Assignment is a crucial topic in commercial law, and this new work by Gregory Tolhurst is the most comprehensive work on the assignment of contractual rights ever published. It seeks to explain the existence, meaning and application of the rules governing the assignment of contractual rights and it does this by reference to the idea that assignments involve transfers. The book is logically structured to follow the issues that arise in planning, drafting and enforcing an assignment, including: - what is meant by 'assignment'; - what is the distinction between legal and equitable assignments; - how an assignable contractual right is identified; - what formalities apply to assignment; and - what rights and remedies are available to the parties to an assignment. The topic of assignment is of such universal importance to commercial lawyers that all practicing lawyers will find this work invaluable. However, the work will also be required reading for academics teaching contract, equity and personal property.
The focus area of this paper is on the assignment problem with budget constraints which is one of the application area of combinatorial optimization that operates on the domain of those optimization problems,in which the set of feasible solutions is discrete or can be reduced to discrete,and in which the goal is to find the best solution. It is particularly concerned with solving the unconstrained assignment problems with Hungarian algorithm and the constrained assignment problem by cutting plane or outer linearization algorithm for solving the Lagrangian dual problem in which, at each iteration,the function that approximates the dual function is optimized. The paper is divided in to two chapters. In the first chapter,the classical assignment problem,the problem of finding optimum (minimum or maximum) cost or profit assignment a set of workers or resources to jobs or activities to gather with its mathematical formulation,solution methods and special cases in assignment problems were considered. Under the second chapter, we have considered generalization of the classical assignment problem concerning resource(or budget) constraints, due to the variety of real life problems.
Assignment Problem is one of the first fundamental problems in the area of combinatorial optimization. Despite its historical roots, the problem has tremendous importance to date, due to its numerous real life applications in like facility location, personnel scheduling, job scheduling, production planning, project assignment, task assignment, time-tabling, vehicle routing, storage space allocation, etc. This book comprises some real life assignment and related problems involving imprecise cost/time parameters. In order to represent those imprecise parameters, interval numbers have been used here as this representation is the best among others. The associated problems have been solved using Genetic Algorithm efficiently. A salient feature of this book is that most of the algorithms have been written in a lucid manner with suitable examples using figures. This book should interest academicians, OR/GA practitioners and executives of different industries and business organizations.
In recent years, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of communication networks. This is because they are widely used in all walks of life, and this trend continues increasing. The research on computer communication networking field has also grown explosively due to a large variety of combinatorial optimisation problems. One of these problems is the Terminal Assignment Problem which implies fixing the minimum cost links to construct a network between a specified set of terminals and concentrators. A good solution for this problem should maintain small distances between concentrators and terminals assigned to them without exceeding the capacity of any concentrator. Additionally, it should also maintain a balanced distribution of terminals among concentrators. The intractability of this problem is a motivation for the pursuits of different approximation algorithms. In this book, we explore several metaheuristics applied to the Terminal Assignment Problem and other similar problems. Simulation results verify the effectiveness of these algorithms.
The problem of distributing goods from depots to consumers plays an important role in the management of many distribution systems, and therefore when it is programmed efficiently it may yield significant savings. In a typical distribution system, trucks provide pick-up and delivery services to customers that are geographically dispersed in a given area. In many of its applications, the main objective of distribution is to find a set of routes for such trucks, satisfying a variety of constraints, so as to minimize the total distribution cost. This work focuses on a decision model for a real world problem. The problem reveals itself as assignment of trucks to routes by Latex Foam Rubber Products Limited-Kumasi, Ghana. This study addresses the problem of finding an efficient assignment of the limited number of trucks at the company’s disposal to the routes they ply while serving its customers outside the metropolis. In this work we use a solution procedure based on Munkres Assignment Algorithm for optimal assignment of non-homogenous fleet of trucks to a given set of routes, where Latex Foam Rubber Products Limited-Kumasi, distributes its products to its customers.
