A comprehensive guide to credit risk management The Handbook of Credit Risk Management presents a comprehensive overview of the practice of credit risk management for a large institution. It is a guide for professionals and students wanting a deeper understanding of how to manage credit exposures. The Handbook provides a detailed roadmap for managing beyond the financial analysis of individual transactions and counterparties. Written in a straightforward and accessible style, the authors outline how to manage a portfolio of credit exposures–from origination and assessment of credit fundamentals to hedging and pricing. The Handbook is relevant for corporations, pension funds, endowments, asset managers, banks and insurance companies alike. Covers the four essential aspects of credit risk management: Origination, Credit Risk Assessment, Portfolio Management and Risk Transfer. Provides ample references to and examples of credit market services as a resource for those readers having credit risk responsibilities. Designed for busy professionals as well as finance, risk management and MBA students. As financial transactions grow more complex, proactive management of credit portfolios is no longer optional for an institution, but a matter of survival.
The most cutting-edge read on the pricing, modeling, and management of credit risk available The rise of credit risk measurement and the credit derivatives market started in the early 1990s and has grown ever since. For many professionals, understanding credit risk measurement as a discipline is now more important than ever. Credit Risk Measurement, Second Edition has been fully revised to reflect the latest thinking on credit risk measurement and to provide credit risk professionals with a solid understanding of the alternative approaches to credit risk measurement. This readable guide discusses the latest pricing, modeling, and management techniques available for dealing with credit risk. New chapters highlight the latest generation of credit risk measurement models, including a popular class known as intensity-based models. Credit Risk Measurement, Second Edition also analyzes significant changes in banking regulations that are impacting credit risk measurement at financial institutions. With fresh insights and updated information on the world of credit risk measurement, this book is a must-read reference for all credit risk professionals. Anthony Saunders (New York, NY) is the John M. Schiff Professor of Finance and Chair of the Department of Finance at the Stern School of Business at New York University. He holds positions on the Board of Academic Consultants of the Federal Reserve Board of Governors as well as the Council of Research Advisors for the Federal National Mortgage Association. He is the editor of the Journal of Banking and Finance and the Journal of Financial Markets, Instruments and Institutions. Linda Allen (New York, NY) is Professor of Finance at Baruch College and Adjunct Professor of Finance at the Stern School of Business at New York University. She also is author of Capital Markets and Institutions: A Global View (Wiley: 0471130494). Over the years, financial professionals around the world have looked to the Wiley Finance series and its wide array of bestselling books for the knowledge, insights, and techniques that are essential to success in financial markets. As the pace of change in financial markets and instruments quickens, Wiley Finance continues to respond. With critically acclaimed books by leading thinkers on value investing, risk management, asset allocation, and many other critical subjects, the Wiley Finance series provides the financial community with information they want. Written to provide professionals and individuals with the most current thinking from the best minds in the industry, it is no wonder that the Wiley Finance series is the first and last stop for financial professionals looking to increase their financial expertise.
Credit is essential in the modern world and creates wealth, provided it is used wisely. The Global Credit Crisis during 2008/2009 has shown that sound understanding of underlying credit risk is crucial. If credit freezes, almost every activity in the economy is affected. The best way to utilize credit and get results is to understand credit risk. Advanced Credit Risk Analysis and Management helps the reader to understand the various nuances of credit risk. It discusses various techniques to measure, analyze and manage credit risk for both lenders and borrowers. The book begins by defining what credit is and its advantages and disadvantages, the causes of credit risk, a brief historical overview of credit risk analysis and the strategic importance of credit risk in institutions that rely on claims or debtors. The book then details various techniques to study the entity level credit risks, including portfolio level credit risks. Authored by a credit expert with two decades of experience in corporate finance and corporate credit risk, the book discusses the macroeconomic, industry and financial analysis for the study of credit risk. It covers credit risk grading and explains concepts including PD, EAD and LGD. It also highlights the distinction with equity risks and touches on credit risk pricing and the importance of credit risk in Basel Accords I, II and III. The two most common credit risks, project finance credit risk and working capital credit risk, are covered in detail with illustrations. The role of diversification and credit derivatives in credit portfolio management is considered. It also reflects on how the credit crisis develops in an economy by referring to the bubble formation. The book links with the 2008/2009 credit crisis and carries out an interesting discussion on how the credit crisis may have been avoided by following the fundamentals or principles of credit risk analysis and management. The book is essential for both lenders and borrowers. Containing case studies adapted from real life examples and exercises, this important text is practical, topical and challenging. It is useful for a wide spectrum of academics and practitioners in credit risk and anyone interested in commercial and corporate credit and related products.
