The focus area of this paper is on the assignment problem with budget constraints which is one of the application area of combinatorial optimization that operates on the domain of those optimization problems,in which the set of feasible solutions is discrete or can be reduced to discrete,and in which the goal is to find the best solution. It is particularly concerned with solving the unconstrained assignment problems with Hungarian algorithm and the constrained assignment problem by cutting plane or outer linearization algorithm for solving the Lagrangian dual problem in which, at each iteration,the function that approximates the dual function is optimized. The paper is divided in to two chapters. In the first chapter,the classical assignment problem,the problem of finding optimum (minimum or maximum) cost or profit assignment a set of workers or resources to jobs or activities to gather with its mathematical formulation,solution methods and special cases in assignment problems were considered. Under the second chapter, we have considered generalization of the classical assignment problem concerning resource(or budget) constraints, due to the variety of real life problems.
In this book we consider the Frequency Assignment Problem, where the objective is to minimize the cost due to interference arising in a solution. We use a quadratic 0-1 integer programming formulation of the problem as a basis to derive new lower bounds and problem reduction rules. A tree search algorithm that uses the lower bounds and dominance criteria is also presented. Computational results are shown on standard benchmark instances from the literature.
In recent years, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of communication networks. This is because they are widely used in all walks of life, and this trend continues increasing. The research on computer communication networking field has also grown explosively due to a large variety of combinatorial optimisation problems. One of these problems is the Terminal Assignment Problem which implies fixing the minimum cost links to construct a network between a specified set of terminals and concentrators. A good solution for this problem should maintain small distances between concentrators and terminals assigned to them without exceeding the capacity of any concentrator. Additionally, it should also maintain a balanced distribution of terminals among concentrators. The intractability of this problem is a motivation for the pursuits of different approximation algorithms. In this book, we explore several metaheuristics applied to the Terminal Assignment Problem and other similar problems. Simulation results verify the effectiveness of these algorithms.
The problem of distributing goods from depots to consumers plays an important role in the management of many distribution systems, and therefore when it is programmed efficiently it may yield significant savings. In a typical distribution system, trucks provide pick-up and delivery services to customers that are geographically dispersed in a given area. In many of its applications, the main objective of distribution is to find a set of routes for such trucks, satisfying a variety of constraints, so as to minimize the total distribution cost. This work focuses on a decision model for a real world problem. The problem reveals itself as assignment of trucks to routes by Latex Foam Rubber Products Limited-Kumasi, Ghana. This study addresses the problem of finding an efficient assignment of the limited number of trucks at the company’s disposal to the routes they ply while serving its customers outside the metropolis. In this work we use a solution procedure based on Munkres Assignment Algorithm for optimal assignment of non-homogenous fleet of trucks to a given set of routes, where Latex Foam Rubber Products Limited-Kumasi, distributes its products to its customers.
Assignment Problem is one of the first fundamental problems in the area of combinatorial optimization. Despite its historical roots, the problem has tremendous importance to date, due to its numerous real life applications in like facility location, personnel scheduling, job scheduling, production planning, project assignment, task assignment, time-tabling, vehicle routing, storage space allocation, etc. This book comprises some real life assignment and related problems involving imprecise cost/time parameters. In order to represent those imprecise parameters, interval numbers have been used here as this representation is the best among others. The associated problems have been solved using Genetic Algorithm efficiently. A salient feature of this book is that most of the algorithms have been written in a lucid manner with suitable examples using figures. This book should interest academicians, OR/GA practitioners and executives of different industries and business organizations.
Mesh Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) is a promising access network to enhance channels utilization, extend access coverage using simple and cheap network components. Power management affects mesh WLAN network coverage, topology, throughput, traffic routing and end to end delay. Channel assignment affects the mesh nodes interference level and so the transmission capacity. It also controls the number of nodes share the same channel which increases the probability of collision and reduces the network throughput. In this book, the power management problem is formulated to show its impact on mesh WLAN network throughput. Then this formulation is used to propose a new ranking based cooperative game strategy. Mesh WLAN channel assignment problem is also formulated. Then different algorithms throughput and processing delay is analyzed. This analysis is based on evaluating average users’ data rate and processing delay for different assignment techniques in many mesh WLAN network configurations.
