Assignment is a crucial topic in commercial law, and this new work by Gregory Tolhurst is the most comprehensive work on the assignment of contractual rights ever published. It seeks to explain the existence, meaning and application of the rules governing the assignment of contractual rights and it does this by reference to the idea that assignments involve transfers. The book is logically structured to follow the issues that arise in planning, drafting and enforcing an assignment, including: - what is meant by 'assignment'; - what is the distinction between legal and equitable assignments; - how an assignable contractual right is identified; - what formalities apply to assignment; and - what rights and remedies are available to the parties to an assignment. The topic of assignment is of such universal importance to commercial lawyers that all practicing lawyers will find this work invaluable. However, the work will also be required reading for academics teaching contract, equity and personal property.
The focus area of this paper is on the assignment problem with budget constraints which is one of the application area of combinatorial optimization that operates on the domain of those optimization problems,in which the set of feasible solutions is discrete or can be reduced to discrete,and in which the goal is to find the best solution. It is particularly concerned with solving the unconstrained assignment problems with Hungarian algorithm and the constrained assignment problem by cutting plane or outer linearization algorithm for solving the Lagrangian dual problem in which, at each iteration,the function that approximates the dual function is optimized. The paper is divided in to two chapters. In the first chapter,the classical assignment problem,the problem of finding optimum (minimum or maximum) cost or profit assignment a set of workers or resources to jobs or activities to gather with its mathematical formulation,solution methods and special cases in assignment problems were considered. Under the second chapter, we have considered generalization of the classical assignment problem concerning resource(or budget) constraints, due to the variety of real life problems.
The problem of distributing goods from depots to consumers plays an important role in the management of many distribution systems, and therefore when it is programmed efficiently it may yield significant savings. In a typical distribution system, trucks provide pick-up and delivery services to customers that are geographically dispersed in a given area. In many of its applications, the main objective of distribution is to find a set of routes for such trucks, satisfying a variety of constraints, so as to minimize the total distribution cost. This work focuses on a decision model for a real world problem. The problem reveals itself as assignment of trucks to routes by Latex Foam Rubber Products Limited-Kumasi, Ghana. This study addresses the problem of finding an efficient assignment of the limited number of trucks at the company’s disposal to the routes they ply while serving its customers outside the metropolis. In this work we use a solution procedure based on Munkres Assignment Algorithm for optimal assignment of non-homogenous fleet of trucks to a given set of routes, where Latex Foam Rubber Products Limited-Kumasi, distributes its products to its customers.
In recent years, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of communication networks. This is because they are widely used in all walks of life, and this trend continues increasing. The research on computer communication networking field has also grown explosively due to a large variety of combinatorial optimisation problems. One of these problems is the Terminal Assignment Problem which implies fixing the minimum cost links to construct a network between a specified set of terminals and concentrators. A good solution for this problem should maintain small distances between concentrators and terminals assigned to them without exceeding the capacity of any concentrator. Additionally, it should also maintain a balanced distribution of terminals among concentrators. The intractability of this problem is a motivation for the pursuits of different approximation algorithms. In this book, we explore several metaheuristics applied to the Terminal Assignment Problem and other similar problems. Simulation results verify the effectiveness of these algorithms.
Modern day public transport assignment faces lots of problems. Solutions may exist but needs some form of backings. A sensitivity analysis in most cases could just be sufficient to provide this backing. The developments in this book are very important for students, academic researchers and policy makers. The book provides an extensive review on transit assignment, sensitivity analysis and OmniTRANS. It highlights important conclusions such as:- - Passenger access-egress distances significantly affects their access stop choices. - The travel distance parameter of the generalized cost function has the highest influence on transit assignment - The number of transfers to be made by passengers significantly determines their generalized cost of travel - A carefully conducted partial sensitivity analysis can provide better predictions than a Monte-Carlo sensitivity analysis. As a policy advice to public transport operators in Flanders-Belgium, the developments in this book suggest that; to improve transit assignment, it is sufficient to reduce passengers access-egress distances & the number of transfers either through the institution of more direct transit lines or missing links.
Assignment Problem is one of the first fundamental problems in the area of combinatorial optimization. Despite its historical roots, the problem has tremendous importance to date, due to its numerous real life applications in like facility location, personnel scheduling, job scheduling, production planning, project assignment, task assignment, time-tabling, vehicle routing, storage space allocation, etc. This book comprises some real life assignment and related problems involving imprecise cost/time parameters. In order to represent those imprecise parameters, interval numbers have been used here as this representation is the best among others. The associated problems have been solved using Genetic Algorithm efficiently. A salient feature of this book is that most of the algorithms have been written in a lucid manner with suitable examples using figures. This book should interest academicians, OR/GA practitioners and executives of different industries and business organizations.