1.1 INTRODUCTION A credit card is a small plastic card issued to users as a means of payment. It allows its holder to buy goods and services based on the holder's promise to pay for them, later. The issuer of the card creates a revolving account and grants a line of credit to the consumer (or the user) from which the user can borrow money to pay a merchant or for use as an advance . A credit card is different from a charge card: a charge card requires the balance to be paid in full each month. In contrast, credit cards allow the consumers a continuing balance of debt, subject to interest being charged. A credit card also differs from a cash card, in that it can be used like currency by the owner of the card. Most credit cards are issued by banks or credit unions, and are of the shape and size specified by the ISO/IEC 7810 standard as ID-1. And this is given as 85.60 ? 53.98 mm (33/8 ? 21/8 in) in size. 1.2 HISTORY OF CREDIT CARD The concept of using a card for purchases was delineated in 1887 by Edward Bellamy in his utopian novel Looking Backward. Bellamy used the term credit card eleven times in this novel. The modern credit card was the successor of a variety of merchant
The credit derivatives industry has come under close scrutiny over the past few years, with the recent financial crisis highlighting the instability of a number of credit structures and throwing the industry into turmoil. What has been made clear by recent events is the necessity for a thorough understanding of credit derivatives by all parties involved in a transaction, especially traders, structurers, quants and investors. Fully revised and updated to take in to account the new products, markets and risk requirements post financial crisis, Credit Derivatives: Trading, Investing and Risk Management, Second Edition, covers the subject from a real world perspective, tackling issues such as liquidity, poor data, and credit spreads, to the latest innovations in portfolio products, hedging and risk management techniques. The book concentrates on practical issues and develops an understanding of the products through applications and detailed analysis of the risks and alternative means of trading. It provides: a description of the key products, applications, and an analysis of typical trades including basis trading, hedging, and credit structuring; analysis of the industry standard 'default and recovery' and Copula models including many examples, and a description of the models' shortcomings; tools and techniques for the management of a portfolio or book of credit risks including appropriate and inappropriate methods of correlation risk management; a thorough analysis of counterparty risk; an intuitive understanding of credit correlation in reality and in the Copula model. The book is thoroughly updated to reflect the changes the industry has seen over the past 5 years, notably with an analysis of the lead up and causes of the credit crisis. It contains 50% new material, which includes copula valuation and hedging, portfolio optimisation, portfolio products and correlation risk management, pricing in illiquid environments, chapters on the evolution of credit management systems, the credit meltdown and new chapters on the implementation and testing of credit derivative models and systems. The book is accompanied by a website which contains tools for credit derivatives valuation and risk management, illustrating the models used in the book and also providing a valuation toolkit.
The film tie-in edition of the cult classic Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?As the eagerly-anticipated new film Blade Runner 2049 finally comes to the screen, rediscover the world of Blade Runner...World War Terminus had left the Earth devastated. Through its ruins, bounty hunter Rick Deckard stalked, in search of the renegade replicants who were his prey. When he wasn't 'retiring' them with his laser weapon, he dreamed of owning a live animal - the ultimate status symbol in a world all but bereft of animal life.Then Rick got his chance: the assignment to kill six Nexus-6 targets, for a huge reward. But in Deckard's world things were never that simple, and his assignment quickly turned into a nightmare kaleidoscope of subterfuge and deceit - and the threat of death for the hunter, rather than the hunted...
The aim of the article is to perform an economic and legal analysis of the financial claims of the credit institution to the borrower through the implementation of the acquired using borrowed funds vehicle that is owned by the borrower and burdened the right of pledge in favor of the bank. And also to identify factors influencing the effect of the financial cost of spraying alienated collateral, including affiliated bank structures, be associated with this process.