The fundamental goal of multi-agent robotics is simple: how to create control laws and behaviors that, when executed by each individual robot, some desirable global behavior emerges. The global behavior may range from something as simple as the robots meeting at a single point, to something as complex as a collective search and rescue mission. Our research focuses on one of the more fundamental issues in multi-agent, mobile robotics: the formation control problem. The idea is to create controllers that cause robots to move into a predened formation shape. This is a well studied problem for the scenario in which the robots know in advance to which point in the formation they are assigned. In our case, we assume this information is not given in advance, but must be determined dynamically. This thesis presents an algorithm that can be used by a network of mobile robots to simultaneously determine ecient robot assignments and formation pose for rotationally and translationally invariant formations. This allows simultaneous role assignment and formation sysnthesis without the need for additional control laws.
This book explains the port operations and proposes approaches that aim to improve the most important successive steps in container terminal management activities. A multi-period assignment problem that seeks to allocate vessels to berthing spaces and quay cranes is proposed to handle the quayside operations. Subsequently, on the yard side, a discrete-event simulation model for the real life detailed processes performed during the handling of import containers is developed. In particular, the model focuses on the storage assignment problem at the operational level in a container terminal with a multiple-berth structure. An approach by means of a hierarchical structure is adapted to partition the assignment problem into two sub-problems and solve each of them using separate decision rules. Suggested storage policies are evaluated in view of the overall performance of the container terminal.
This book concentrates on the problem of credit assignment. The goal of this work is to propose ensemble classification method, which can be applied to solve credit decisions problems. The method uses switching class labels techniques to construct complex classification system, which solves two of typical data mining problems observed in financial data mining field: the problem of imbalanced data and the problem of asymmetric cost matrix. The performance of the proposed solution is going to be evaluated on German Credits dataset.
The Weapon-Target Assignment (WTA) problem is one of the most important problems of military applications of operations research. In this paper, hybrid Nested Partitions (NP) method is proposed to solve WTA problems. The proposed algorithm is named as “Hybrid NP method with intelligent greedy search”. This proposed algorithm combines the advantages of the NP method and intelligent greedy search and shows great efficiency for solving the WTA problem.
Routing and Wavelength Assignment (RWA) is a well known problem in Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) networks. RWA problem is reported in the literature as a single objective ILP problem. In this article, we formulated the RWA problem as a multi objective ILP problem. An attempt is made to obtain a feasible solution using genetic algorithm (GA). The parameters considered for optimization are congestion among the individual lightpath requests, connection set up time, the number of intermediate hops traversed and the number of fibers used to honor the established connection requests. We considered ARPANET and NSFNET for our simulation.
The thesis focuses on student written plagiarism as a research problem. From prior research on plagiarism and scientific knowledge three hypotheses are developed: intentional plagiarism as an easy way to perform an assignment, unintentional plagiarism caused by misleading flow of digital texts, unawareness of instructions, and lack of feedback, and different identity of students, as opposed to scholars.
A wireless mesh networks (WMNs) has emerged recently, WMN consist of two types of nodes mesh routers and mesh clients.WMN is dynamically self-organized and self-configured, with the nodes in the network automatically establishing and maintaining mesh connectivity among themselves. Channel assignment is a critical issue in WMN which is the mapping between the available channels and the radios at each node such that the network performance is optimized, and hence the focus of this work along with static channel assignment, multi-radio, multi-channel. Multi-radio MAC can potentially achieve higher network capacity than single-radio MAC. We design and implement a new agent (DSBCA) distributed channel assignment spanner base, the routing protocol Optimize the network performance considering the throughput, end-to-end delay, connectivity and the interference of our channel assignment algorithm. Base on the network simulations NS2.34 on Linux Fedora and our proposed channel assignment algorithm improved the throughput, minimal-connectivity preserving channel assignment algorithm.
Assignment is a crucial topic in commercial law, and this new work by Gregory Tolhurst is the most comprehensive work on the assignment of contractual rights ever published. It seeks to explain the existence, meaning and application of the rules governing the assignment of contractual rights and it does this by reference to the idea that assignments involve transfers. The book is logically structured to follow the issues that arise in planning, drafting and enforcing an assignment, including: - what is meant by 'assignment'; - what is the distinction between legal and equitable assignments; - how an assignable contractual right is identified; - what formalities apply to assignment; and - what rights and remedies are available to the parties to an assignment. The topic of assignment is of such universal importance to commercial lawyers that all practicing lawyers will find this work invaluable. However, the work will also be required reading for academics teaching contract, equity and personal property.
