Despite many advantages of lease financing, adoption in Africa and specially Kenya has been slow. Businesses still prefer to take loan to buy assets instead of outright leasing of the assets . They would then use the funds to finance working capital and hence improve profitabilty. The lack of awareness coupled with the need to own the asset and lack of understanding of lease financing has lead to the slow growth of the lease financing as an alternative form of financing businesses. The study carried out in Kenya’s agricultural town brought out both inherent as well micro and macro economic factors that have led to slow adoption of Lease Financing.
The lease is a contract between the owner and the user of assets for a certain period during which the second party uses an asset in exchange of making periodic rental payments to the first party without purchasing it. Bangladesh is a small but densely populated country in the South Asia and the people of it mainly depend on agriculture. Due to globalization and liberalization the country gradually shifting towards industrialization and lease becomes a pioneering and alternative way to develop the country through business and industrialization. Lease financing is the most important issue which determines the direction of financial behavior in an organization, a financial level of effort, and the organization’s level of perseverance in the face of obstacles of other types of financing.
This work discusses the Ethiopian urban land lease policy and its characteristics, challenges of its implementation and the remedies to be under taken. Achieving efficient land use, encouraging investors and investment and realizing the cost of urban land and make an efficient use of it are some of the major national and regional goals in Ethiopia. To achieve these goals, the government of Ethiopia has accepted urban land lease policy as the alternative land tenure system so as to provide a room for individuals and investors to land to use land use rights through transferring from the state to land users. However, Opinions collected from residents, investors and financial institutions in Addis Ababa and the lease towns of the Amhara national regional state indicate that there are problems related to the implementation of the policy in an efficient utilization of urban land in encouraging investment and the appropriate use of the money generated from lease. Hence, the writer argues that Institutional constraints, legal gaps and proper land and mortgage registration systems should be given due attention so as to get the desired objectives of the lease policy.
The focus area of this paper is on the assignment problem with budget constraints which is one of the application area of combinatorial optimization that operates on the domain of those optimization problems,in which the set of feasible solutions is discrete or can be reduced to discrete,and in which the goal is to find the best solution. It is particularly concerned with solving the unconstrained assignment problems with Hungarian algorithm and the constrained assignment problem by cutting plane or outer linearization algorithm for solving the Lagrangian dual problem in which, at each iteration,the function that approximates the dual function is optimized. The paper is divided in to two chapters. In the first chapter,the classical assignment problem,the problem of finding optimum (minimum or maximum) cost or profit assignment a set of workers or resources to jobs or activities to gather with its mathematical formulation,solution methods and special cases in assignment problems were considered. Under the second chapter, we have considered generalization of the classical assignment problem concerning resource(or budget) constraints, due to the variety of real life problems.
Assignment Problem is one of the first fundamental problems in the area of combinatorial optimization. Despite its historical roots, the problem has tremendous importance to date, due to its numerous real life applications in like facility location, personnel scheduling, job scheduling, production planning, project assignment, task assignment, time-tabling, vehicle routing, storage space allocation, etc. This book comprises some real life assignment and related problems involving imprecise cost/time parameters. In order to represent those imprecise parameters, interval numbers have been used here as this representation is the best among others. The associated problems have been solved using Genetic Algorithm efficiently. A salient feature of this book is that most of the algorithms have been written in a lucid manner with suitable examples using figures. This book should interest academicians, OR/GA practitioners and executives of different industries and business organizations.
Over the years, the efficiency of air transport has made it one of the most solicited modes of transport. Sadly, an aircraft cannot be easily possessed.In fact, public and private entities are often deprived of the wonders of air transport for financial reasons.The option of leasing provides a plausible solution but leases are unique and legally sensitive.This book demystifies an apparently complex contract by treating the legal regime, types,rights,obligations, applicable law,sanctions and even remedies for breaches of aircraft lease contracts. The effective use of aircraft lease contracts depends on a mastery of the legal implications involved. The increasing popularity of aircraft leases makes this book an indispensible negotiation tool for aircraft operators both private and public.Samples of lease contracts have been used to enhance understanding.This book is a legal solution to a socio-economic problem so should be obtained and read.
