Assignment is a crucial topic in commercial law, and this new work by Gregory Tolhurst is the most comprehensive work on the assignment of contractual rights ever published. It seeks to explain the existence, meaning and application of the rules governing the assignment of contractual rights and it does this by reference to the idea that assignments involve transfers. The book is logically structured to follow the issues that arise in planning, drafting and enforcing an assignment, including: - what is meant by 'assignment'; - what is the distinction between legal and equitable assignments; - how an assignable contractual right is identified; - what formalities apply to assignment; and - what rights and remedies are available to the parties to an assignment. The topic of assignment is of such universal importance to commercial lawyers that all practicing lawyers will find this work invaluable. However, the work will also be required reading for academics teaching contract, equity and personal property.
The focus area of this paper is on the assignment problem with budget constraints which is one of the application area of combinatorial optimization that operates on the domain of those optimization problems,in which the set of feasible solutions is discrete or can be reduced to discrete,and in which the goal is to find the best solution. It is particularly concerned with solving the unconstrained assignment problems with Hungarian algorithm and the constrained assignment problem by cutting plane or outer linearization algorithm for solving the Lagrangian dual problem in which, at each iteration,the function that approximates the dual function is optimized. The paper is divided in to two chapters. In the first chapter,the classical assignment problem,the problem of finding optimum (minimum or maximum) cost or profit assignment a set of workers or resources to jobs or activities to gather with its mathematical formulation,solution methods and special cases in assignment problems were considered. Under the second chapter, we have considered generalization of the classical assignment problem concerning resource(or budget) constraints, due to the variety of real life problems.
Agreement is a prevalent phenomenon observed across languages. It helps us identify which elements in a sentence are linked or should be interpreted together (Bock et al 1999). This property of agreement may imply that the phonetic component (PF) would always be faithful to syntax/ the semantic component (LF), i.e. it would always show features of the element with which syntax establishes agreement relationship. However, natural language data does not support this view. We can get Closest Conjunct Agreement (CCA) in addition to Full Agreement with the whole coordinated phrase. Here I show that CCA in a head final language Hindi is not a result of the structure of coordination, or clausal coordination. I present an alternative analysis for CCA that assumes a compositional view of agreement. It assumes that agreement takes place in two stages: the agreement relationship is established in syntax, but the agreement features are still modifiable in PF component. Hence it suggests that, in an agreement relation, not only syntax but also the PF component of grammar plays a role. I also show briefly that this analysis is generalizable across languages with even different word orders.
From our point of view, an effective legislative technique, of introduction of new matrimonial regimes in the Romanian law is represented by the regulation of matrimonial agreements, by which the spouses who are discontent with the characteristics of the legal community regime, can choose the conventional community regime or the separation of property regime as their matrimonial regime, better adapted to the needs of the respective family. The same liberalization of the Romanian law requires the mutability of matrimonial agreements, thus adapting them to the unexpected occurrences of life. Given the complexity of matrimonial agreement issues and the implications of these contracts, the legislature stated that these marriage agreements should be concluded before a notary public, so that the spouses can benefit from his assistance in drafting these agreements. The need to protect third parties against fraudulent intentions of the spouses requires, in addition to the requisite, the organization of an efficient system of publicity of any matrimonial agreement and of any of its amendments. The author
In recent years, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of communication networks. This is because they are widely used in all walks of life, and this trend continues increasing. The research on computer communication networking field has also grown explosively due to a large variety of combinatorial optimisation problems. One of these problems is the Terminal Assignment Problem which implies fixing the minimum cost links to construct a network between a specified set of terminals and concentrators. A good solution for this problem should maintain small distances between concentrators and terminals assigned to them without exceeding the capacity of any concentrator. Additionally, it should also maintain a balanced distribution of terminals among concentrators. The intractability of this problem is a motivation for the pursuits of different approximation algorithms. In this book, we explore several metaheuristics applied to the Terminal Assignment Problem and other similar problems. Simulation results verify the effectiveness of these algorithms.
