The present book is an effort to trace the origin of the doctrine of essential facilities. The origin of the doctrine could be traced back to the US markets. The present book looks at the origin, evolution and current status of the doctrine of essential facilities. The concept as it developed in the US and EU overtime has gained in force all over the globe. The book explains that the doctrine is not established law but is nevertheless useful in determining the contours of effective and competitive business.
Housing is a basic need and critical issue in case of sheltering the low income people. Generally migrants and the local poor are considered as low income group. Low income people have limited earning and they cannot afford rental housing as their major portion of income goes to purpose of food. Affordable housing is a critical issue in view of the low income of people. Majority of low income people are living in poor quality housing where the absence of basic services and facilities are significant. In this study the characteristics of low income housing is specifically examined in respect of housing condition. The issue of affordability of low income people is examined in terms of their income and expenditure for purpose of rent and utility services and facilities. If the expenditure of rent and utility services is more than 30% of their total income then housing is not affordable for the low income people. In this study, effort is given to identify the causes of mobility and locational choice of the low income people. Frequent movement is considered as a barrier on the way of continuous income and affordable housing.
Полный вариант заголовка: «The doctrine of life for the New Jerusalem, from the commandements of the Decalogue / translated from the latin of Emanuel Swedenborg origanally published at Amsterdam in the year 1763».
The focus area of this paper is on the assignment problem with budget constraints which is one of the application area of combinatorial optimization that operates on the domain of those optimization problems,in which the set of feasible solutions is discrete or can be reduced to discrete,and in which the goal is to find the best solution. It is particularly concerned with solving the unconstrained assignment problems with Hungarian algorithm and the constrained assignment problem by cutting plane or outer linearization algorithm for solving the Lagrangian dual problem in which, at each iteration,the function that approximates the dual function is optimized. The paper is divided in to two chapters. In the first chapter,the classical assignment problem,the problem of finding optimum (minimum or maximum) cost or profit assignment a set of workers or resources to jobs or activities to gather with its mathematical formulation,solution methods and special cases in assignment problems were considered. Under the second chapter, we have considered generalization of the classical assignment problem concerning resource(or budget) constraints, due to the variety of real life problems.
Crop income is an important component of total income, among rural households in Pakistan and most of the share in agricultural growth is contributed from this sector. At the same time poverty alleviation is one of the key challenges in many developing economies like Pakistan. From a policy point of view, it becomes important to understand the relative importance of crop income in driving inter-household inequality and poverty. A number of studies in recent years have tried to show the relationship of different sources of income, income inequality and poverty in different countries but in Pakistan very little work has been done broadly. Therefore, this study contributes in the poverty and income inequality research by decomposing the crop income, to find out the contribution of different sources of income in crop income and income inequality across different farm sizes in two agro-climatic zones. This analysis is done by making a fine comparison between two agro climatic zones, because of the variability in percentage share of different sources of income in crop income and their poverty levels.
Income trusts are booming. They have been one of the best-performing classes of investments in one of the worst markets in decades. With over 150 trusts currently trading on the Toronto Stock Exchange at a combined value of over $90 billion, this relatively new vehicle, the income fund, is one of the hottest tickets on the Canadian investment landscape today. Written by two of the industry's top experts and commentators, this is the first book of its kind: a complete guide to the income trust industry in Canada. Includes complete coverage on: what income funds are and how to use them to your advantage; myths and facts about income funds; different types of income trusts; what to look for in an income trust, and how to assess the risks involved; how income trusts, and the investors in them, are taxed; funds of income funds; and much more. Explains what business owners need to know if they are considering converting their businesses into an income trust. Features listings and profiles of over 160 income funds currently available in Canada, including a description of each fund, performance history, and contact information. Designed for anyone interested in knowing how Canadian income funds work, including: investors, business owners, directors, trustees, stockbrokers, financial advisors, lawyers, accountants, investment bankers, and commercial bankers.
Assignment Problem is one of the first fundamental problems in the area of combinatorial optimization. Despite its historical roots, the problem has tremendous importance to date, due to its numerous real life applications in like facility location, personnel scheduling, job scheduling, production planning, project assignment, task assignment, time-tabling, vehicle routing, storage space allocation, etc. This book comprises some real life assignment and related problems involving imprecise cost/time parameters. In order to represent those imprecise parameters, interval numbers have been used here as this representation is the best among others. The associated problems have been solved using Genetic Algorithm efficiently. A salient feature of this book is that most of the algorithms have been written in a lucid manner with suitable examples using figures. This book should interest academicians, OR/GA practitioners and executives of different industries and business organizations.