The problem of distributing goods from depots to consumers plays an important role in the management of many distribution systems, and therefore when it is programmed efficiently it may yield significant savings. In a typical distribution system, trucks provide pick-up and delivery services to customers that are geographically dispersed in a given area. In many of its applications, the main objective of distribution is to find a set of routes for such trucks, satisfying a variety of constraints, so as to minimize the total distribution cost. This work focuses on a decision model for a real world problem. The problem reveals itself as assignment of trucks to routes by Latex Foam Rubber Products Limited-Kumasi, Ghana. This study addresses the problem of finding an efficient assignment of the limited number of trucks at the company’s disposal to the routes they ply while serving its customers outside the metropolis. In this work we use a solution procedure based on Munkres Assignment Algorithm for optimal assignment of non-homogenous fleet of trucks to a given set of routes, where Latex Foam Rubber Products Limited-Kumasi, distributes its products to its customers.
A wireless mesh networks (WMNs) has emerged recently, WMN consist of two types of nodes mesh routers and mesh clients.WMN is dynamically self-organized and self-configured, with the nodes in the network automatically establishing and maintaining mesh connectivity among themselves. Channel assignment is a critical issue in WMN which is the mapping between the available channels and the radios at each node such that the network performance is optimized, and hence the focus of this work along with static channel assignment, multi-radio, multi-channel. Multi-radio MAC can potentially achieve higher network capacity than single-radio MAC. We design and implement a new agent (DSBCA) distributed channel assignment spanner base, the routing protocol Optimize the network performance considering the throughput, end-to-end delay, connectivity and the interference of our channel assignment algorithm. Base on the network simulations NS2.34 on Linux Fedora and our proposed channel assignment algorithm improved the throughput, minimal-connectivity preserving channel assignment algorithm.
Modern day public transport assignment faces lots of problems. Solutions may exist but needs some form of backings. A sensitivity analysis in most cases could just be sufficient to provide this backing. The developments in this book are very important for students, academic researchers and policy makers. The book provides an extensive review on transit assignment, sensitivity analysis and OmniTRANS. It highlights important conclusions such as:- - Passenger access-egress distances significantly affects their access stop choices. - The travel distance parameter of the generalized cost function has the highest influence on transit assignment - The number of transfers to be made by passengers significantly determines their generalized cost of travel - A carefully conducted partial sensitivity analysis can provide better predictions than a Monte-Carlo sensitivity analysis. As a policy advice to public transport operators in Flanders-Belgium, the developments in this book suggest that; to improve transit assignment, it is sufficient to reduce passengers access-egress distances & the number of transfers either through the institution of more direct transit lines or missing links.
The efficient management of Change Requests (CRs) is fundamental for successful software maintenance; however the assignment of CRs to developers is an expensive aspect in this regard, due to the time and expertise demanded. To overcome this, researchers have proposed automated approaches for CR assignment. Although these proposals present advances to this topic, they do not consider many factors inherent to the assignments, such as: developers’ workload, CRs severity, interpersonal relationships, and developers know-how. Actually, as we demonstrate in this work, CR assignment is a complex activity and automated approaches cannot rely on simplistic solutions. Ideally, it is necessary to consider and reason over contextual information in order to provide an effective automation. Beyond investigating all these aspects through an extensive systematic literature review, this work also proposes a context-aware architecture solution to semi-automated assignment of CRs.