National Consumer Credit Protection Act 2009 Act No. 134 of 2009 as amended This compilation was prepared on 25 August 2011 taking into account amendments up to Act No. 84 of 2011 As of 15/11/2011 Australia
A practical guide to counterparty risk management and credit value adjustment from a leading credit practitioner Please note that this second edition of Counterparty Credit Risk and Credit Value Adjustment has now been superseded by an updated version entitled The XVA Challenge: Counterparty Credit Risk, Funding, Collateral and Capital. Since the collapse of Lehman Brothers and the resultant realization of extensive counterparty risk across the global financial markets, the subject of counterparty risk has become an unavoidable issue for every financial institution. This book explains the emergence of counterparty risk and how financial institutions are developing capabilities for valuing it. It also covers portfolio management and hedging of credit value adjustment, debit value adjustment, and wrong-way counterparty risks. In addition, the book addresses the design and benefits of central clearing, a recent development in attempts to control the rapid growth of counterparty risk. This uniquely practical resource serves as an invaluable guide for market practitioners, policy makers, academics, and students.
A classic book on credit risk management is updated to reflect the current economic crisis Credit Risk Management In and Out of the Financial Crisis dissects the 2007-2008 credit crisis and provides solutions for professionals looking to better manage risk through modeling and new technology. This book is a complete update to Credit Risk Measurement: New Approaches to Value at Risk and Other Paradigms, reflecting events stemming from the recent credit crisis. Authors Anthony Saunders and Linda Allen address everything from the implications of new regulations to how the new rules will change everyday activity in the finance industry. They also provide techniques for modeling-credit scoring, structural, and reduced form models-while offering sound advice for stress testing credit risk models and when to accept or reject loans. Breaks down the latest credit risk measurement and modeling techniques and simplifies many of the technical and analytical details surrounding them Concentrates on the underlying economics to objectively evaluate new models Includes new chapters on how to prevent another crisis from occurring Understanding credit risk measurement is now more important than ever. Credit Risk Management In and Out of the Financial Crisis will solidify your knowledge of this dynamic discipline.
The long-awaited, comprehensive guide to practical credit risk modeling Credit Risk Analytics provides a targeted training guide for risk managers looking to efficiently build or validate in-house models for credit risk management. Combining theory with practice, this book walks you through the fundamentals of credit risk management and shows you how to implement these concepts using the SAS credit risk management program, with helpful code provided. Coverage includes data analysis and preprocessing, credit scoring; PD and LGD estimation and forecasting, low default portfolios, correlation modeling and estimation, validation, implementation of prudential regulation, stress testing of existing modeling concepts, and more, to provide a one-stop tutorial and reference for credit risk analytics. The companion website offers examples of both real and simulated credit portfolio data to help you more easily implement the concepts discussed, and the expert author team provides practical insight on this real-world intersection of finance, statistics, and analytics. SAS is the preferred software for credit risk modeling due to its functionality and ability to process large amounts of data. This book shows you how to exploit the capabilities of this high-powered package to create clean, accurate credit risk management models. Understand the general concepts of credit risk management Validate and stress-test existing models Access working examples based on both real and simulated data Learn useful code for implementing and validating models in SAS Despite the high demand for in-house models, there is little comprehensive training available; practitioners are left to comb through piece-meal resources, executive training courses, and consultancies to cobble together the information they need. This book ends the search by providing a comprehensive, focused resource backed by expert guidance. Credit Risk Analytics is the reference every risk manager needs to streamline the modeling process.
Credit and credit risk permeates every corner of the financial world. Previously credit tended to be acknowledged only when dealing with counterparty credit risk, high-yield debt or credit-linked derivatives, now it affects all things, including such fundamental concepts as assessing the present value of a future cash flow. The purpose of this book is to analyze credit from the beginning—the point at which any borrowing entity (sovereign, corporate, etc.) decides to raise capital through its treasury operation. To describe the debt management activity, the book presents examples from the development banking world which not only presents a clearer banking structure but in addition sits at the intersection of many topical issues (multi-lateral agencies, quasi-governmental entities, Emerging Markets, shrinking pool of AAA borrowers, etc.). This book covers: Curve construction (instruments, collateralization, discounting, bootstrapping) Credit and fair valuing of loans (modeling, development institutions) Emerging markets and liquidity (liquidity, credit, capital control, development) Bond pricing (credit, illiquid bonds, recovery pricing) Treasury (funding as an asset swap structure, benchmarks for borrowing/investing) Risk and asset liability management (leverage, hedging, funding risk)
Expert guidance on managing credit risk in bond portfolios Managing Credit Risk in Corporate Bond Portfolios shows readers how to measure and manage the risks of a corporate bond portfolio against its benchmark. This comprehensive guide explores a wide range of topics surrounding credit risk and bond portfolios, including the similarities and differences between corporate and government bond portfolios, yield curve risk, default and credit migration risk, Monte Carlo simulation techniques, and portfolio selection methods. Srichander Ramaswamy, PhD (Basel, Switzerland), is Head of Investment Analysis at the Bank for International Settlements (BIS) in Basel, Switzerland, and Adjunct Professor of Banking and Finance, University of Lausanne.
