The focus area of this paper is on the assignment problem with budget constraints which is one of the application area of combinatorial optimization that operates on the domain of those optimization problems,in which the set of feasible solutions is discrete or can be reduced to discrete,and in which the goal is to find the best solution. It is particularly concerned with solving the unconstrained assignment problems with Hungarian algorithm and the constrained assignment problem by cutting plane or outer linearization algorithm for solving the Lagrangian dual problem in which, at each iteration,the function that approximates the dual function is optimized. The paper is divided in to two chapters. In the first chapter,the classical assignment problem,the problem of finding optimum (minimum or maximum) cost or profit assignment a set of workers or resources to jobs or activities to gather with its mathematical formulation,solution methods and special cases in assignment problems were considered. Under the second chapter, we have considered generalization of the classical assignment problem concerning resource(or budget) constraints, due to the variety of real life problems.
Assignment Problem is one of the first fundamental problems in the area of combinatorial optimization. Despite its historical roots, the problem has tremendous importance to date, due to its numerous real life applications in like facility location, personnel scheduling, job scheduling, production planning, project assignment, task assignment, time-tabling, vehicle routing, storage space allocation, etc. This book comprises some real life assignment and related problems involving imprecise cost/time parameters. In order to represent those imprecise parameters, interval numbers have been used here as this representation is the best among others. The associated problems have been solved using Genetic Algorithm efficiently. A salient feature of this book is that most of the algorithms have been written in a lucid manner with suitable examples using figures. This book should interest academicians, OR/GA practitioners and executives of different industries and business organizations.
In order to protect the consumer against exaggerated or misleading health claims on foods and food supplements, to enable the consumer to make informed buying decisions, and to harmonise national regulations to facilitate the free flow of food products in the European Community, a regulatory framework has been created which requires that all health claims in the EU must be evaluated by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and authorised by the European Commission. In this master's thesis, the regulatory framework and procedures for health claims in both the EU and the USA are compiled, described and compared. The required body of scientific evidence for successful application for authorisation of health claims is discussed regarding regulatory requirements, design of clinical trials, and appropriate study populations. It is fathomed why claims are approved or rejected in Europe based on previous Scientific Opinions of the EFSA. Finally, the accessibility and possible benefits of health claims for food (supplement) vendors, especially small and medium-sized enterprises, are examined. The relevance of the approved health claims for public health is also shortly discussed.
Many building projects are the subject of claims – the assertion of a right, usually by the contractor, to an extension of the contract period or an additional payment under the terms of the building contract. Many of these claims are unsound or ill-founded, often because the basic principles are misunderstood. This highly regarded book examines the legal basis of claims for extensions of time and additional payment, and what can and cannot be claimed under the main forms of contract. It includes chapters dealing with direct loss and expense, liquidated damages, extension of time, concurrency problems, acceleration, time at large, common law and contractual claims, global claims, and heads of claim and their substantiation. With the publication of the fifth edition, Building Contract Claims has been thoroughly revised to ensure it is fully up to date with the latest contracts, court judgments and building practice. Changes include: Coverage of over 60 additional relevant court cases Coverage of the 2005 JCT contracts suite Coverage of changes to the NEC contract Coverage of additional contracts such as Constructing Excellence; Measured Term Contract and the ACA PPC2000 contract together with the 2005 relevant JCT sub-contracts Important changes to liquidated damages and to extensions of time, and the giving of notices Appendix 1 has been substantially revised Like its predecessors, the fifth edition of Building Contract Claims will be essential reading for architects, contract administrators, project managers and quantity surveyors, as well as contractors, contracts consultants and construction lawyers.