Assignment Problem is one of the first fundamental problems in the area of combinatorial optimization. Despite its historical roots, the problem has tremendous importance to date, due to its numerous real life applications in like facility location, personnel scheduling, job scheduling, production planning, project assignment, task assignment, time-tabling, vehicle routing, storage space allocation, etc. This book comprises some real life assignment and related problems involving imprecise cost/time parameters. In order to represent those imprecise parameters, interval numbers have been used here as this representation is the best among others. The associated problems have been solved using Genetic Algorithm efficiently. A salient feature of this book is that most of the algorithms have been written in a lucid manner with suitable examples using figures. This book should interest academicians, OR/GA practitioners and executives of different industries and business organizations.
The problem of distributing goods from depots to consumers plays an important role in the management of many distribution systems, and therefore when it is programmed efficiently it may yield significant savings. In a typical distribution system, trucks provide pick-up and delivery services to customers that are geographically dispersed in a given area. In many of its applications, the main objective of distribution is to find a set of routes for such trucks, satisfying a variety of constraints, so as to minimize the total distribution cost. This work focuses on a decision model for a real world problem. The problem reveals itself as assignment of trucks to routes by Latex Foam Rubber Products Limited-Kumasi, Ghana. This study addresses the problem of finding an efficient assignment of the limited number of trucks at the company’s disposal to the routes they ply while serving its customers outside the metropolis. In this work we use a solution procedure based on Munkres Assignment Algorithm for optimal assignment of non-homogenous fleet of trucks to a given set of routes, where Latex Foam Rubber Products Limited-Kumasi, distributes its products to its customers.
The Central Government’s approach to the Aceh conflict has shifted from the use of top-down security approaches to the devolution of economic and political power to the region. Through the signing of the Helsinki Agreement, both Jakarta and GAM compromised their interests to end the conflict. The Law on Governing of Aceh (LoGA) and the MoU provide a strong framework for addressing many of the centre-periphery issues. In fact, the situation in Aceh is relatively peaceful almost six years after the signing of the MoU. Basically, the goal of peace building process is to generate agreement and outcomes that are acceptable to all conflicting parties with a minimum of compromise. This book examines the compromises of the interests between GAM and Jakarta particularly in the context of power-sharing arrangements provided by the Helsinki Agreement. This book also finds out that the ability of the local government is significant to ensure the power-sharing arrangements provided by the Helsinki Agreement implemented properly. The issues of accountability and transparency become challenges to all parties to ensure the stability of the peace process.
Modern day public transport assignment faces lots of problems. Solutions may exist but needs some form of backings. A sensitivity analysis in most cases could just be sufficient to provide this backing. The developments in this book are very important for students, academic researchers and policy makers. The book provides an extensive review on transit assignment, sensitivity analysis and OmniTRANS. It highlights important conclusions such as:- - Passenger access-egress distances significantly affects their access stop choices. - The travel distance parameter of the generalized cost function has the highest influence on transit assignment - The number of transfers to be made by passengers significantly determines their generalized cost of travel - A carefully conducted partial sensitivity analysis can provide better predictions than a Monte-Carlo sensitivity analysis. As a policy advice to public transport operators in Flanders-Belgium, the developments in this book suggest that; to improve transit assignment, it is sufficient to reduce passengers access-egress distances & the number of transfers either through the institution of more direct transit lines or missing links.