A hands-on guide to the theory and practice of bank credit analysis and ratings In this revised edition, Jonathan Golin and Philippe Delhaise expand on the role of bank credit analysts and the methodology of their practice. Offering investors and practitioners an insider's perspective on how rating agencies assign all-important credit ratings to banks, the book is updated to reflect today's environment of increased oversight and demands for greater transparency. It includes international case studies of bank credit analysis, suggestions and insights for understanding and complying with the Basel Accords, techniques for reviewing asset quality on both quantitative and qualitative bases, explores the restructuring of distressed banks, and much more. Features charts, graphs, and spreadsheet illustrations to further explain topics discussed in the text Includes international case studies from North America, Asia, and Europe that offer readers a global perspective Offers coverage of the Basel Accords on Capital Adequacy and Liquidity and shares the authors' view that a bank could be compliant under those and other regulations without being creditworthy A uniquely practical guide to bank credit analysis as it is currently practiced around the world, The Bank Credit Analysis Handbook, Second Edition is a must-have resource for equity analysts, credit analysts, and bankers, as well as wealth managers and investors.
Many of the problems that lie at the heart of the current financial crisis stem from a significant but little-known development that occurred in the early 1980s: investors changed their investment criteria. This change gave rise to a conflict – a silent war – between executives in charge of the world's largest corporations, on the one hand, and credit agencies whose task it is to enforce the criteria on investors' behalf, on the other. The credit agencies that flourished in New York, London and elsewhere acquired a great deal of power because their ratings now reflected investors new priorities, and so controlled the ability of corporations to gain access to capital. The rise of the credit agencies thereby also represented a new model of capitalism, quite different from the old model of the risk-taking entrepreneur. To attract investment capital, corporations now have to employ enormous resources to create the illusion that capital is directed in line with the new expectations imposed by the credit agencies. The result is that devious reporting on companies' activities has become endemic. Drawing on more than six years of fieldwork carried out in some of the world's most powerful corporations and credit rating agencies on Wall Street, this short book describes, for the first time, the unspoken conflict that shapes the global economy. Anthropologist Alexandra Ouroussoff describes with startling clarity the effects of Wall Street's silent war: from the financial community's inability to price risk accurately (now recognised as a major cause of the financial crisis) to the deep reasons behind credit analysts' misplaced faith in numbers. Yet the book's most important contribution is its path-breaking analysis of the conditions of the conflict itself, here revealed as an unintended consequence of a much deeper transformation in the conditions underlying capitalism's success.
The first decade of the 21st Century has been disastrous for financial institutions, derivatives and risk management. Counterparty credit risk has become the key element of financial risk management, highlighted by the bankruptcy of the investment bank Lehman Brothers and failure of other high profile institutions such as Bear Sterns, AIG, Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. The sudden realisation of extensive counterparty risks has severely compromised the health of global financial markets. Counterparty risk is now a key problem for all financial institutions. This book explains the emergence of counterparty risk during the recent credit crisis. The quantification of firm-wide credit exposure for trading desks and businesses is discussed alongside risk mitigation methods such as netting and collateral management (margining). Banks and other financial institutions have been recently developing their capabilities for pricing counterparty risk and these elements are considered in detail via a characterisation of credit value adjustment (CVA). The implications of an institution valuing their own default via debt value adjustment (DVA) are also considered at length. Hedging aspects, together with the associated instruments such as credit defaults swaps (CDSs) and contingent CDS (CCDS) are described in full. A key feature of the credit crisis has been the realisation of wrong-way risks illustrated by the failure of monoline insurance companies. Wrong-way counterparty risks are addressed in detail in relation to interest rate, foreign exchange, commodity and, in particular, credit derivative products. Portfolio counterparty risk is covered, together with the regulatory aspects as defined by the Basel II capital requirements. The management of counterparty risk within an institution is also discussed in detail. Finally, the design and benefits of central clearing, a recent development to attempt to control the rapid growth of counterparty risk, is considered. This book is unique in being practically focused but also covering the more technical aspects. It is an invaluable complete reference guide for any market practitioner with any responsibility or interest within the area of counterparty credit risk.