The problem of distributing goods from depots to consumers plays an important role in the management of many distribution systems, and therefore when it is programmed efficiently it may yield significant savings. In a typical distribution system, trucks provide pick-up and delivery services to customers that are geographically dispersed in a given area. In many of its applications, the main objective of distribution is to find a set of routes for such trucks, satisfying a variety of constraints, so as to minimize the total distribution cost. This work focuses on a decision model for a real world problem. The problem reveals itself as assignment of trucks to routes by Latex Foam Rubber Products Limited-Kumasi, Ghana. This study addresses the problem of finding an efficient assignment of the limited number of trucks at the company’s disposal to the routes they ply while serving its customers outside the metropolis. In this work we use a solution procedure based on Munkres Assignment Algorithm for optimal assignment of non-homogenous fleet of trucks to a given set of routes, where Latex Foam Rubber Products Limited-Kumasi, distributes its products to its customers.
The objective of this work is to analyse the connection between test results and field claims of ECUs (electronic control units) at Scania. In addition, to improve the acceptance criteria and evaluate software testing strategies. The connection is examined through computation of different measures of dependencies such as the Pearson’s correlation,Spearman’s rank correlation and Kendall’s tau. The correlations are computed from test results in different projects and considered in a predictive model based on logistic regression. Numerical results indicate a weak connection between test results and field claims. This is partly due to insufficient number of projects and the lack of traceability of field claims and test results. The main conclusion confirms the present software testing strategy. A continuous software release and testing results in lower field claims and therefore a better product.
A wireless mesh networks (WMNs) has emerged recently, WMN consist of two types of nodes mesh routers and mesh clients.WMN is dynamically self-organized and self-configured, with the nodes in the network automatically establishing and maintaining mesh connectivity among themselves. Channel assignment is a critical issue in WMN which is the mapping between the available channels and the radios at each node such that the network performance is optimized, and hence the focus of this work along with static channel assignment, multi-radio, multi-channel. Multi-radio MAC can potentially achieve higher network capacity than single-radio MAC. We design and implement a new agent (DSBCA) distributed channel assignment spanner base, the routing protocol Optimize the network performance considering the throughput, end-to-end delay, connectivity and the interference of our channel assignment algorithm. Base on the network simulations NS2.34 on Linux Fedora and our proposed channel assignment algorithm improved the throughput, minimal-connectivity preserving channel assignment algorithm.
The efficient management of Change Requests (CRs) is fundamental for successful software maintenance; however the assignment of CRs to developers is an expensive aspect in this regard, due to the time and expertise demanded. To overcome this, researchers have proposed automated approaches for CR assignment. Although these proposals present advances to this topic, they do not consider many factors inherent to the assignments, such as: developers’ workload, CRs severity, interpersonal relationships, and developers know-how. Actually, as we demonstrate in this work, CR assignment is a complex activity and automated approaches cannot rely on simplistic solutions. Ideally, it is necessary to consider and reason over contextual information in order to provide an effective automation. Beyond investigating all these aspects through an extensive systematic literature review, this work also proposes a context-aware architecture solution to semi-automated assignment of CRs.
Modern day public transport assignment faces lots of problems. Solutions may exist but needs some form of backings. A sensitivity analysis in most cases could just be sufficient to provide this backing. The developments in this book are very important for students, academic researchers and policy makers. The book provides an extensive review on transit assignment, sensitivity analysis and OmniTRANS. It highlights important conclusions such as:- - Passenger access-egress distances significantly affects their access stop choices. - The travel distance parameter of the generalized cost function has the highest influence on transit assignment - The number of transfers to be made by passengers significantly determines their generalized cost of travel - A carefully conducted partial sensitivity analysis can provide better predictions than a Monte-Carlo sensitivity analysis. As a policy advice to public transport operators in Flanders-Belgium, the developments in this book suggest that; to improve transit assignment, it is sufficient to reduce passengers access-egress distances & the number of transfers either through the institution of more direct transit lines or missing links.
The highly competitive environment in today's wireless and cellular network industries is making the management of systems seek for better and more advance techniques to keep masses of data, complexity of systems and deadline constrains under control with a lower cost and higher efficiency. Therefore, the management is getting significant attentions by researchers in order to increase the efficiency of the resource usage to provide high quality services. Two of the cornerstones of the management system in wireless and cellular network are carrier assignment and packet scheduling. Therefore, this work focuses on analysis and development of carrier assignment and packet scheduling methods in multi-band Wi-Fi and LTE-A networks.