A wireless mesh networks (WMNs) has emerged recently, WMN consist of two types of nodes mesh routers and mesh clients.WMN is dynamically self-organized and self-configured, with the nodes in the network automatically establishing and maintaining mesh connectivity among themselves. Channel assignment is a critical issue in WMN which is the mapping between the available channels and the radios at each node such that the network performance is optimized, and hence the focus of this work along with static channel assignment, multi-radio, multi-channel. Multi-radio MAC can potentially achieve higher network capacity than single-radio MAC. We design and implement a new agent (DSBCA) distributed channel assignment spanner base, the routing protocol Optimize the network performance considering the throughput, end-to-end delay, connectivity and the interference of our channel assignment algorithm. Base on the network simulations NS2.34 on Linux Fedora and our proposed channel assignment algorithm improved the throughput, minimal-connectivity preserving channel assignment algorithm.
Modern day public transport assignment faces lots of problems. Solutions may exist but needs some form of backings. A sensitivity analysis in most cases could just be sufficient to provide this backing. The developments in this book are very important for students, academic researchers and policy makers. The book provides an extensive review on transit assignment, sensitivity analysis and OmniTRANS. It highlights important conclusions such as:- - Passenger access-egress distances significantly affects their access stop choices. - The travel distance parameter of the generalized cost function has the highest influence on transit assignment - The number of transfers to be made by passengers significantly determines their generalized cost of travel - A carefully conducted partial sensitivity analysis can provide better predictions than a Monte-Carlo sensitivity analysis. As a policy advice to public transport operators in Flanders-Belgium, the developments in this book suggest that; to improve transit assignment, it is sufficient to reduce passengers access-egress distances & the number of transfers either through the institution of more direct transit lines or missing links.
This book contains a good literature survey of various mathematical models and routing & wavelengths assignment algorithms in WDM optical networks. Some of the new algorithms for optimization of blocking probability have aslo been covered. This book is good for researchers who are working on optical networks and advancements in fiber optics communication. Mathematical models covered in this book are simple and easy to implement. A good number of routing and wavelength assignment algorithms have also been covered in this book which can be used to reduce blocking probability of the optical network. This book can be very helpful to the research scholars.
In order to protect the consumer against exaggerated or misleading health claims on foods and food supplements, to enable the consumer to make informed buying decisions, and to harmonise national regulations to facilitate the free flow of food products in the European Community, a regulatory framework has been created which requires that all health claims in the EU must be evaluated by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and authorised by the European Commission. In this master's thesis, the regulatory framework and procedures for health claims in both the EU and the USA are compiled, described and compared. The required body of scientific evidence for successful application for authorisation of health claims is discussed regarding regulatory requirements, design of clinical trials, and appropriate study populations. It is fathomed why claims are approved or rejected in Europe based on previous Scientific Opinions of the EFSA. Finally, the accessibility and possible benefits of health claims for food (supplement) vendors, especially small and medium-sized enterprises, are examined. The relevance of the approved health claims for public health is also shortly discussed.
This analysis examined the reliability and validity claims of a modified version of the Spanish Modern Language Association Foreign Language Proficiency Test. The study used a computerized version that was administered to 277 test-takers. The study’s design was framed by the investigative steps proposed by Messick (1989) and Nitko and Brookhart (2007). An ex post facto approach was used, which mixed the confirmatory factor analysis and multiple regression analyses with descriptive interpretations. The quantitative analyses examined the impact of nationality, gender and average time spent on completing the tasks on the five subscales of this particular examination. The analyses provided mixed results related to the predictors’ ability to explain the subscale scores. The descriptive analyses revealed numerous validity flaws and gaps in the test construction. Such inadequacies overshadowed the positive aspects and eventually led to my questioning of the hypothesis that the judgments based on data from these particular examinations are reliable and valid. Recommendations for possible revisions were made, along with suggestions for future research avenues.
The US highway system is the largest road network system in the world. Michigan Department of Transportation (MDOT) administers about 9,722 route-miles, (28,000 lane-miles) of roadway networks in Michigan. Every year, hundreds of projects worth millions of dollars are let by the State Transportation Agency (STA). Majority of these projects are successfully completed within the original scope of work, budget, schedule, and without litigation. However; some projects end up in litigation and disputes costing tax payers a great amount of money and the STA a great amount of resources. The number and cost of these construction claims has been substantially increasing in recent years. Research on this topic has been limited to-date. Therefore, a research on this subject is needed to investigate all of the factors affecting highway construction claims to improve efficiency and effectiveness of highway project delivery.