Updated coverage of structured credit products with in-depth coverage of the latest developments Structured credit products are one of today's fastest growing investment and risk management mechanisms, and a focus of innovation and creativity in the capital markets. The building blocks of these products are credit derivatives, which are among the most widely used products in finance. This book offers a succinct and focused description of the main credit derivative instruments, as well as the more complex products such as synthetic collateralized debt obligations. This new edition features updated case studies from Europe and Asia, the latest developments in synthetic structures, the impact of the subprime meltdown, along with models and teaching aids. Moorad Choudhry returns with this excellent update of the credit derivatives market. The second edition of his classic work is, like the subject matter itself, at the forefront of the financial industry. It deserves a wide readership. —Dr Didier Joannas Regional Director, Thomson Reuters, Hong Kong This is the perfect companion for both experienced and entry level professionals working in the structured credit fraternity. It is an erudite, insightful and enjoyable read that successfully demystifies one of the most topical subject areas in banking today, while also providing important practical examples that link the theory to the job itself. —Dr James Berriman Global Pricing Unit, Royal Bank of Scotland Moorad Choudhry has earned a deserved reputation from both academics and practitioners as one of the leading practical yet rigorous authors of finance books. In this Second Edition, his practical knowledge of credit derivatives keeps the audience engaged with straightforward explanations of complicated structures, and an accessible level of mathematical sophistication necessary to understand structured credit products. The author offers complete, rigorous analysis while avoiding overuse of mathematical formulas and carefully balanced practical and theoretical aspects of the subject. I strongly recommend this book for those wishing to gain an intuitive understanding of structured credit products, from practitioners to students of finance! —Mohamoud Barre Dualeh Senior Product Developer, Abu Dhabi Commercial Bank, UAE This is THE book for credit derivative trading. From first steps to advanced trading strategies, this is invaluable. Well written and insightful, perfect for ad hoc reference or reading cover to cover. —Andrew Benson ETF Market Making, KBC Peel Hunt, London Professor Choudhry has inspired me to really get into credit derivatives. It’s great to be lectured by someone with such energy and practical hands-on experience, as well as the ability to get stuck into the details. —George Whicheloe Equity-Linked Technology, Merrill Lynch, London Moorad Choudhry is Head of Treasury at Europe Arab Bank plc in London. He is a Visiting Professor at the Department of Economics at London Metropolitan University.
Tyrell Hawthorne was a naval intelligence officer - one of the best - until the rain-swept night in Amsterdam when his wife was murdered, an innocent victim of the games spies play. Now he's called out of retirement for one last assignment. For Hawthorne is the only man alive who can track down the world's most dangerous terrorist.
A comprehensive look at the enormous growth and evolution of distressed debt, corporate bankruptcy, and credit risk default This Third Edition of the most authoritative finance book on the topic updates and expands its discussion of corporate distress and bankruptcy, as well as the related markets dealing with high-yield and distressed debt, and offers state-of-the-art analysis and research on the costs of bankruptcy, credit default prediction, the post-emergence period performance of bankrupt firms, and more.
The recent financial crisis has highlighted the need for better valuation models and risk management procedures, better understanding of structured products, and has called into question the actions of many financial institutions. It has become commonplace to blame the inadequacy of credit risk models, claiming that the crisis was due to sophisticated and obscure products being traded, but practitioners have for a long time been aware of the dangers and limitations of credit models. It would seem that a lack of understanding of these models is the root cause of their failures but until now little analysis had been published on the subject and, when published, it had gained very limited attention. Credit Models and the Crisis is a succinct but technical analysis of the key aspects of the credit derivatives modeling problems, tracing the development (and flaws) of new quantitative methods for credit derivatives and CDOs up to and through the credit crisis. Responding to the immediate need for clarity in the market and academic research environments, this book follows the development of credit derivatives and CDOs at a technical level, analyzing the impact, strengths and weaknesses of methods ranging from the introduction of the Gaussian Copula model and the related implied correlations to the introduction of arbitrage-free dynamic loss models capable of calibrating all the tranches for all the maturities at the same time. It also illustrates the implied copula, a method that can consistently account for CDOs with different attachment and detachment points but not for different maturities, and explains why the Gaussian Copula model is still used in its base correlation formulation. The book reports both alarming pre-crisis research and market examples, as well as commentary through history, using data up to the end of 2009, making it an important addition to modern derivatives literature. With banks and regulators struggling to fully analyze at a technical level, many of the flaws in modern financial models, it will be indispensable for quantitative practitioners and academics who want to develop stable and functional models in the future.