Revision with unchanged content. This study investigated the influence of computer-generated reminders on the rate in which distance learners submitted assignments and completed courses. The computer-generated reminders, sent via email, served as a time management support strategy. Participants were randomly divided into two groups: control and treatment. Both groups received a list of target due dates for course assignments. The control group did not receive reminders. The treatment group received reminders when they failed to submit an assignment by a target due date. The results indicated no significant difference between the control and treatment groups in terms of assignment submission rates and course completion rates. However, results of this study did reveal that the number of assignments in a distance course influences the timeliness of assignment completion and the likelihood of course completion.
Real advice you can trust and use in small claims court When every other method to collect has failed, a small claim is the right remedy to seek. If you're looking at either prosecuting or defending in a small claims court, with or without an attorney, the information presented in Filing & Winning Small Claims For Dummies is indispensable. The nuances of small claims courts vary from state to state, but the basic approach in preparing and presenting a small claims case is extremely uniform no matter where you are. Regardless of state or circumstance, you can find, trust, and use the info in Filing & Winning Small Claims For Dummies to prepare yourself for your court date. You'll find everything you need to know including establishing a case, settling or mediating a dispute, fees, applications, and other paperwork, statues of limitations, securing witnesses and experts, preparing for court, filing for appeal, case studies and more. Filing & Winning Small Claims For Dummies also includes the most current information and resources on specific laws, statues, dollar limits, and procedures. Includes the most current information and resources on specific laws, statues, dollar limits, and procedures Offers practical information on securing witnesses and experts Complemented with real-world examples of small claims court cases If you're headed to small claims court, either as a plaintiff or a defendant, you'll want Filing & Winning Small Claims For Dummies in your corner!
In cellular mobile communication, since there will be conversation in progress in case of handover calls, GOS for them should be less than that for newly originating calls. Basically, there are three channel assignment schemes, fixed, dynamic & hybrid channel assignment schemes for handling newly originating and handover calls. In this study, capacity design for cellular mobile network in area inside ring road in Kathmandu valley has been done according to the findings of data collection and analysis of mobile communication service being provided by Nepal Telecom. Capacity planning has been done with GOS equal to 2% for newly originating calls and 1% for handover calls. In addition to capacity planning, efficient channel assignment scheme in terms of blocking and throughput has been evaluated with optimal utilization of the designed capacity for getting minimum blocking for both types of calls maintaining the blocking for handover calls always less than that for newly originating calls. The simulated values of GOS & throughput for all channel assignment schemes at different penetration have been compared and hybrid channel assignment scheme has been found to be most efficient.
This research develops the emerging socialpsychological study of human rights claims inresponse to perceived injustice. The assertion ofunique subgroup rights seemspsychologically-different to claims of individualrights that can be held by all humans. Preferencesfor use of particular human rights claims werestudied by presenting participants with scenariossuggestive of human rights violations: possibleviolations of privacy rights, civil and politicalrights under mandatory sentencing schemes, refugeerights and reproductive rights of lesbians and singlewomen seeking access to assisted reproductivetechnology. The research drew on real Australianpolicy debates. Quantitative and qualitative datafrom five studies reveal, even amongst activists, apreference for an equality-driven construal of thepurpose of human rights law: that all Australians betreated equally regardless of subgroup membership, incontrast to the belief that the purpose of humanrights law is to protect unique interests ofvulnerable subgroups within a broader collective(vulnerable groups construal).
This book contains a good literature survey of various mathematical models and routing & wavelengths assignment algorithms in WDM optical networks. Some of the new algorithms for optimization of blocking probability have aslo been covered. This book is good for researchers who are working on optical networks and advancements in fiber optics communication. Mathematical models covered in this book are simple and easy to implement. A good number of routing and wavelength assignment algorithms have also been covered in this book which can be used to reduce blocking probability of the optical network. This book can be very helpful to the research scholars.