Revision with unchanged content. This study investigated the influence of computer-generated reminders on the rate in which distance learners submitted assignments and completed courses. The computer-generated reminders, sent via email, served as a time management support strategy. Participants were randomly divided into two groups: control and treatment. Both groups received a list of target due dates for course assignments. The control group did not receive reminders. The treatment group received reminders when they failed to submit an assignment by a target due date. The results indicated no significant difference between the control and treatment groups in terms of assignment submission rates and course completion rates. However, results of this study did reveal that the number of assignments in a distance course influences the timeliness of assignment completion and the likelihood of course completion.
The highly competitive environment in today's wireless and cellular network industries is making the management of systems seek for better and more advance techniques to keep masses of data, complexity of systems and deadline constrains under control with a lower cost and higher efficiency. Therefore, the management is getting significant attentions by researchers in order to increase the efficiency of the resource usage to provide high quality services. Two of the cornerstones of the management system in wireless and cellular network are carrier assignment and packet scheduling. Therefore, this work focuses on analysis and development of carrier assignment and packet scheduling methods in multi-band Wi-Fi and LTE-A networks.
In cellular mobile communication, since there will be conversation in progress in case of handover calls, GOS for them should be less than that for newly originating calls. Basically, there are three channel assignment schemes, fixed, dynamic & hybrid channel assignment schemes for handling newly originating and handover calls. In this study, capacity design for cellular mobile network in area inside ring road in Kathmandu valley has been done according to the findings of data collection and analysis of mobile communication service being provided by Nepal Telecom. Capacity planning has been done with GOS equal to 2% for newly originating calls and 1% for handover calls. In addition to capacity planning, efficient channel assignment scheme in terms of blocking and throughput has been evaluated with optimal utilization of the designed capacity for getting minimum blocking for both types of calls maintaining the blocking for handover calls always less than that for newly originating calls. The simulated values of GOS & throughput for all channel assignment schemes at different penetration have been compared and hybrid channel assignment scheme has been found to be most efficient.
Property valuation is required for many purposes in Ethiopia. This paper addresses its practice for mortgage purpose and estimation of urban ground lease prices in Ethiopia. The study bases itself on literature, analysis of the existing banks standards/guidelines and legal regime of the country as well as regions, case studies from banks, interview with key informants from banks are used. The study also analyzed of the existing legal regime that govern urban lease and examine currently introduced sale modality of state owned land and cases that found in municipalities. The result revealed that cost replacement is the only valuation approach used by banks. Besides, Banks aren''t willingness to lend to lessees who hold leased land and have the right to secure mortgage using use right as collateral. This implies that properties that can be accepted by lending institution as collateral is building value only. Moreover, the study indicated that estimating ground lease price is not based on market principle. The result has important implications for the government to ensure ground lease price is based on market principle and guarantees tenure security
This book explains the port operations and proposes approaches that aim to improve the most important successive steps in container terminal management activities. A multi-period assignment problem that seeks to allocate vessels to berthing spaces and quay cranes is proposed to handle the quayside operations. Subsequently, on the yard side, a discrete-event simulation model for the real life detailed processes performed during the handling of import containers is developed. In particular, the model focuses on the storage assignment problem at the operational level in a container terminal with a multiple-berth structure. An approach by means of a hierarchical structure is adapted to partition the assignment problem into two sub-problems and solve each of them using separate decision rules. Suggested storage policies are evaluated in view of the overall performance of the container terminal.
This book contains a good literature survey of various mathematical models and routing & wavelengths assignment algorithms in WDM optical networks. Some of the new algorithms for optimization of blocking probability have aslo been covered. This book is good for researchers who are working on optical networks and advancements in fiber optics communication. Mathematical models covered in this book are simple and easy to implement. A good number of routing and wavelength assignment algorithms have also been covered in this book which can be used to reduce blocking probability of the optical network. This book can be very helpful to the research scholars.
