A very accessible and concise guide to Islamic finance Contracts and Deals in Islamic Finance provides a clear breakdown of Islamic financial contracts and deal structures for beginners. The embedded requirements within selected Islamic financial contracts, such as risk weightage, capital structures, creations of cash flows, and balance sheets, are explained fully to provide a solid understanding of the backbone of the industry. Aimed primarily at beginners and those with a background in conventional banking, this book guides readers through the major contracts, how they're applied, and how to discern a contract's legitimacy. Case studies and interviews with bankers and global regulators provide real-life examples of contract application, and the author's own experiences provide deep insight into the everyday issues that arise. Ancillary instructor's materials include PowerPoint slides and lecture notes that facilitate use in the classroom. Literature describing the application of Islamic financial contracts is few and far between, and those providing a basic breakdown of these contracts and questioning their validity are rarer still. This book is the first of its kind, offering a basic approach to understanding Islamic contracts, designed for the true beginner. Understand the current contracts applied in Islamic banking Learn how contracts are applied across different jurisdictions Identify illegitimate contracts and those not in the spirit of Shariah law Examine the current economic realities surrounding Islamic finance By highlighting the underlying themes in Islamic finance and assessing the current practices, this book gives readers the solid understanding and up-to-date perspective that form a solid foundation upon which successful Islamic finance is practiced. For a solid introduction to the Islamic finance industry, Contracts and Deals in Islamic Finance is an accessible, practical guide.
Sale of goods contracts involving the sea carriage largely differ from traditional domestic sales contracts. CIF and FOB contracts represent the most commonly used shipment contracts. The author demonstrates the practical problems resulted from the distinctive characteristic of CIF and FOB contracts in terms of risk distribution in English law. The book contemplates to address the following problems: How the passage of risk in shipment terms affects the title of cargo interest to sue the carrier for the damage in transit; In this regards, the author discusses the contractual claims covering the endorsement issue of the bill of lading and non-contractual claims including tort, bailment and implied contract device. The author presents the problems with risk distribution and provides the practical solutions; analyses the issues concerning the passage of the property, to demonstrate that in practice the passage of property does not play a vital role to determine the title to sue. The second half of the book focuses on the detailed analysis of all the contractual remedies available for CIF and FOB seller and buyer covering all variations of shipment contracts.
The focus area of this paper is on the assignment problem with budget constraints which is one of the application area of combinatorial optimization that operates on the domain of those optimization problems,in which the set of feasible solutions is discrete or can be reduced to discrete,and in which the goal is to find the best solution. It is particularly concerned with solving the unconstrained assignment problems with Hungarian algorithm and the constrained assignment problem by cutting plane or outer linearization algorithm for solving the Lagrangian dual problem in which, at each iteration,the function that approximates the dual function is optimized. The paper is divided in to two chapters. In the first chapter,the classical assignment problem,the problem of finding optimum (minimum or maximum) cost or profit assignment a set of workers or resources to jobs or activities to gather with its mathematical formulation,solution methods and special cases in assignment problems were considered. Under the second chapter, we have considered generalization of the classical assignment problem concerning resource(or budget) constraints, due to the variety of real life problems.
In Kenya, most public and private universities have operated under performance contracts for quite some time. However, unlike in other sectors where research has been carried out to establish the success of performance contracts, no specific study has previously been conducted to establish how these tools are working in university libraries. This book is a culmination of a research conducted on 149 respondents from chartered public and private university libraries in Nairobi County who included library staff holding positions of library assistant (or its equivalent) and above at sampled university libraries. It provides an assessment of the unique factors that affect the success of performance contracts in university libraries and may be used as a reference material by students studying library and information science as well as managers especially those tasked with implementing performance contracts in educational settings, particularly in university libraries.