This book explains the port operations and proposes approaches that aim to improve the most important successive steps in container terminal management activities. A multi-period assignment problem that seeks to allocate vessels to berthing spaces and quay cranes is proposed to handle the quayside operations. Subsequently, on the yard side, a discrete-event simulation model for the real life detailed processes performed during the handling of import containers is developed. In particular, the model focuses on the storage assignment problem at the operational level in a container terminal with a multiple-berth structure. An approach by means of a hierarchical structure is adapted to partition the assignment problem into two sub-problems and solve each of them using separate decision rules. Suggested storage policies are evaluated in view of the overall performance of the container terminal.
This study is situated within the field of instructional design and sought to identify competencies specific to online designers-by-assignment in high school learning environments. Since existing instructional design standards currently available to guide designers-by-assignment differ from one another, a lack of clarity remains about which specific standards actually benefit this emerging professional group in the process of developing and revising courses they eventually teach. The purpose of this qualitative Delphi study was to identify, through expert agreement, instructional design competencies that can benefit high school online designers-by-assignment and the instructional design profession. This study employed the qualitative Delphi design to achieve consensus among experts in five fields (high school online practitioners, instructional design academics, university pre-service instructors, online high school administrators and high school online instructional designers).
When dealing with stress assignment on the word level, many exceptions to hitherto defined principles can be found in the English language. While some exceptions can be explained by word or morpheme boundaries, others do not fit so easliy into the underlying systematicity of English stress behaviour. Some are often described as simply being idiosyncratic. A new statistical analysis reveals that many of these exceptions do share some common features to a certain extent, in particular in their orthography. Can this kind of features be used to establish additional rules in order to account for exceptional cases of English stress assignment? Or is there no other means but to consider these cases as lexcially exceptional?
Pseudoscience and Extraordinary Claims of the Paranormal: A Critical Thinker's Toolkit provides readers with a variety of «reality-checking» tools to analyze extraordinary claims and to determine their validity. Integrates simple yet powerful evaluative tools used by both paranormal believers and skeptics alike Introduces innovations such as a continuum for ranking paranormal claims and evaluating their implications Includes an innovative «Critical Thinker’s Toolkit,» a systematic approach for performing reality checks on paranormal claims related to astrology, psychics, spiritualism, parapsychology, dream telepathy, mind-over-matter, prayer, life after death, creationism, and more Explores the five alternative hypotheses to consider when confronting a paranormal claim Reality Check boxes, integrated into the text, invite students to engage in further discussion and examination of claims Written in a lively, engaging style for students and general readers alike Ancillaries: Testbank and PowerPoint slides available at www.wiley.com/go/pseudoscience
This book confronts the difficult problems that arise in claim situations. There is extensive reference to UK and international case law, and a systematic approach to various types of claims, assisted by helpful explanatory diagrams. Suitable for construction professionals and contractors, and undergraduate and postgraduate students.
Drawing on scientific research and logical argument James Jones directly confronts the claims that cognitive science can eliminate, or debunk, religion. He provides an accessibly written, persuasive account of why these claims are not convincing.
This book proposes to examine the central notion of how semantics is naturalized in Quine’s philosophy. Quine has raised several questions with regard to meaning in language and communication, and his approach to these issues has been that of a thoroughgoing naturalist. Within the naturalistic framework Quine claims that meaning is indeterminate, reference is inscrutable, ontology is relative, theories are underdetermined by experience, and the truth value of any statement can be revised. He also makes several bold claims such as there are no meanings, no propositions, no attributes, no relations, no numbers, no synonymity, no facts, and no analytic truths. These claims appear to be very puzzling. The author attempted to explain in what sense these claims are to be understood and how far these claims can be defended. Philosophically, this book tries to show that Quine is a very systematic philosopher and his solutions to the problems in different areas of philosophy such as ontology, epistemology, philosophy of mind and language are based on his naturalistic commitments. In the end, this can be said that Quine has been successful in establishing a new form of semantics.