A wireless mesh networks (WMNs) has emerged recently, WMN consist of two types of nodes mesh routers and mesh clients.WMN is dynamically self-organized and self-configured, with the nodes in the network automatically establishing and maintaining mesh connectivity among themselves. Channel assignment is a critical issue in WMN which is the mapping between the available channels and the radios at each node such that the network performance is optimized, and hence the focus of this work along with static channel assignment, multi-radio, multi-channel. Multi-radio MAC can potentially achieve higher network capacity than single-radio MAC. We design and implement a new agent (DSBCA) distributed channel assignment spanner base, the routing protocol Optimize the network performance considering the throughput, end-to-end delay, connectivity and the interference of our channel assignment algorithm. Base on the network simulations NS2.34 on Linux Fedora and our proposed channel assignment algorithm improved the throughput, minimal-connectivity preserving channel assignment algorithm.
This study is situated within the field of instructional design and sought to identify competencies specific to online designers-by-assignment in high school learning environments. Since existing instructional design standards currently available to guide designers-by-assignment differ from one another, a lack of clarity remains about which specific standards actually benefit this emerging professional group in the process of developing and revising courses they eventually teach. The purpose of this qualitative Delphi study was to identify, through expert agreement, instructional design competencies that can benefit high school online designers-by-assignment and the instructional design profession. This study employed the qualitative Delphi design to achieve consensus among experts in five fields (high school online practitioners, instructional design academics, university pre-service instructors, online high school administrators and high school online instructional designers).
This book contains a good literature survey of various mathematical models and routing & wavelengths assignment algorithms in WDM optical networks. Some of the new algorithms for optimization of blocking probability have aslo been covered. This book is good for researchers who are working on optical networks and advancements in fiber optics communication. Mathematical models covered in this book are simple and easy to implement. A good number of routing and wavelength assignment algorithms have also been covered in this book which can be used to reduce blocking probability of the optical network. This book can be very helpful to the research scholars.
The primary goal of this book is to investigate how a generalised notion of linguistic agreement can serve as the basis for a linguistic theory. The book approaches language through its underlying agreement relations. The motivation is that linguistic agreement plays a fundamental role in many languages and that agreement relations cannot be sufficiently managed by substitution-centred theories. Another source of motivation is that the computational properties of an agreement-based model are quite favourable. Besides demonstrating how even linguistically complex constructions can be modelled in the agreement framework, the book has also something to say about learning, speech deficits, and the processing of underspecified linguistic data. Thus the book might be of interest not only to Theoretical, or Computational Linguists but also to Neurolinguists, Cognitive Linguists, or Cognitive Scientists. Although the majority of linguistic examples are syntactic, the model is not restricted to syntax: morphologists and phonologists may find interesting ideas as well.
Revision with unchanged content. Over the last 30 years the study of group key agreement has stimulated much work. And as a result of the increased popularity of ad hoc networks, some approaches for the group key establishment in such networks are proposed. However, they are either only for static group or the memory, computation and communication costs are unacceptable for ad-hoc networks. In this thesis some protocol suites from the literature (2d-cube, 2d-octopus, Asokan-Ginzboorg, CLIQUES, STR and TGDH) shall be discussed. We have optimized STR and TGDH by reducing the memory, communication and computation costs. The optimized version are denoted by uSTR and uTGDH respectively. Based on the protocol suites uSTR and uTGDH we present a Tree-based group key agreement Framework for Ad-hoc Networks (TFAN). TFAN is especially suitable for ad-hoc networks with limited bandwidth and devices with limited memory and computation capability. To simulate the protocols, we have implemented TFAN, uSTR and uTGDH with J2ME CDC. The TFAN API will be described in this thesis.
This book is abstracted form of a thesis which was done in IRAN. The Agreement between primary and final diagnosis will show the relationship between correct diagnosis and appropriate treatment.So it is too important how the physicians may achieve diagnosis. Because children haven't enough capacity to explain their problem, so it may be too difficult than adults. It may be depends on the power of the physicians.In this research we Examined this ability of physician by comparing the primary and final diagnosis by the chapter of International classification of Diseases (ICD-10).