A wireless mesh networks (WMNs) has emerged recently, WMN consist of two types of nodes mesh routers and mesh clients.WMN is dynamically self-organized and self-configured, with the nodes in the network automatically establishing and maintaining mesh connectivity among themselves. Channel assignment is a critical issue in WMN which is the mapping between the available channels and the radios at each node such that the network performance is optimized, and hence the focus of this work along with static channel assignment, multi-radio, multi-channel. Multi-radio MAC can potentially achieve higher network capacity than single-radio MAC. We design and implement a new agent (DSBCA) distributed channel assignment spanner base, the routing protocol Optimize the network performance considering the throughput, end-to-end delay, connectivity and the interference of our channel assignment algorithm. Base on the network simulations NS2.34 on Linux Fedora and our proposed channel assignment algorithm improved the throughput, minimal-connectivity preserving channel assignment algorithm.
This book contains a good literature survey of various mathematical models and routing & wavelengths assignment algorithms in WDM optical networks. Some of the new algorithms for optimization of blocking probability have aslo been covered. This book is good for researchers who are working on optical networks and advancements in fiber optics communication. Mathematical models covered in this book are simple and easy to implement. A good number of routing and wavelength assignment algorithms have also been covered in this book which can be used to reduce blocking probability of the optical network. This book can be very helpful to the research scholars.
The concept of Human Rights has arisen from that of natural rights of all human beings. The belief that every person by virtue of his humanity is entitled to certain natural rights is a returning them throughout the history of mankind. It can be traced back thousands of years from the Hammurabi Code to the Magna Carta, the French Declaration of Human Rights and the American Bill of Rights. The underlying idea of such rights - fundamental principles that should be respected in the treatment of all men, women and children - exists in some form in all cultures and societies. The contemporary International statement of those rights is the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The responsibility of governments is to protect the human rights proclaimed by the declaration. Under the provisions of Civil and Political Rights, all governments are to protect the life, liberty and security of their citizens. They should guarantee that no-one is enslaved and that no-one is subjected to arbitrary arrest and detention or to torture. The rights such as freedom of thought, conscience, religion, and to freedom of expression are to be considered as Human Rights.
Book is beautiful narration on human rights, it discusses in detail the essentials and essence of human rights stashed away in the pristine concepts. It wonderfully philately interprets the human rights concepts by making things simpler and lucid in keeping with the understanding ability of an ordinary citizen of this country. The book is skillfully tries to stuff human rights fibro into democratic Skelton in a fantastic way, what realized through a glance trough a book is how important are the constitution and judiciary in any democratic system of a governance argues and elucidates how human rights build democracy and the role of democratic dispensation to uphold democratic values nestled in the human rights. This is a rare book among those I have read before that enlightens those citizens/students specifically about human rights values and more specifically values of democracy. The Voluble script talks more about judicial responsibility of preserving human rights is put on the shoulders of judiciary, this book contended that without judiciary no human rights no constitution ( democracy) exists.
The deprivation of liberty certainly affects men, women and children differently. But very often small children, not involved in any crime themselves, are also directly affected by the deprivation of liberty of their main caregiver; in particular, they are most affected if it is their mother who is deprived of her liberty.The research analize international regional and domestic laws important for the protection of rights of children.
Children are weak unit of society. They face violations of their rights every moment. Recognizing all the rights of children, this book provides financial look of their rights. It is because provision of their rights mostly needs expenses or because most of the violations of their rights directly or indirectly results into financial gain for others. Children are protected by Islamic Law and United Nation's Convention on the Rights of the Child 1989 (CRC). Both of them are to solve financial problems of children and to control their violations in their own ways. This book is a comparison between the Islamic Law and CRC regarding financial rights of the children. It analyzes / finds out the measures taken by both for the protection of their rights and reasons for the failure, if any. At the end, the book is concluded with recommendations for the betterment of children's position in the world. The book is to help the international organizations, human rights activists, non-government organizations, policy makers, lawyers, judges, journalists and scholars to make proper policies, measurements and legislations for the protection of rights of the children.
The vulnerability of children around the world and in Africa in particular cannot be over emphasized. The emergence and the recognition of children as rights bearers necessitates an investigation into the protection of children's rights in Africa in the light of the various conventions on children's rights. Thus,this book undertakes an examination of the mandate and activities of a few selected human rights commission/institution in Africa with a view to measuring their effectiveness on the protection of children's rights through the implementation of International Children's rights laws.
The issue of justiciability of Socio-economic rights is a recently emerging area of human rights. These rights are forgotten for many decades at the global, regional and even primarily at the national fora compared to civil and political rights. This research is aimed at enhancing awareness of justiciability of socio-economic rights enunciated in the FDRE Constitution by operationalizing the notion of indivisibility, interdependency and interrelatedness of the two grand categories of human rights through integrated approach. It assesses whether the same Constitution creates a workable environment for the integrated approach to give impetus to the enhanced justiciability of these forgotten rights on our national fora. This aspect of justiciability views socio-economic rights from civil and political rights dimensions for the latter rights are precisely defined and not contended on their justiciability at the domestic arena. It further looks into the justiciability of these rights even within the same family of rights so as to boost their justiciability with ease.