As a break from the past where organizations employed most of its personnel on a permanent basis, there have been a sharp rise in the use of short-term employment contracts within the Kenyan banking industry in the recent past. The main objective of this study was to investigate the factors that had contributed to the increased use of short-term employment contracts in the banking industry in Kenya. The specific focus of this study was to investigate the cost implication of short-term contracts, and determine the influence of workload fluctuations, business uncertainty and employee screening practices on the increased use of short-term contracts. The study was a census of all the registered 45 banking institution in Kenya. It was found that the main motives for hiring employees on short-term basis were related with matching staff to peak workload demands, saving on wage costs, having personnel for unusual working hours, covering staff absences (both long term and short term), and screening employees before giving them permanent jobs. The study concluded that the main factor contributing to increased use of short-term employments contracts is because these contracts are effective
Assignment Problem is one of the first fundamental problems in the area of combinatorial optimization. Despite its historical roots, the problem has tremendous importance to date, due to its numerous real life applications in like facility location, personnel scheduling, job scheduling, production planning, project assignment, task assignment, time-tabling, vehicle routing, storage space allocation, etc. This book comprises some real life assignment and related problems involving imprecise cost/time parameters. In order to represent those imprecise parameters, interval numbers have been used here as this representation is the best among others. The associated problems have been solved using Genetic Algorithm efficiently. A salient feature of this book is that most of the algorithms have been written in a lucid manner with suitable examples using figures. This book should interest academicians, OR/GA practitioners and executives of different industries and business organizations.
This book aims to helps hospital workers to implement principles of privacy of patient's information to avoid the breaching of privacy contracts and bad reputation.It creates awareness to organization that keep private information about customers on how to collect private information to meet legal obligations. Policy makers need to include a confidentiality clause in their contracts to cover the collection and the release of private information.
Take the mumbo jumbo out of contract law and ace your contracts course Contract law deals with the promises and agreements that law will enforce. Understanding contract law is vital for all aspiring lawyers and paralegals, and contracts courses are foundational courses within all law schools. Contract Law For Dummies tracks to a typical contracts course and assists you in understanding the foundational legal rules controlling voluntary agreements people enter into while conducting their personal and business affairs. Suitable as a supplement to introductory and advanced courses in contract law, Contract Law For Dummies gives you plain-English explanations of confusing terminology and aids in the reading and analysis of cases and statutes. Contract Law For Dummies gives you coverage of everything you need to know to score your highest in a typical contracts course. You'll get coverage of contract formation; contract defenses; contract theory and legality; agreement, consideration, restitution, and promissory estoppel; fraud and remedies; performance and breach; electronic contracts and signatures; and much more. Tracks to a typical contracts course Plain-English explanations demystify intimidating information Clear, practical information helps you interpret and understand cases and statutes If you're enrolled in a contracts course or work in a profession that requires you to be up-to-speed on the subject, Contract Law For Dummies has you covered.
The problem of distributing goods from depots to consumers plays an important role in the management of many distribution systems, and therefore when it is programmed efficiently it may yield significant savings. In a typical distribution system, trucks provide pick-up and delivery services to customers that are geographically dispersed in a given area. In many of its applications, the main objective of distribution is to find a set of routes for such trucks, satisfying a variety of constraints, so as to minimize the total distribution cost. This work focuses on a decision model for a real world problem. The problem reveals itself as assignment of trucks to routes by Latex Foam Rubber Products Limited-Kumasi, Ghana. This study addresses the problem of finding an efficient assignment of the limited number of trucks at the company’s disposal to the routes they ply while serving its customers outside the metropolis. In this work we use a solution procedure based on Munkres Assignment Algorithm for optimal assignment of non-homogenous fleet of trucks to a given set of routes, where Latex Foam Rubber Products Limited-Kumasi, distributes its products to its customers.
For anyone who wants to practice in maritime law, or to a wider extent, commercial law, the interpretation of contracts is a topic of vital significance.In the world of maritime contracts, no matter that they are charterparties or marine insurance contracts, a great number of disputes arise because different parties of the same contract have different explanations to the meaning of contracts. The courts therefore have responsibilities to use some principles to settle the disputes.Law school students usually do not exploit this important field, which may not be helpful for the development of these would-be lawyers. Fortunately, the learned judges, however, did not neglect this difficult but fascinating area. For hundreds of years, in hundreds of cases, they are keeping exploring it, formulating and creating numerous principles regarding the methods of interpretation. In this thesis, therefore, an attempt is made to set these principles out and discuss them with particular regard to maritime law.