This study is situated within the field of instructional design and sought to identify competencies specific to online designers-by-assignment in high school learning environments. Since existing instructional design standards currently available to guide designers-by-assignment differ from one another, a lack of clarity remains about which specific standards actually benefit this emerging professional group in the process of developing and revising courses they eventually teach. The purpose of this qualitative Delphi study was to identify, through expert agreement, instructional design competencies that can benefit high school online designers-by-assignment and the instructional design profession. This study employed the qualitative Delphi design to achieve consensus among experts in five fields (high school online practitioners, instructional design academics, university pre-service instructors, online high school administrators and high school online instructional designers).
When dealing with stress assignment on the word level, many exceptions to hitherto defined principles can be found in the English language. While some exceptions can be explained by word or morpheme boundaries, others do not fit so easliy into the underlying systematicity of English stress behaviour. Some are often described as simply being idiosyncratic. A new statistical analysis reveals that many of these exceptions do share some common features to a certain extent, in particular in their orthography. Can this kind of features be used to establish additional rules in order to account for exceptional cases of English stress assignment? Or is there no other means but to consider these cases as lexcially exceptional?
The green revolution has broughtbout a substantial change in rural area. With the expansion of irrigation facilities and agricultural modernisation, the rural production structure, land and labour markets are in the process of transition and change. In the land lease market different forms of land transactions are emerging and the land lease market is becoming more and more flexible. In post green revolution period, studies have been taken up to measure the impact of it on wage rates, duration of employment, labour hiring practices etc. The changing forms of land and labour markets have produced substantial impact on rural economy. The movement of very small and marginal farmers from production to labour processes and the entry of small and medium farmers in the land lease market have changed the structure of production and production relations. It is essential to analyse the dynamic process of change and its differential impact across the classes and sectors of the rural economy. With this background, the present research attempts to answer the research questions related to the emerging trends in land and labour markets in the irrigated area vis-a-vis the rainfed area.
Give your sand and water sessions a new lease of life with this fully updated Little Book, which provides fun and low-cost ideas for early years practitioners wanting to extend their ideas and link their play to the early learning goals.
Multinational organizations need to develop internationally sophisticated and skilled managers in order to compete with the competitive global environment. Organizations are finding it increasingly difficult to find employees who are willing to accept international assignments, one of the most powerful means to shape effective global leaders. Furthermore, organizations do not have an adequate understanding of what factors influence employees'' willingness to accept an international assignment. This study analyzes the impact of multiple factors which may influence an individual''s willingness to accept an international assignment. Prior research that investigated individuals'' willingness to accept an international assignment mainly focused on one particular aspect. Findings of this research include: students are generally more willing to accept a short-term than a long-term international assignment; male and female students are equally willing to accept international assignments; students are equally willing to accept international assignments within or outside of Europe; from seventeen European countries, students are most willing to work in the UK, Switzerland, Spain and Sweden.
This project is aimed at downloading and uploading online assignments for students; with each assignment having information about the instructions, description, deadline, and submission details. The main goal of this thesis is to design and implement online assignment submission and provide an interface use for uploading test program (Nant script file) by instructors, who would be able to evaluate assignments automatically. The system provides an interface for testing assignments such that they can be plugged in by the teachers. This testing could invoke a compiler and make a test-run of the compiled code and check the result or test for plagiarism, existence of certain documents or simply check the file type (extension). The most obvious advantage offered by online assignment submission is that it offers faster transmission of assignments than using traditional way by using online system. The interface use to invoke different testing program by teachers, So Save the time and cost for teachers by enabling them to put up a fast response for students as well as increasing the quality of the feedback provided to students.
The film tie-in edition of the cult classic Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?As the eagerly-anticipated new film Blade Runner 2049 finally comes to the screen, rediscover the world of Blade Runner...World War Terminus had left the Earth devastated. Through its ruins, bounty hunter Rick Deckard stalked, in search of the renegade replicants who were his prey. When he wasn't 'retiring' them with his laser weapon, he dreamed of owning a live animal - the ultimate status symbol in a world all but bereft of animal life.Then Rick got his chance: the assignment to kill six Nexus-6 targets, for a huge reward. But in Deckard's world things were never that simple, and his assignment quickly turned into a nightmare kaleidoscope of subterfuge and deceit - and the threat of death for the hunter, rather than the hunted...