Ipomoea sepiaria commomly known as Lakshmana belonging to the family Convolvulaceae and is a glabrous or occasionally pubescent, slender twinning climber with a slightly thickened or tuberous perennial root and leaf with dull purplish patches in the centre and pink to purplish flowers. The drug is reputed in folklore system of medicine for various therapeutic properties like, aphrodisiac and antidote to arsenic poisoning, tonic, rejuvenating, diuretic, laxative, uterotonic & sterility in women and root is indicated especially in diabetes.
When dealing with stress assignment on the word level, many exceptions to hitherto defined principles can be found in the English language. While some exceptions can be explained by word or morpheme boundaries, others do not fit so easliy into the underlying systematicity of English stress behaviour. Some are often described as simply being idiosyncratic. A new statistical analysis reveals that many of these exceptions do share some common features to a certain extent, in particular in their orthography. Can this kind of features be used to establish additional rules in order to account for exceptional cases of English stress assignment? Or is there no other means but to consider these cases as lexcially exceptional?
Problems in assessment of damages remain among the most contentious aspects of private law disputes. The assessment exercise becomes particularly difficult when one of the parties asks that damages be assessed in some foreign currency or claims that, even though damages should be assessed in the currency of the forum, foreign exchange losses should form a head of loss. The 1975 decision of the House of Lords in Miliangos v George Frank (Textiles) Ltd was revolutionary in that it permitted English courts to award judgment in a foreign currency. Miliangos has been influential throughout the common law world and courts in the commonwealth and the United States now contemplate awarding damages in currencies other than their own. However, that modernisation has hardly eliminated the problems in this area. When may a judge assess damages in a currency other than that of the forum? If a court elects to assess damages in its own currency, what conversion date should it select in converting from a foreign currency that was relevant to the obligations between the parties? In an age of fluctuating currencies questions of this nature present judges with choices involving significant financial implications. This book takes a comparative look at how common law courts have addressed damages claims when foreign currencies are involved, and at statutory responses to that issue. It describes the practices of UK, Commonwealth and American courts in this field and draws both on principles of private international law and of damages assessment to analyse current practice.
The concept of functional foods is still evolving, as new products are launched on a regular basis. This sector of the food industry is growing due to the relationship between food and health. This book presents a concise review of functional food concepts, market trends and functional ingredients that makes the food "functional". It also examines some of the health claims and regulatory issues in some selected countires. The factors that may influence functional food choices and new product development were carefully reviewed. This book is written to demystify the concepts of functional foods, with the final consumers in mind. This book is relevant to students interested in functional food marketing and for investors in food business who may want to develop food products in this category of food in the food industry.
This project is aimed at downloading and uploading online assignments for students; with each assignment having information about the instructions, description, deadline, and submission details. The main goal of this thesis is to design and implement online assignment submission and provide an interface use for uploading test program (Nant script file) by instructors, who would be able to evaluate assignments automatically. The system provides an interface for testing assignments such that they can be plugged in by the teachers. This testing could invoke a compiler and make a test-run of the compiled code and check the result or test for plagiarism, existence of certain documents or simply check the file type (extension). The most obvious advantage offered by online assignment submission is that it offers faster transmission of assignments than using traditional way by using online system. The interface use to invoke different testing program by teachers, So Save the time and cost for teachers by enabling them to put up a fast response for students as well as increasing the quality of the feedback provided to students.
Stress in Moroccan Arabic, and also in other languages, poses challenging problems for phonological theory. This is due to the fact that stress exhibits conflicting properties; which makes it difficult to provide answers to a number of issues. This book provides an investigation into a prominent aspect of prosodic phonology in Moroccan Arabic (a case study of the dialect of Rabat city), namely, stress assignment in the grammatical category of verbs within the framework of optimality theory as proposed in Prince and Smolensky and McCarthy and Prince. It particularly addresses a range of issues such as: the position of stress, the basis on which stress is located, the factors on the basis of which stress location is effected, the importance of the perceptual and the instrumental tests in shedding light on stress assignment, and the extent to which the optimality theoretic analysis confirm or disconfirm the results of the perceptual and the instrumental tests concerning stress placement. This book will be of interest to linguistics, teachers, researchers and to anyone interested in language study and phonological theory.