The book analyses the doctrine of constructive resignation and discusses the extent to which the doctrine applies in Malawi. It offers an in-depth treatise on employment relationship, the rights and duties of employer and employee, respectively and the various modes of termination of employment. It takes a highly comparative approach and presents arguments in an amazingly clear fashion. It is a MUST-read for those who have a keen interest in learning employment law, and the interface between employment law, constitutional law and legal theory.
Полный вариант заголовка: «The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem respecting the Sacred Scripture : to which is appended, as illustrative of the subject, an explanation of the vision of White Horse, in the Revelation, chap.XIX / translated from the Latin of Emanuil Swedenborg ; originally published in the years 1763, and 1758».
The essential guide to fixed income portfolio management, from the experts at CFA Fixed Income Analysis is a new edition of Frank Fabozzi's Fixed Income Analysis, Second Edition that provides authoritative and up-to-date coverage of how investment professionals analyze and manage fixed income portfolios. With detailed information from CFA Institute, this guide contains comprehensive, example-driven presentations of all essential topics in the field to provide value for self-study, general reference, and classroom use. Readers are first introduced to the fundamental concepts of fixed income before continuing on to analysis of risk, asset-backed securities, term structure analysis, and a general framework for valuation that assumes no prior relevant background. The final section of the book consists of three readings that build the knowledge and skills needed to effectively manage fixed income portfolios, giving readers a real-world understanding of how the concepts discussed are practically applied in client-based scenarios. Part of the CFA Institute Investment series, this book provides a thorough exploration of fixed income analysis, clearly presented by experts in the field. Readers gain critical knowledge of underlying concepts, and gain the skills they need to translate theory into practice. Understand fixed income securities, markets, and valuation Master risk analysis and general valuation of fixed income securities Learn how fixed income securities are backed by pools of assets Explore the relationships between bond yields of different maturities Investment analysts, portfolio managers, individual and institutional investors and their advisors, and anyone with an interest in fixed income markets will appreciate this access to the best in professional quality information. For a deeper understanding of fixed income portfolio management practices, Fixed Income Analysis is a complete, essential resource.
Empirical findings show that incidence of poverty is on increase in developing countries, suggesting that decomposing income distribution among farm households can be an antidote for poverty reduction is best thought of. While drawing on Osun State Farm household data and using indicators like age, sex, marital status, educational background, income functions, poverty indices and various inequality measures; findings revealed that Agricultural Sector (Primary Income) epitomised the most significant inequality increasing source of income in the state and that other factors apart from income, contributes more to total income inequality. Likewise, primary occupation has great potential to mitigate poverty among the rural poor and could have an income - equalizing effect. The study recommended encouragement of secondary economic activities, training and provision of inputs, storage and infrastructure facilities and above all, creating enabling environment for education in Osun State.
In-depth coverage of variable income annuities With trillions of dollars in retirement savings assets, the tens of millions of Americans on the precipice of retirement need to convert these savings into retirement income. The fact that variable income annuities (VIAs) generate maximum lifetime income with zero probability of outliving it has spurred the need for more information about VIAs. The Handbook of Variable Income Annuities is by far the most comprehensive source of information on this topic. This book thoroughly describes the most important principles of optimal asset liquidation and demystifies VIA mechanics, so readers can gain a high comfort level with this important financial instrument. Interestingly and clearly, The Handbook of Variable Income Annuities explains the mathematical pricing of variable income annuities, expected rates of return, taxation, product distribution, legal aspects, and much more. Jeffrey K. Dellinger (Fort Wayne, IN), a Fellow of the Society of Actuaries and a member of the American Academy of Actuaries, has over 25 years experience in the financial services sector. He advises institutions on retirement income optimization, products, and markets.
Полный вариант заголовка: «Disquisitions relating to matter and spirit : to which is added The history of the philosophical doctrine concerning the origin of the soul, and the nature of matter; with its influence on Christianity, especially with respect to the doctrine of pre-existence of Christ / by Joseph Priestley».
