient’s usual oral hygiene measures, further compromising oral health. Oral care protocols have been shown to benefit ICU patients, but additional research is needed, especially on the optimal frequency of oral care, the duration of tooth brushing needed during an episode of oral care, and educational considerations to ensure consistency in oral care practices among healthcare providers and family members. This book specifies the need to develop and implement a comprehensive oral care program for patients in critical care and acute care settings who are at high risk for healthcare-associated pneumonia.
Tanzania like other developing countries is faced with rapid growth of unplanned settlements. Since independence in 1961, several efforts were done to harness the growth of these settlements. The earlier approaches to growth of unplanned settlements were negative thus demolition and clearance of the settlements was thought to be best solutions. The failure of the authorities to cope with the increase in urban population and non availability of well planned development land for the land seekers has given room to dominance of spontaneous/unplanned settlements to offer accommodation to more than 70% of the urban population especially in Urban areas of Sub Saharan region of Africa. New efforts to incorporate unplanned settlements in the planning authorities’ strategies have to be taken to ensure decent developments are carried out in urban land and services are accessible. This will ensure sustainability to urban life.
An increase in affordable housing provision for the urban poor has not assured the delivery of a better quality housing supply, nor culturally acceptable dwellings for people. Most housing projects focus on the physical value of housing as a comfortable shelter, but overlook the need for socio cultural appropriateness. This study investigates the significant factors related to affordable housing projects in Bali: cultural appropriateness, developers constraints, and dwellers involvement. Data was collected through observations, questionnaires, interviews, focus group discussions and then analyzed qualitatively as basis of discussion and conclusions. The study shows that housing projects are not culturally acceptable. Most constraints of developers are high costs of building materials and labor. Dwellers have no involved and adjusted their houses to be more culturally suitable. The recommendations formulated that affordable housing provision is not noticed simply as a product treating housing as a manifestation of culture, but treating housing as a verb - a process and required for collaboration by engaging community to express their cultural values in housing development.
The importance of education to human beings has been one of the highly empharsized issues in international documents. The are lots of international human rights instruments that provide for ducation as a fundamental right. Nigeria is well aware of the commitments laid down by these international instruments and has taken steps to either sign,accede or ratify these instruments to show its commitment to adhering to the contents laid down in these instruments concerning education. The book examines the role Nigeria is expected to play in providing education in line with these international instruments which is the extent to state parties obligation to provide education to its citizens. As commendable as some of Nigeria's programmes and policies are towards the provision of education are, some social vices greately hinder succssful implementation of these educational programmes therey resulting to inadequate provision of quality education. This book most importantly examines Nigeria's commitment to rspect, protect and fulfill the right to education as stated in article 13 of the International Covernant on Economic Social and cultural rights and profers solutions to above stated issue.