In this book several multilayer particle deposition models are studied using simulations and analytical calculations. Multilayer particle deposition models are an extension of the classic car parking problem, first studied by the Hungarian mathematician Renyi. Several interesting properties of these type of processes are revealed. The focus of the book lies on the non-equality of end-densities of the layers. In some models the end-densities are lower in higher layers whereas in other models the end-densities are higher in higher layers. It is shown that in the latter case this is a result of self-organization. As an application, the results are used to analyze the so-called sequential frequency assignment process. For this purpose, the assignment of radio frequencies by national telecom authorities (using the foremost priority procedure) is regarded as a two-dimensional multilayer deposition model with discs.
Stress in Moroccan Arabic, and also in other languages, poses challenging problems for phonological theory. This is due to the fact that stress exhibits conflicting properties; which makes it difficult to provide answers to a number of issues. This book provides an investigation into a prominent aspect of prosodic phonology in Moroccan Arabic (a case study of the dialect of Rabat city), namely, stress assignment in the grammatical category of verbs within the framework of optimality theory as proposed in Prince and Smolensky and McCarthy and Prince. It particularly addresses a range of issues such as: the position of stress, the basis on which stress is located, the factors on the basis of which stress location is effected, the importance of the perceptual and the instrumental tests in shedding light on stress assignment, and the extent to which the optimality theoretic analysis confirm or disconfirm the results of the perceptual and the instrumental tests concerning stress placement. This book will be of interest to linguistics, teachers, researchers and to anyone interested in language study and phonological theory.
This book presents the basis for designing a control strategy for Shunt Active Power Filters used for the compensation of harmonic currents consumed by nonlinear loads. The design of the controller is carried out using the interconnection and damping assignment technique. The control objective is to inject the adequate compensation current into the power system, so that the grid current is sinusoidal and balanced, regardless of whether the grid voltage is distorted or unbalanced. This application uses a design methodology based on interconnection and damping assignment that allows trajectory tracking control because the references of the compensating currents are variable, and they depend on the performance of the load and the grid. References of the compensation currents are calculated by using Instantaneous Active-Reactive Power Theory.
The structure of any compound can be determined by various method but here it was done only by UV and IR spectrum . Product-01: The ?,?-unsaturated cyanoester (product-01) was prepared by carrying out the reaction between 2-methylbenzaldehyde and ethyl cyanoacetate in presence of NaOH as catalyst. The assignment to the structure of the compound was made on the basis of their UV and IR spectrum. Product-02 The ?,?-unsaturated cyanoester (product-02) was prepared by carrying out the reaction between 3-bromobenzaldehyde and ethyl cyanoacetate in presence of NaOH as catalyst. The assignment to the structure of the compound was made on the basis of their UV and IR spectrum. Product-03 The ?,?-unsaturated malonicester (product-03) was prepared by carrying out the reaction between 4-chlorobenzaldehyde and diethylmalonate in presence of NaOH as catalyst. The assignment to the structure of the compound was made on the basis of their UV and IR spectrum.
In recent years, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of communication networks. This is because they are widely used in all walks of life, and this trend continues increasing. The research on computer communication networking field has also grown explosively due to a large variety of combinatorial optimisation problems. One of these problems is the Terminal Assignment Problem which implies fixing the minimum cost links to construct a network between a specified set of terminals and concentrators. A good solution for this problem should maintain small distances between concentrators and terminals assigned to them without exceeding the capacity of any concentrator. Additionally, it should also maintain a balanced distribution of terminals among concentrators. The intractability of this problem is a motivation for the pursuits of different approximation algorithms. In this book, we explore several metaheuristics applied to the Terminal Assignment Problem and other similar problems. Simulation results verify the effectiveness of these algorithms.