Nowadays, the decline of the age of oil expecting in 2050 push many oil-producing countries to want to change their oil laws, to nationalize or expropriate foreign oil companies operating in their territories, to renegotiate their former petroleum contracts in order to better adapt them to the current circumstances and implement policies for strengthening the control of national and foreign petroleum activities. The rising of large (national or) foreign direct investments in search of new oilfield around the world reflects the panic of the decline of oil and its legal consequences. This situation will help us to analyze and understand legal issues that arise in the State contracts especially petroleum contracts signed between, on the one hand the host state of investment, subject of international law and owner of petroleum resources contained into its territory, and on the other hand, the foreign investors or a private foreign oil company, which is a non-state actor of international law. Keywords: State contract, Petroleum contracts, stabilization clause
Many large construction projects, such as those in the Middle East or Asia Pacific, are international in scope with a range of contractors and subcontractors signing contracts for delivery of specified work or services. The contractual situation in these instances may be complex and potentially includes a range of standard and bespoke contractual arrangements. In addition, the parties to these contracts may be based in different parts of the world, and are often working to different legal systems and understandings. This can lead to confusion in the understanding, interpretation and execution of a given contract. International Construction Contracts provides concise and practical guidance to those involved in the negotiation and management of international construction and engineering contracts. It sets out in clear, straightforward language the main features of construction contracts and international dispute resolution procedures. It ensures the reader is aware of the issues that might arise on the contractual side of their project so that they may better protect their party's interests. Many of the features and points discussed are illustrated by reference to the popular FIDIC contracts and the book includes a commentary on the two most widely used FIDIC design-build forms, the Yellow and Silver Books. Also included in the book is a fully worked example of a typical ICC arbitration from start to finish, with «pleadings», a detailed case narrative and commentary on events, and an example arbitration award. The ICC and SIAC arbitration rules are also provided. Written for construction professionals, the book will be of great interest to engineers, architects, project managers, quantity surveyors, contract managers and contract administrators working on international projects.
Success in law school is hard work and results from a combination of factors; such as, Memorization of Rules of Law, Application of FIRAC, Analytical Reasoning, and Diligence, Perseverance and Commitment. In this series, you will learn the FIRAC technique, the fundamental and foundational black letter rules of law for the first-year law school subjects, and the keys to sound analytical reasoning techniques. In law school contracts your primary goal is to focus on the substantive principles of Common Law, the Restatement of Contracts, and the Uniform Commercial Code. It is important to remember that in law school contracts the goal is not to teach you the practical principles of contract law but to teach you to think about identifying issues and memorizing the rules of law associated with Contracts so that you can excel on law school exams, and ultimately the Bar exam.
A wireless mesh networks (WMNs) has emerged recently, WMN consist of two types of nodes mesh routers and mesh clients.WMN is dynamically self-organized and self-configured, with the nodes in the network automatically establishing and maintaining mesh connectivity among themselves. Channel assignment is a critical issue in WMN which is the mapping between the available channels and the radios at each node such that the network performance is optimized, and hence the focus of this work along with static channel assignment, multi-radio, multi-channel. Multi-radio MAC can potentially achieve higher network capacity than single-radio MAC. We design and implement a new agent (DSBCA) distributed channel assignment spanner base, the routing protocol Optimize the network performance considering the throughput, end-to-end delay, connectivity and the interference of our channel assignment algorithm. Base on the network simulations NS2.34 on Linux Fedora and our proposed channel assignment algorithm improved the throughput, minimal-connectivity preserving channel assignment algorithm.
Negotiating and agreeing executive contracts requires an understanding of areas as diverse as valuation, employment law, tax and accounting. Covering the appointment of UK executives under contracts governed by UK law, this volume of essays is intended to help anyone involved in the appointment and termination process.
Contracts for the supply of digital content are fraught with legal issues extending beyond contract law. The contributions to this volume analyse the challenges and gaps in European Commission’s proposed Directive (COM(2015) 634 final) from the perspectives of contract law, copyright, and data protection.
The efficient management of Change Requests (CRs) is fundamental for successful software maintenance; however the assignment of CRs to developers is an expensive aspect in this regard, due to the time and expertise demanded. To overcome this, researchers have proposed automated approaches for CR assignment. Although these proposals present advances to this topic, they do not consider many factors inherent to the assignments, such as: developers’ workload, CRs severity, interpersonal relationships, and developers know-how. Actually, as we demonstrate in this work, CR assignment is a complex activity and automated approaches cannot rely on simplistic solutions. Ideally, it is necessary to consider and reason over contextual information in order to provide an effective automation. Beyond investigating all these aspects through an extensive systematic literature review, this work also proposes a context-aware architecture solution to semi-automated assignment of CRs.