Inequality in land ownerships leads to an uncertain relationship among agriculture growth, level of poverty and income inequality in the economy. The increasing population and decreasing share of crop income in total household income compels the households to concentrate on other diversified sub-sectors. Livestock is the most vibrant segment of agriculture sector which can be helpful for improving the situation. The need of time is to estimate share of livestock income in total household’s income, decomposition of livestock income into various components and to identify the relationship among different sources of livestock income, poverty and income inequality. This analysis can facilitate policy formulation. Moreover, conducting this analysis for different farm sizes and poverty bands in different agro-climatic zones can lead too much better understanding of role of various sources of livestock income in reducing poverty and income inequality.
This book explores the concept of financial capability as it applies to the well-being of low-income and financially vulnerable households in the United States. Social workers have only recently begun to apply the concept of financial capability to low-income households in the United States, and are beginning to understand how to build the financial capability of low-income households. One question that has already emerged from discussions within social work on financial capability is “What are the discrete and summative contributions of individual ability and financial inclusion to the well-being of low-income households?” This book explores the concept of financial capability, describes its theoretical foundations, and reviews the empirical literature on summative and discrete contributions of financial knowledge and financial inclusion to the well-being of low-income households.
We found that the workers in our sample have reasons to stay in the urban informal sector though their chances of moving into the formal sector may be quite limited. The reasons lie in the question of mobility of workers in terms of income and occupation. Regarding the income mobility, we found that higher income mobility was confined to very low levels of past income. However, some of those in higher income brackets in the past also experienced decline in their incomes. But what is noteworthy is that the percentage of that experiencing downward income mobility over time is much less than those who reported an increase in incomes. Therefore, the extent of upward income movement seems to exceed the downward income movement. But at the same time, workers have faced downward occupational mobility if the regular wage jobs are given the top priority. However, we cannot judge improvements only in terms of change in occupation categories; intra-occupational upward mobility in terms of income cannot be ruled out. From this point of view, we can say that the decision to migrate was not irrational at all even though these workers may be working within the informal sector their entire life.
In the contract of affreightment, there are many implied obligations applied unless the parties have agreed otherwise. The obligation not to deviate from the agreed route is one of the most important undertakings of the shipowner and the carrier. The doctrine of deviation has been regarded as a long-established doctrine in English maritime law, and its application is still controversial in court’s decisions.From the dissertation for Master of Laws (LL.M.) course, it becomes a highly accessible text for a reader interested in the subject. The book will provide a clear and comprehensive explanation of the doctrine of deviation including its evolution, consequences and recent application under the relevant law. Attention is also devoted to practical issues regarding the liberty to deviate clause and its interpretation by the court. A seperate chapter will deal with the legal effect of deviation on exclusion clauses and the contract of carriage of goods by sea. Throughout, the possible effect of the doctrine in the future will be discussed.
There has been an increase in housing demand for low-income urban dwellers as the case of Eldoret Municipality in Kenya has demonstrated. However, one factor that has not been looked at is housing demand elasticities. This study sought to investigate, demand elasticities for low income housing market in the municipality. The study revealed that, 1 per cent increase in the household’s income will increase housing demand for the low-income households by 0.960 per cent. On the contrary, 1 per cent increase in the price of housing services will decrease housing demand by 0.642 per cent, finally household income was found to be the most significant determinant of housing demand for the households, at 0.05 levels of significance. In conclusion demand for housing is positively responsive to income of the low-income households. Conversely, demand for housing is negatively responsive to the price of housing services for the low-income households, and finally income is the most significant determinant of housing demand for the low-income households in Eldoret Municipality.
Earning gaps between natives and immigrants in Sweden have been a widely discussed issue in the literature. The previous studies that examined the wage gaps mostly focused on educational attainment, tenure, generation of immigrants and ethnic origins. The distribution of immigrants’ income within different labour market sectors is almost unexplored. The paper analyzes several determinants of income among natives and immigrants. The effect of education and origin within different labour market sectors is of particular interest. The study aims to reveal which sector has more possibilities of income generation for immigrants and whether the employment in the sector leads to diminishing income gaps among natives and immigrants.The effect of three-way interactions “origin * industry * education” is intented to shed light on income differentials within labour market sectors.The analysis should be helpful for people interested in demograhy and migration issues.