On assignment in Vienna, photographer Ian Jarrett falls passionately in love with the mysterious and beautiful Marian. Back in the UK, Ian resolves to leave his wife for her - only to find Marian has disappeared, and the photographs of their brief time together have been savagely destroyed. Searching desperately for her, Ian comes across a quiet Dorset churchyard. Here he meets a psychotherapist, who is looking for a missing client of hers: a woman who claims she is the reincarnation of Marian Esguard, who may have invented photography ten years before Fox Talbot. But why is Marian Esguard unknown to history? And who and where is the woman Ian Jarrett has sacrificed everything for?
Real advice you can trust and use in small claims court When every other method to collect has failed, a small claim is the right remedy to seek. If you're looking at either prosecuting or defending in a small claims court, with or without an attorney, the information presented in Filing & Winning Small Claims For Dummies is indispensable. The nuances of small claims courts vary from state to state, but the basic approach in preparing and presenting a small claims case is extremely uniform no matter where you are. Regardless of state or circumstance, you can find, trust, and use the info in Filing & Winning Small Claims For Dummies to prepare yourself for your court date. You'll find everything you need to know including establishing a case, settling or mediating a dispute, fees, applications, and other paperwork, statues of limitations, securing witnesses and experts, preparing for court, filing for appeal, case studies and more. Filing & Winning Small Claims For Dummies also includes the most current information and resources on specific laws, statues, dollar limits, and procedures. Includes the most current information and resources on specific laws, statues, dollar limits, and procedures Offers practical information on securing witnesses and experts Complemented with real-world examples of small claims court cases If you're headed to small claims court, either as a plaintiff or a defendant, you'll want Filing & Winning Small Claims For Dummies in your corner!
In this book we consider the Frequency Assignment Problem, where the objective is to minimize the cost due to interference arising in a solution. We use a quadratic 0-1 integer programming formulation of the problem as a basis to derive new lower bounds and problem reduction rules. A tree search algorithm that uses the lower bounds and dominance criteria is also presented. Computational results are shown on standard benchmark instances from the literature.
This study examined application of management policies in processing member claims in National Social Security Fund, Nakuru by identifying policies, characterize claims processing; determine policies’ relative importance and effect. Primary data was taken from 40 NSSF staff and 30 retirees in Nakuru Municipality using structured questionnaires. Data was analyzed using SPSS by descriptive and inferential statistics (Factor and Chi Square), and findings presented in frequency tables, graphs and pie charts. Findings were: most staff were familiar with policies applied in the order: customer service and corporate imaging (.727), change management (.605), human resource capacity development (.581), products positioning, marketing and research (.437), information and communication technology (.225). The study hypothesis was not rejected implying that policies’ application has not improved claims processing. Challenges in order of merit: Goal clarity (.737), communication (.615), employee motivation (.571), knowledge structure (.427), organizational environment (.215), training and development (.125). The recommendation was urgently address the policies applied to a lesser extent.
Private Law and Property Claims sets out a distinctive analysis of some general issues in private law, including the nature of categories such as contract, tort and property, duties and liabilities as the basis of claims in private law, and the relationship between primary rights and remedies. In the light of this analysis, it offers a new approach to property in private law, including claims that arise to protect and recover property. It goes on to discuss the law of trusts, fiduciary relationships, and tracing; the remedial role of the trust; the nature of equity as a legal category; and the relationship between property and claims in tort to protect property. It also exposes the misconceptions underlying the modern approach to restitution and unjust enrichment and the problems this is causing in private law.