International organizations have increasingly used the issues of human rights in their policy and practice since the late 1990s. In the contemporary world feminist perspectives on the politics of rights have explored the strategies, tensions and challenges associated with 'rights advocacy' in various settings. Several articles on South Asia explore the dilemmas that arise from feminist praxis in the diverse location, and address the question of what rights can contribute to struggles for gender justice. This study seeks to provide an understanding of the political and social factors as well as identification of the capacity of human rights regime to develop an effective response to the gender governance crisis. It is a gender perspective on human rights that is women rights within the non-traditional issues with specific implications for women in the context of Bangladesh. This work examines the intersection of formal rights with the everyday realities of women in settings characterized by gender inequalities and poverty, plural legal systems and diverse cultural norms that can constitute formidable obstacles to realizing women rights and gender governance in Bangladesh.
A critical discussion of EU and ECHR migration and refugee law, this book analyses the law on asylum and immigration of third country-nationals. It focuses on how the EU norms interact with ECHR human rights case law on migration, and the pitfalls of European human rights pluralism.
Over some years before and after 1948, human rights issues have been a daily agenda of harmonizing an observance of rights with the eye of humanitarian ground. Human rights have been recognized internationally through United nations Human Rights Committee and Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948. In the regions, the European Human Rights Convention and Inter-American Human Rights have made a big step ahead for protection, promotion and enforcement of rights either individually or as groups or associations. In domestic level there are still some challenges whereby the protection, respect and enforcement of human rights is a problem especially vulnerable groups such as people with disabilities, children, women and girls, stateless, displaced people and refugees. Therefore, this book provides the insights of human rights in international and national perspectives. Chapter one provides the theoretical foundations of human rights. The book also has touched the categories of human rights that is political, civil, economic, social, cultural and group rights as provided under chapter four. Human rights of specific groups such as women and girls, children, persons with disability
This thesis is designed to address the topic: ‘The development of a human rights culture in Vietnam, 1986 to present''. After 1986 reform policy (doi moi policy), the liberal culture of human rights has gradually gained ground as the result of both domestic and international factors. Two rights (the rights to property and the right to a fair trial) were selected for examination. From the findings of indepth investigation of advancement of these two rights, there is little doubt that the emergence of liberal culture of these rights has been established and become more dominant but s more reasonable conclusion for this thesis is that there is a hybrid human rights culture in Vietnam in the transitional phase which mixes successes and failures, and the liberal and socialist values.
This book is an analysis of the classical adversarial criminal trial procedure as applied in child sexual abuse cases in Kenya. It examines the implication of the trial procedure rules on the special needs of child victims of sexual abuse. The author argues that the adversarial trial procedure protects the rights of accused persons, but fails to safeguard those of child victims of sexual abuse. The procedure results in an imbalance between the rights of accused persons and child victims of sexual abuse. The author makes recommendations towards achieving a balance between the competing rights. The book is recommended to lawyers, human rights advocates, social workers, judicial officers, police investigators, prosecutors, victims' rights advocates, victimologists, university lecturers and students of victimology, law, criminology and criminal Justice.
Although African countries are parties to various treaties that recognise socio-economic rights, these species of rights remain largely perceived as non-justiciable. Even where such rights are made positive constitutional rights, little or no jurisprudence has developed therefrom. The fall-out has been the devaluation of socio-economic rights in Africa. This book makes a strong case for placing socio-economic rights squarely on the African human rights agenda. Apart from the fact that socio-economic rights are human rights in themselves, the author argues that civil and political rights are better protected if socio-economic rights are accorded equal importance within African legal systems. The author stresses the need for the systematic development of expansive strategies incorporating more sectors of the society, developing alternative understanding of law, or using a mix of judicial and other methods. The book emphasises the need for multi-dimensional approaches, anchored by the civil society, which would ensure that the development of human rights is linked to the reinforcement and implementation of existing norms.
The book deals with proprietary rights of women provided under Hindu succession Act, 1956. This is one of the most controversial aspects because property rights are given to the women but due to certain pre-determined social norms the women fails to exercise their rights. No doubt, to further strengthen the proprietary position, Hindu Succession Act, 1956 was amended in 2005. The amendment tries to plug the loopholes existed in 1956, but the questions remains that whether the women would exercise those rights which were provided to them under this Amended Act? In this work an effort was made to study the effect of Hindu Succession Act, 1956(along with Amendment Act, 2005)on the proprietary rights of women, the loopholes which still existed in the Act and finally suggestions were made to make it more effective. some excerpts of the work has also been referred by Karnatka High Court while deciding the property matters concerning woman.