In this research, the effect of income inequality as measured by the share of national income going to the wealthiest 10% of the nation in the U.S. is assessed for its significance at explaining stock returns in the U.S. market from 1927 to 2012. As suggested by the reviewed literature, income inequality has always been an important economic indicator. Theoretically, it has the potential to become one of the fundamental sources of risk affecting the stock price. To explore this relationship further, my research utilizes the Fama-French three factor model to obtain the inequality beta coefficient and the inequality risk premium. Consequently, the results suggest a relationship between income inequality and the rate of stock market participation, suggesting that income inequality does, in fact, influence the rate of return on stocks.
Due to economic stringency occasioned by inflation and competing pressure for government expenditure, higher education institutions are faced by serious financial problems, and are forced to diversify sources of funding to raise funds in the face of reduced public funding.The Various methods introduced to generate additional income are only offsetting a fraction of the huge financial burden facing them. The book exemplify how Institutions can fill these financial gaps and if the academic and support units have the capacity to significantly generate additional income. The book focused on the manpower and management characteristics, potential sources of income generation, resources that enhance income generation, factors responsible for income generation, challenges and possible solutions to Income Generating Activities in schools and Institutions of Higher Learning. The book is designed especially for managers of schools and institutions of Higher learning to fully exploit the potential sources of income generation and resources at their disposal in attaining full potential in the management of Income Generating Activities.
"The book breaks a new ground through the invention of the word 'otualogy. It represents a variation on the received task of a western theology which is expressed in conversation with Tongan cultural and social realities. It considers how the doctrine of God was 'miss-given' by the missionaries, 'miss-taken' by the Tongan hierarchy and thus 'miss-placed' subsequently in culture. The argument seeks to move away from linear line of thought and engage with a 'tidalectic' series of ebbing waves and flows. This book is unique insofar as its consideration of the missional legacy and consequences is through a theological doctrine rather than an historical study or through biblical hermeneutics. The argument is set within a wider context of international theological scholarship." Clive Pearson, Head of School of Theology, Charles Sturt University
The problem of distributing goods from depots to consumers plays an important role in the management of many distribution systems, and therefore when it is programmed efficiently it may yield significant savings. In a typical distribution system, trucks provide pick-up and delivery services to customers that are geographically dispersed in a given area. In many of its applications, the main objective of distribution is to find a set of routes for such trucks, satisfying a variety of constraints, so as to minimize the total distribution cost. This work focuses on a decision model for a real world problem. The problem reveals itself as assignment of trucks to routes by Latex Foam Rubber Products Limited-Kumasi, Ghana. This study addresses the problem of finding an efficient assignment of the limited number of trucks at the company’s disposal to the routes they ply while serving its customers outside the metropolis. In this work we use a solution procedure based on Munkres Assignment Algorithm for optimal assignment of non-homogenous fleet of trucks to a given set of routes, where Latex Foam Rubber Products Limited-Kumasi, distributes its products to its customers.
Tax rate change influences taxpayers'' behavior and hence taxable income and tax revenue of the state budget. Any such change can affect declared taxable income through its effect on quality or quantity of labor supply, savings, portfolio decisions, tax avoidance by legal means or illegal tax evasion. In this work I focus on elasticity of taxable income as an estimate of these behavioral responses to a (personal income) tax rate change. First, I summarize theoretical background and fundamental analyses dealing with elasticity of taxable income. Further, I describe one of the methods, and its constraints, used for in empirical work on elasticity estimation known as „difference-in-differences“. I apply this method and estimate elasticity of taxable income in the Czech Republic using several recent personal income tax reforms. Those estimates that are consistent with economic theory and common sense suggest, along with results from optimal taxation theory, that the top marginal personal income tax rate in the Czech Republic should not exceed 71.8%, but any lower tax rate is justifiable based on redistributive tastes of a government.
Fixed Income Management practices carried out by the Banks in India are covered in ‘Handbook of Fixed Income Securities: Indian Banking Perspective'' (ISBN 9783639255478) by the same author. Since the Fixed Income literature revolves around the term structure, this volume covers construction and behaviour of the same. The target audience includes officers in treasury and risk management departments of banks in India and students of investments and risk management. This book is also useful to those officers in banks in the emerging economies who lack the quantitative skills imperative for current style of fixed income management or who are not specialized in this area but transferred from a lending or marketing branch to the treasury or risk management department and entrusted with fixed income management.