Modern day public transport assignment faces lots of problems. Solutions may exist but needs some form of backings. A sensitivity analysis in most cases could just be sufficient to provide this backing. The developments in this book are very important for students, academic researchers and policy makers. The book provides an extensive review on transit assignment, sensitivity analysis and OmniTRANS. It highlights important conclusions such as:- - Passenger access-egress distances significantly affects their access stop choices. - The travel distance parameter of the generalized cost function has the highest influence on transit assignment - The number of transfers to be made by passengers significantly determines their generalized cost of travel - A carefully conducted partial sensitivity analysis can provide better predictions than a Monte-Carlo sensitivity analysis. As a policy advice to public transport operators in Flanders-Belgium, the developments in this book suggest that; to improve transit assignment, it is sufficient to reduce passengers access-egress distances & the number of transfers either through the institution of more direct transit lines or missing links.
The highly competitive environment in today's wireless and cellular network industries is making the management of systems seek for better and more advance techniques to keep masses of data, complexity of systems and deadline constrains under control with a lower cost and higher efficiency. Therefore, the management is getting significant attentions by researchers in order to increase the efficiency of the resource usage to provide high quality services. Two of the cornerstones of the management system in wireless and cellular network are carrier assignment and packet scheduling. Therefore, this work focuses on analysis and development of carrier assignment and packet scheduling methods in multi-band Wi-Fi and LTE-A networks.
Revision with unchanged content. This study investigated the influence of computer-generated reminders on the rate in which distance learners submitted assignments and completed courses. The computer-generated reminders, sent via email, served as a time management support strategy. Participants were randomly divided into two groups: control and treatment. Both groups received a list of target due dates for course assignments. The control group did not receive reminders. The treatment group received reminders when they failed to submit an assignment by a target due date. The results indicated no significant difference between the control and treatment groups in terms of assignment submission rates and course completion rates. However, results of this study did reveal that the number of assignments in a distance course influences the timeliness of assignment completion and the likelihood of course completion.
Revision with unchanged content. In this book we define a methodology for the semi-automated aggregation and adaptation of Web services capable of suitably overcoming semantic and behaviour mismatches in view of business process integration within and across organisational boundaries. We tackle the aggregation and adaptation of services described by service contracts, which consist of signature (WSDL), ontology information (OWL), and behaviour specification (YAWL). We first describe an aggregation technique that automatically generates contracts of composite services satisfying (behavioural) client requests from a registry of service contracts. Further on, we present a behaviour-aware adaptation technique that supports the customisation of services to fulfil client requests. The adaptation technique can be used to adapt the behaviour of services to satisfy both functional and behavioural requests. We support the generation of service contracts from real-world service descriptions by introducing a pattern-based compositional translator for the automated generation of YAWL workflows from BPEL business processes. In this way, we pave the way for the formal analysis, aggregation, and adaptation of BPEL processes.
Many building projects are the subject of claims – the assertion of a right, usually by the contractor, to an extension of the contract period or an additional payment under the terms of the building contract. Many of these claims are unsound or ill-founded, often because the basic principles are misunderstood. This highly regarded book examines the legal basis of claims for extensions of time and additional payment, and what can and cannot be claimed under the main forms of contract. It includes chapters dealing with direct loss and expense, liquidated damages, extension of time, concurrency problems, acceleration, time at large, common law and contractual claims, global claims, and heads of claim and their substantiation. With the publication of the fifth edition, Building Contract Claims has been thoroughly revised to ensure it is fully up to date with the latest contracts, court judgments and building practice. Changes include: Coverage of over 60 additional relevant court cases Coverage of the 2005 JCT contracts suite Coverage of changes to the NEC contract Coverage of additional contracts such as Constructing Excellence; Measured Term Contract and the ACA PPC2000 contract together with the 2005 relevant JCT sub-contracts Important changes to liquidated damages and to extensions of time, and the giving of notices Appendix 1 has been substantially revised Like its predecessors, the fifth edition of Building Contract Claims will be essential reading for architects, contract administrators, project managers and quantity surveyors, as well as contractors, contracts consultants and construction lawyers.
During the last century, dominating economic interest sparked an evolution of American contracting practices. Mass-market industries, including cell phone carriers, car industries, and hospitals enacted contractual practices that facilitated business agreements with thousands while judicial rulings empowered business interests. Today, businesses contract from a position of such superior bargaining power that the American non-drafting party is vulnerable to victimization. The contractual relationship between empowered businesses and non-drafting consumers is the focus of this book. Through the analysis of judicial and legislative history, this note will explore where subversive contracts exist in society and what consumers need to be conscious of when contracting. This discussion will argue for the adoption of protectionary measures to shield consumers from overly empowered business contracts.