The Evil Within: The Assignment – это первое из двух дополнение к The Evil Within, главной героиней которого является Джулия Кидман, напарница детектива Себастьяна Кастелланоса. В этом дополнении игроки получат часть ответов на те вопросы, которые у них остались после финала оригинальной игры.
This book contains a good literature survey of various mathematical models and routing & wavelengths assignment algorithms in WDM optical networks. Some of the new algorithms for optimization of blocking probability have aslo been covered. This book is good for researchers who are working on optical networks and advancements in fiber optics communication. Mathematical models covered in this book are simple and easy to implement. A good number of routing and wavelength assignment algorithms have also been covered in this book which can be used to reduce blocking probability of the optical network. This book can be very helpful to the research scholars.
Special Agent Fangs Enigma and his sidekick, werewolf Agent Puppy Brown, were recruited by secret intelligence agency MP1 (Monster Protection, 1st division) to stop the world's super(natural) villains and monster criminals from realizing their evil plans.
Modern day public transport assignment faces lots of problems. Solutions may exist but needs some form of backings. A sensitivity analysis in most cases could just be sufficient to provide this backing. The developments in this book are very important for students, academic researchers and policy makers. The book provides an extensive review on transit assignment, sensitivity analysis and OmniTRANS. It highlights important conclusions such as:- - Passenger access-egress distances significantly affects their access stop choices. - The travel distance parameter of the generalized cost function has the highest influence on transit assignment - The number of transfers to be made by passengers significantly determines their generalized cost of travel - A carefully conducted partial sensitivity analysis can provide better predictions than a Monte-Carlo sensitivity analysis. As a policy advice to public transport operators in Flanders-Belgium, the developments in this book suggest that; to improve transit assignment, it is sufficient to reduce passengers access-egress distances & the number of transfers either through the institution of more direct transit lines or missing links.
Ring networks are suited to deliver a large amount of bandwidth in a reliable and inexpensive way. An optimal load balancing is of paramount importance because it increases the system capacity and improves the overall ring performance. In this context an important optimization problem is the Weighted Ring Loading Problem. That is the design of a direct path for each request, in a communication network, in a way that high load on the arcs/edges will be avoided, where an arc is an edge endowed with a direction. We study two variants of this problem without demand splitting. The work presented in this document is also focused in other two problems that arise in the design of optical telecommunication networks, namely the Synchronous optical network Ring Assignment Problem (SRAP) and the Intraring synchronous optical network Design Problem (IDP). In SRAP, the objective is to minimize the number of rings and in IDP, the objective is to minimize the number of Add-Drop Multiplexers. Both problems are subject to a ring capacity constraint. To solve these four NP-hard problems, are proposed several metaheuristic algorithms including bio-inspired randomized search heuristics.
When dealing with stress assignment on the word level, many exceptions to hitherto defined principles can be found in the English language. While some exceptions can be explained by word or morpheme boundaries, others do not fit so easliy into the underlying systematicity of English stress behaviour. Some are often described as simply being idiosyncratic. A new statistical analysis reveals that many of these exceptions do share some common features to a certain extent, in particular in their orthography. Can this kind of features be used to establish additional rules in order to account for exceptional cases of English stress assignment? Or is there no other means but to consider these cases as lexcially exceptional?
This project is aimed at downloading and uploading online assignments for students; with each assignment having information about the instructions, description, deadline, and submission details. The main goal of this thesis is to design and implement online assignment submission and provide an interface use for uploading test program (Nant script file) by instructors, who would be able to evaluate assignments automatically. The system provides an interface for testing assignments such that they can be plugged in by the teachers. This testing could invoke a compiler and make a test-run of the compiled code and check the result or test for plagiarism, existence of certain documents or simply check the file type (extension). The most obvious advantage offered by online assignment submission is that it offers faster transmission of assignments than using traditional way by using online system. The interface use to invoke different testing program by teachers, So Save the time and cost for teachers by enabling them to put up a fast response for students as well as increasing the quality of the feedback provided to students.
Operational Research (O.R) is the use of advanced analytical technique to improve decision making, because it brings sense to make the best use of available resources. Hence every O.R analyst must possess interpersonal skills and be able to work with management by providing quick solutions to the problems. Despite their theoretical knowledge in O.R-techniques, familiarity in computer software is also highly desirable to meet the timely requirements. This book focuses on the simplest method of solving Linear Programming Problem (LPP),Integer Programming Problem(IPP), Transportation Problem(TP) and Assignment Problem(AP) using Solver tool available in MS-Excel. Though several software are available exclusively for these solutions which require special attention and more time to understand and learn. This book guides not only young researchers and students at postgraduate level, who face difficulty in solving LPP, IPP, TP and AP problems manually but also managers of companies, who don’t have sound mathematical background. Step-wise procedure explained in this book takes care of persons, who have only basic knowledge in computers. Three real time problems are solved and summarized.
