Глиттер Moon Glitter.
Универсальный must-have сезона – сверкающий глиттер в двух оттенках: черном и розовом.Наноси его на веки, используй на скулах в качестве хайлайтера, подчеркни им брови и губыили используй для нэйл-арта.Всего один штрих – и ты готова к модной вечеринке.
Considered as a global common,outer space is a most valuable asset of the mankind for philosophical, pragmatic and scientific considerations. Rapid expansion of human activities in the outer space has posed a threat to the outer space environment and accordingly the protection of the outer space environment has emerged as a challenge of major importance for the global community as a whole. In this backdrop,an increased understanding of issues concerning the environmental impact of space activities and the need for the protection of outer space environment through international legal regulation and cooperative endeavours on the part of states and non-state actors has assumed paramount importance. The present study makes a humble attempt in this direction. It endeavours to give a coherent picture of the impact of space activities on environment and international legal measures for protection of the outer space environment and highlights the need for an international legal regime for the protection of the outer space environment.
The publication Ownership of Satellites written under the editorship of professor Mahulena Hofmann and Dr. Andreas Loukakis from Luxembourg by a group of prominent international authors from the academia and practice of the law of space activities, deals with one of the imminent problems of the law of outer space – the ownership of satellites and its transfer. The reason for opening the discussion on this subject is the fact that on the one hand, the main legal problems remain – only the launching State can register a space object and only the launching state is liable for damages caused by the satellite, and on the other hand the emergence of several new phenomena, such as condominium of satellites or the exponential existence of small satellites. Furthermore, the relation between the registration of space objects under UN framework and the assignment of frequencies is practically unknown to non-internals. This situation contributed to the wish to analyze this issue not only from the perspective of international law of outer space, but also from the perspective of telecommunication law and European Union law, offering insights to the current practice. The publication is a contribution to the theoretical discussions on the law of outer space, but can serve as an important tool used by the lawyers, including those from the financial and insurance sectors.
Outer Space being the highest possible entity available to man has all the potentials to become a prized military strategic asset. The ever rapid advancement of Space Technology can help realize this potential of outer space, which if consolidated upon can be an apocalyptical situation for mankind. With Nation States focusing more and more on preserving their national security interests post World War II, rapid pace of militarization of outer space by major space faring nations, could lay down the foundation for a speculated World War III. The 21st Century has seen the Space faring nations engaged into a constant debate leading to a tussle between them with regard to the need for prohibition in placement of weapons in outer space. With consensus seeming impossible to be achieved in the near future, this paper tries to analyze the recent developments of the proposed legal instruments to curb the issue of weaponization of outer space and comes out with the observation of best possible option that can be chosen in the present scenario. The paper concludes with the viewpoint of a developing space power like India and the possible stance of the same on the issue of weapons in space.
After the Chinese anti-satellite test in 2007, the international community responded with fear that a new space race was soon to begin. Soon after the test, debate began on the need for an arms control treaty specifically for the use of banning weapons in outer space. The argument for an arms control treaty for outer space is not new however, as the debate began at the advent of the space race in the late 1950’s. As no arms control treaty has been implemented in over 55 years it is clear that creating such a treaty for the space theatre is far more complicated than that of the sea, the land, or the air. This paper looks into why there has been a requirement for an arms control treaty for outer space, and analyses why creating such a treaty has been so difficult, arguing that a new approach is needed in the space debate. This paper also makes a number of suggestions for policy makers and scholars who are looking for ways to implement positive contributions towards the security of space, where traditional arms control techniques have failed. This paper will also suit students seeking a comprehensive work on the problems of arms control in outer space.
Ahmad Khan’s study explores an extremely important and topical subject of weaponization of Outer Space which has potentially devastating consequences for peace and stability in the international order. He traces the historical origin of the competition between two former Cold War Competitors: the United States and the Soviet Union. He highlights the dangers associated with the militarization of space for international peace. Regretfully, PAROS Treaty which is on the agenda of CD in Geneva as one of the primary concerns of the international community is not making satisfactory progress. His work emphasizes that the strategic importance of the Outer Space—the common human heritage—is enormous for the all states with regards to its commercial utilization and many other peaceful uses but, unfortunately the major powers emphasize on the military use of the outer space has really triggered another form of arms race in outer space despite the end of the Cold War. He concludes that the need of the hour for the international community is to assert its efforts to put embargo on the weaponization of the outer space. -Dr. Zafar Iqbal Cheema