The fundamental goal of multi-agent robotics is simple: how to create control laws and behaviors that, when executed by each individual robot, some desirable global behavior emerges. The global behavior may range from something as simple as the robots meeting at a single point, to something as complex as a collective search and rescue mission. Our research focuses on one of the more fundamental issues in multi-agent, mobile robotics: the formation control problem. The idea is to create controllers that cause robots to move into a predened formation shape. This is a well studied problem for the scenario in which the robots know in advance to which point in the formation they are assigned. In our case, we assume this information is not given in advance, but must be determined dynamically. This thesis presents an algorithm that can be used by a network of mobile robots to simultaneously determine ecient robot assignments and formation pose for rotationally and translationally invariant formations. This allows simultaneous role assignment and formation sysnthesis without the need for additional control laws.
Mesh Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) is a promising access network to enhance channels utilization, extend access coverage using simple and cheap network components. Power management affects mesh WLAN network coverage, topology, throughput, traffic routing and end to end delay. Channel assignment affects the mesh nodes interference level and so the transmission capacity. It also controls the number of nodes share the same channel which increases the probability of collision and reduces the network throughput. In this book, the power management problem is formulated to show its impact on mesh WLAN network throughput. Then this formulation is used to propose a new ranking based cooperative game strategy. Mesh WLAN channel assignment problem is also formulated. Then different algorithms throughput and processing delay is analyzed. This analysis is based on evaluating average users’ data rate and processing delay for different assignment techniques in many mesh WLAN network configurations.
In cellular mobile communication, since there will be conversation in progress in case of handover calls, GOS for them should be less than that for newly originating calls. Basically, there are three channel assignment schemes, fixed, dynamic & hybrid channel assignment schemes for handling newly originating and handover calls. In this study, capacity design for cellular mobile network in area inside ring road in Kathmandu valley has been done according to the findings of data collection and analysis of mobile communication service being provided by Nepal Telecom. Capacity planning has been done with GOS equal to 2% for newly originating calls and 1% for handover calls. In addition to capacity planning, efficient channel assignment scheme in terms of blocking and throughput has been evaluated with optimal utilization of the designed capacity for getting minimum blocking for both types of calls maintaining the blocking for handover calls always less than that for newly originating calls. The simulated values of GOS & throughput for all channel assignment schemes at different penetration have been compared and hybrid channel assignment scheme has been found to be most efficient.
Vienna, 1966. To be wrongly accused of murder once is a misfortune. Twice - and it's a conspiracy. It is the height of the Cold War. When a defector from Eastern Europe mysteriously returns to the village of his birth, it's a chance for disgraced detective Brano Sev to redeem himself. Being framed for a murder should just be part of his cover story. Or is it? Exiled suddenly to Vienna, treacherous city of spies, Sev finds himself caught up in a cat-and-mouse game where survival is the only prize. But in a world where no good deed goes unpunished, loyalty can be the biggest crime of all...
The collapse of some insurance companies coupled with little emphasis on some of the risk factors in estimating motor insurance claims would give room for unfairness in making claim.The study has revealed the difference in the contribution level to making claims This allowed for an in-depth analysis of claim variables to assist in understanding the motor insurance claims.The SIC Insurance Company Limited should give relatively high premium to new cars as compared to older ones due to their higher demand of claims.Structuring the risk factors could help actuaries concerned with motor claims to appreciate the problems and advise the underwriters accordingly.Information Bill must be passed into law in view of removing the bottlenecks associated with data acquisition which was a serious challenge of this study.It is also recommended that further study be done in other insurance companies with the view of appreciating the discrepancies that exist in valuing risk, thus help Policy makers and particularly National Insurance Commission (NIC) to fairly price motor premiums.
A daughter seeking approval from her mother and siblings through proximity to the family land; a separated woman returning to the village to attend to her aged parents; and a wife wanting to gain parity with her husband in their joint property. These stories highlight the nuances of intra-household gender relations and illustrate the highly symbolic yet contested nature of land as a social and economic resource in the Philippines. The book examines how subject positions in gender are employed to legitimize public land claims in Leyte Province, Philippines, through the national government''s Land Administration and Management Program. Analytical focus is given on the role of inherited land in parental and marital relations in providing social security, creating enterprise and enhancing the status of women after marriage. Findings indicate that women are active claim-makers to land, but they do so depending on their subject positions within these relations and vis-a-vis the source of power and authority in their families. Land claims are thus also crucial to the maintenance of trust, reciprocity, obligations, and social relations.