Economic Personalism (EP) of Acton Institute (USA) has emerged as a school of thought that claims to offer solution to the predicament of human reduction in capitalist economics. This book has raised critical reservations regarding EP’s claims when seen against the background of market contradictions, like alienation, commodification, and reification of human beings. In other words, even if EP sees itself as offering a “right approach,” its embeddedness in a liberal-capitalist world makes EP a part of capitalism’s contradictions. In order to verify EP’s claims, this book makes use of social scientific lenses. Assumed to possess interests masked behind its canonical statements, this book subjects the EP document through Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) and Historical-Critical Analysis to uncover both the implicit intentions of its claims as well as its implicit interests and ideologies. In this way, a critical social analysis of EP would verify suspicions through the rigor of a scientific analysis.
On assignment in Vienna, photographer Ian Jarrett falls passionately in love with the mysterious and beautiful Marian. Back in the UK, Ian resolves to leave his wife for her - only to find Marian has disappeared, and the photographs of their brief time together have been savagely destroyed. Searching desperately for her, Ian comes across a quiet Dorset churchyard. Here he meets a psychotherapist, who is looking for a missing client of hers: a woman who claims she is the reincarnation of Marian Esguard, who may have invented photography ten years before Fox Talbot. But why is Marian Esguard unknown to history? And who and where is the woman Ian Jarrett has sacrificed everything for?
Featuring a Foreword by Roger Knowles FRICS, FCIArb, FQSi, Barrister The book discusses the different types of claim common to construction contracts and presents a step-by-step guide which demonstrates the process of building up the submission of a claim. It includes guidelines as to how to set out the claim, section by section in a logical manner to ensure that the essentials of a successful claim are included. Worked examples of claims for variations, extensions of time and additional payment are included together with sample wording showing precisely how the claim may be presented in a manner which will lead the reviewer to a logical conclusion – or at least contain a persuasive argument to support the claimant’s case. The vast majority of claims are managed without the need to resort to case law or legal matters. Construction Claims: effective writing & responses therefore discusses what the claim is trying to achieve and how to do this in a logical and persuasive manner This is a practical, hands-on guide for the construction industry professional which explains how to approach the preparation of the claim document, what topics to cover, how to present the essential elements and how to compile the submission document into a user friendly and comprehensive document. For those whose job it is to review such submissions, it advises how to prepare responses which set out the respondent’s counter arguments, points of view and determinations. The guide covers: The various types of claim. How the claim may be split into sections dealing with the details of the contract, the cause, the effect, entitlement and quantum. What this section is attempting to demonstrate or achieve and why. What should be included within the section and why. Worked examples of typical claims and responses with sample wording.
Emotional intelligence is a topic of interest for both academia and industry. Claims have been made about the role and importance of emotional intelligence in personal and professional life. Most of the empirical evidences provided for these claims about emotional intelligence belong to the developed world. This study is an effort to provide an Indian perspective on the role of emotional intelligence in effective leadership and conflict resolution.
In this book several multilayer particle deposition models are studied using simulations and analytical calculations. Multilayer particle deposition models are an extension of the classic car parking problem, first studied by the Hungarian mathematician Renyi. Several interesting properties of these type of processes are revealed. The focus of the book lies on the non-equality of end-densities of the layers. In some models the end-densities are lower in higher layers whereas in other models the end-densities are higher in higher layers. It is shown that in the latter case this is a result of self-organization. As an application, the results are used to analyze the so-called sequential frequency assignment process. For this purpose, the assignment of radio frequencies by national telecom authorities (using the foremost priority procedure) is regarded as a two-dimensional multilayer deposition model with discs.
This makes several claims. It claims that Western European party systems resemble the functioning of oligopolistic markets and that such a perception reflects the perception of a growing gap between Western European voters’ demands and the party systems’ perceived offer. It also claims that the perception of a growing gap is not a mere mental construct but it is supported by statistical evidence. It also argues that the perception of a growing gap between party systems and electorates provides the best explanation for the emergence and the success of the parties of the new extreme right. If these claims are correct, then there are some conclusions that can be drawn on the basis of this manuscript:liberalism must once again be embedded, markets must be regulated, labor must be decommodified (that is protected from the market fluctuations), and the ‘safety-net’ that "embedded liberalism" had created in the postwar era for the poorer segments of society must be restored.