A timely guide to understanding and implementing credit derivatives Credit derivatives are here to stay and will continue to play a role in finance in the future. But what will that role be? What issues and challenges should be addressed? And what lessons can be learned from the credit mess? Credit Risk Frontiers offers answers to these and other questions by presenting the latest research in this field and addressing important issues exposed by the financial crisis. It covers this subject from a real world perspective, tackling issues such as liquidity, poor data, and credit spreads, as well as the latest innovations in portfolio products and hedging and risk management techniques. Provides a coherent presentation of recent advances in the theory and practice of credit derivatives Takes into account the new products and risk requirements of a post financial crisis world Contains information regarding various aspects of the credit derivative market as well as cutting edge research regarding those aspects If you want to gain a better understanding of how credit derivatives can help your trading or investing endeavors, then Credit Risk Frontiers is a book you need to read.
State-of-the-art techniques and tools needed to facilitate effective credit portfolio management and robust quantitative credit analysis Filled with in-depth insights and expert advice, Active Credit Portfolio Management in Practice serves as a comprehensive introduction to both the theory and real-world practice of credit portfolio management. The authors have written a text that is technical enough both in terms of background and implementation to cover what practitioners and researchers need for actually applying these types of risk management tools in large organizations but which at the same time, avoids technical proofs in favor of real applications. Throughout this book, readers will be introduced to the theoretical foundations of this discipline, and learn about structural, reduced-form, and econometric models successfully used in the market today. The book is full of hands-on examples and anecdotes. Theory is illustrated with practical application. The authors' Website provides additional software tools in the form of Excel spreadsheets, Matlab code and S-Plus code. Each section of the book concludes with review questions designed to spark further discussion and reflection on the concepts presented.
The time for financial technology innovation is now Marketplace Lending, Financial Analysis, and the Future of Credit clearly explains why financial credit institutions need to further innovate within the financial technology arena. Through this text, you access a framework for applying innovative strategies in credit services. Provided and supported by financial institutions and entrepreneurs, the information in this engaging book encompasses printed guidance and digital ancillaries. Peer-to-peer lenders are steadily growing within the financial market. Integrating peer-to-peer lending into established credit institutions could strengthen the financial sector as a whole, and could lead to the incorporation of stronger risk and profitability management strategies. Explain (or Explore) approaches and challenges in financial analysis applied to credit risk and profitability Explore additional information provided via digital ancillaries, which will further support your understanding and application of key concepts Navigate the information organised into three subject areas: describing a new business model, knowledge integration, and proposing a new model for the Hybrid Financial Sector Understand how the rise of fintech fits into context within the current financial system Follow discussion of the current status quo and role of innovation in the financial industry, and consider the financial technology innovation landscape from the perspective of an entrepreneur Marketplace Lending, Financial Analysis, and the Future of Credit is a critical text that bridges the gap in understanding between financial technology entrepreneurs and credit institutions.
A comprehensive resource providing extensive coverage of the state of the art in credit secruritisations, derivatives, and risk management Credit Securitisations and Derivatives is a one-stop resource presenting the very latest thinking and developments in the field of credit risk. Written by leading thinkers from academia, the industry, and the regulatory environment, the book tackles areas such as business cycles; correlation modelling and interactions between financial markets, institutions, and instruments in relation to securitisations and credit derivatives; credit portfolio risk; credit portfolio risk tranching; credit ratings for securitisations; counterparty credit risk and clearing of derivatives contracts and liquidity risk. As well as a thorough analysis of the existing models used in the industry, the book will also draw on real life cases to illustrate model performance under different parameters and the impact that using the wrong risk measures can have.