Launched in 1991, the New Engineering Contract (NEC) has become one of the UK's leading standard forms of contract for major construction and civil engineering projects. Currently in the third edition, popularly known as NEC 3, it is a process based construction contract embodying project management best practice, and thus the basic philosophy behind the contract is different to the more adversarial principles and approach of other standard construction contracts. Written as a practical guide to the application of the procedures contained in NEC 3, this book will aid users in the transition from their use and understanding of the other standard construction contracts to the collaborative project management based approach of the ECC. Written for anyone working in the construction industry working on a project under the ECC, it will be of interest to the complete construction supply chain including employers, construction professions, contractors and sub-contractors. It will also be of interest to consultants and lawyers advising any of these parties, either in the preparation of contract documentation or the resolution of problem situations which may arise. A practical guide to the application of the procedures contained in the NEC Engineering and Construction Contracts Written specifically for people actually using and administering the NEC contracts – rather than lawyers Covers all the variations created by the Main and Secondary Options
In cellular mobile communication, since there will be conversation in progress in case of handover calls, GOS for them should be less than that for newly originating calls. Basically, there are three channel assignment schemes, fixed, dynamic & hybrid channel assignment schemes for handling newly originating and handover calls. In this study, capacity design for cellular mobile network in area inside ring road in Kathmandu valley has been done according to the findings of data collection and analysis of mobile communication service being provided by Nepal Telecom. Capacity planning has been done with GOS equal to 2% for newly originating calls and 1% for handover calls. In addition to capacity planning, efficient channel assignment scheme in terms of blocking and throughput has been evaluated with optimal utilization of the designed capacity for getting minimum blocking for both types of calls maintaining the blocking for handover calls always less than that for newly originating calls. The simulated values of GOS & throughput for all channel assignment schemes at different penetration have been compared and hybrid channel assignment scheme has been found to be most efficient.
Since the early 1980s thousands of Indonesian women have migrated to the Middle East to work on two-year contracts as domestic servants. Many were married and already had young children. Under the conditions of the contract, their families had to remain in Indonesia and thus their young children were entrusted to caregivers. The book evaluates the impact of childcare strategies of substitute caregivers on morbidity and nutritional status of children of mothers on overseas labour contracts. Despite the fact that the children of women on labour contracts lived away from their mothers, their morbidity pattern was not significantly different from those whose mothers were present. But stunting among children of migrants was greater, suggesting chronic malnutrition. Notwithstanding the high earnings of women workers, their families lived in poverty. Also children of migrant mothers did not benefit from their mothers' earnings partly because of the spending patterns of their family left behind.
Over the years, the efficiency of air transport has made it one of the most solicited modes of transport. Sadly, an aircraft cannot be easily possessed.In fact, public and private entities are often deprived of the wonders of air transport for financial reasons.The option of leasing provides a plausible solution but leases are unique and legally sensitive.This book demystifies an apparently complex contract by treating the legal regime, types,rights,obligations, applicable law,sanctions and even remedies for breaches of aircraft lease contracts. The effective use of aircraft lease contracts depends on a mastery of the legal implications involved. The increasing popularity of aircraft leases makes this book an indispensible negotiation tool for aircraft operators both private and public.Samples of lease contracts have been used to enhance understanding.This book is a legal solution to a socio-economic problem so should be obtained and read.
Construction industry invests considerable time and effort in planning projects & significantly less time is devoted to understanding what happens when a project is suspended or terminated. Suspensions and Terminations of contracts are one the most dangerous issues faced by the parties to the contract due to its consequences. In UAE, most of the clients use FIDIC Red Book with modifications for entering into a works contract. While the parties may include termination clauses in the contract, the UAE civil code also contains provisions that deal with suspension & termination clauses for work contracts called “Muqawala” contracts. Various clauses & their interpretation have been a point of debate as there is no clarity on what needs to be followed during the disputes. This book aims to evaluate the risks associated with the suspension & termination clauses among various parties, give a deeper insight on the Sharia law principles for work contracts falling under Muqawala & compare them with FIDIC clauses. In depth literature is available on UAE Civil Code relevant to construction laws. A survey is conducted to capture the needs of the industry & a number of recommendations are made.