Stress in Moroccan Arabic, and also in other languages, poses challenging problems for phonological theory. This is due to the fact that stress exhibits conflicting properties; which makes it difficult to provide answers to a number of issues. This book provides an investigation into a prominent aspect of prosodic phonology in Moroccan Arabic (a case study of the dialect of Rabat city), namely, stress assignment in the grammatical category of verbs within the framework of optimality theory as proposed in Prince and Smolensky and McCarthy and Prince. It particularly addresses a range of issues such as: the position of stress, the basis on which stress is located, the factors on the basis of which stress location is effected, the importance of the perceptual and the instrumental tests in shedding light on stress assignment, and the extent to which the optimality theoretic analysis confirm or disconfirm the results of the perceptual and the instrumental tests concerning stress placement. This book will be of interest to linguistics, teachers, researchers and to anyone interested in language study and phonological theory.
In cellular mobile communication, since there will be conversation in progress in case of handover calls, GOS for them should be less than that for newly originating calls. Basically, there are three channel assignment schemes, fixed, dynamic & hybrid channel assignment schemes for handling newly originating and handover calls. In this study, capacity design for cellular mobile network in area inside ring road in Kathmandu valley has been done according to the findings of data collection and analysis of mobile communication service being provided by Nepal Telecom. Capacity planning has been done with GOS equal to 2% for newly originating calls and 1% for handover calls. In addition to capacity planning, efficient channel assignment scheme in terms of blocking and throughput has been evaluated with optimal utilization of the designed capacity for getting minimum blocking for both types of calls maintaining the blocking for handover calls always less than that for newly originating calls. The simulated values of GOS & throughput for all channel assignment schemes at different penetration have been compared and hybrid channel assignment scheme has been found to be most efficient.
For the last decades, Transport Demand and Mobility has been a continuously developing branch in the transport literature. This is reflected in the great amount of papers published on scientific magazines trying to solve the traffic assignment and trip matrix estimation problems. This fact shows the difficulty to elaborate an effective model able to reproduce the real behaviour. These models use several data inputs (prior trip matrix, link counts, etc.), only from a subset of the problem variables, and its size will depend on the available budget. One problem of these models is the high number of possible solutions which is usually solved by finding one where the model results and the real data match up. Nevertheless a model does not have to reproduce only the real data, but also all the variables. Therefore the problem must consist of reproducing the reality in a precise form with minimum cost. The aim of this work consists of proposing new models, which allow us to update the traffic flow predictions from a small subset of real data. To this end, a Gaussian Bayesian Network is used, and so, probability intervals are obtained to get an idea of the associated uncertainties.
With the advancement of process technology for fabrication of integrated circuits, the magnitude of variations in process parameters have increased and the parametric yield loss problem has become a serious concern of the fabrication houses. Thus, the traditional techniques for power and delay optimization in design automation tools can no longer be used effectively. This has opened up a challenge to the chip designers to design integrated circuits, which are variation tolerant and thereby having higher parametric yield. In this monograph, a single threshold voltage based approach is proposed that exhibits runtime leakage power reduction comparable to the existing dual threshold voltage assignment approaches and at the same time the proposed approach is less sensitive to process parameter variations. Again, this logic-level runtime leakage reduction technique is combined with multiple supply voltage assignment during high-level synthesis for total power reduction. It is believed that the proposed leakage power reduction technique will be useful in digital circuit design flow (logic-level and high-level syntheses) under process parameter variation.
Vienna, 1966. To be wrongly accused of murder once is a misfortune. Twice - and it's a conspiracy. It is the height of the Cold War. When a defector from Eastern Europe mysteriously returns to the village of his birth, it's a chance for disgraced detective Brano Sev to redeem himself. Being framed for a murder should just be part of his cover story. Or is it? Exiled suddenly to Vienna, treacherous city of spies, Sev finds himself caught up in a cat-and-mouse game where survival is the only prize. But in a world where no good deed goes unpunished, loyalty can be the biggest crime of all...