This book explores agreement in MG coordinate nouns within the constraint-based framework of Lexical-Functional Grammar. It investigates predicate-argument and head-modifier agreement with coordinate nouns and agreement with disjunctively conjoined nouns. In predicate-argument agreement, in addition to the syntactic and semantic agreement principles, we also find the referential principle, motivated by a Contextually Introduced Referent, the superordinate term of the coordinate nouns implied in the sentence. In head-modifier agreement, the shared MG definite determiner shows concord agreement and occurs only with the joint interpretation. It exceptionally occurs with a split reading when nouns are a natural coordination. A shared determiner shows index/concord agreement and occurs either with the joint or split interpretations. In disjunctively conjoined nouns, native speakers choose an agreeing verb based on the interpretation of disjunction as ‘and-coordinate’ and as ‘exclusive-or’. Other factors, however, such as syntactic, may also determine number verb agreement.
Book DescriptionReady to Use: Investor Rights Agreement for Venture Capital Deals is the definitive resource for understanding, drafting and negotiating deals. The CD-Rom features a sample investor rights agreement in a Microsoft Word document that can be customized to fit your needs. Written by top corporate lawyers and fine tuned by leading venture capitalists, the contracts represent the industry standard for these types of agreements. The documents include line by line wording on the following topics: registration rights; board of directors; company covenants; rights of first participations; form of employment agreement; form of non-disclosure, inventions & non-competion agreement. Within these documents lies a wealth of critical information which every VC, entrepreneur, CEO and lawyer should have at their fingertips.
When dealing with stress assignment on the word level, many exceptions to hitherto defined principles can be found in the English language. While some exceptions can be explained by word or morpheme boundaries, others do not fit so easliy into the underlying systematicity of English stress behaviour. Some are often described as simply being idiosyncratic. A new statistical analysis reveals that many of these exceptions do share some common features to a certain extent, in particular in their orthography. Can this kind of features be used to establish additional rules in order to account for exceptional cases of English stress assignment? Or is there no other means but to consider these cases as lexcially exceptional?
The question is that whether an obligatory legal relation binding two parties is formed with the commencement of primary discussions or it can be said that there is no legal bond between them and there is no cause depriving them of the freedom to negotiate. No one can be forced to commit to a contract on the pretext that he has commenced a discussion to determine the conditions of the contract or he may be blamed for not continuing and concluding the contract.Agreement is primarily initiated by a proposal in the form of “offer”. However, it is sometimes difficult to recognize whether a proposal is an offer or a mere invitation to transaction. For an offer to result in a legal act, acceptance is necessary.Discriminating the primary phase from offer and acceptance phase is not an easy task for sometimes one of the parties regards the other’s conditioned promises as offer and tries to provide the means of performing the commitments while the other sees himself in the early stage of thinking about contract.In this book, it has been tried to examine the methods of gaining agreement in formation of contracts.
The present book is a take on the relevance and need for a global competition agreement in today's globalised world. The present book looks at the earlier efforts in establishing global competition rules. The book then goes on to suggest the core principles of a global competition agreement and at the same time looks at the suitability of the WTO as an appropriate mechanism for the formation and operation of a global competition agreement.
The most popular measure of agreement is Cohen’s Kappa which is an agreement index for the correlation between categorical variables often used as a reliability or validity measure. Although kappa has meaning as percentage agreement corrected for chance, its definition does not give a direct probabilistic support. The book studies a probability framework to model rater agreement in medical diagnosis, and hence a new index of agreement based on a probability model is proposed, which carries some useful interpretations along with providing information about intrinsic agreement not due to chance. The new index results in the same form as Cohen’s kappa in practice and thus provides a novel means to understand kappa. Estimation based on maximum likelihood and statistical tests for hypothesis related to this new index are developed for inferences. Monte Carlo simulations are used to confirm the theoretical findings and numerical analysis of data from medical studies are used to demonstrate the practical applications. This book will be very helpful for the researchers in biomedical sciences, education, psychology, sociology and also in other fields in measuring agreement index.
This project is aimed at downloading and uploading online assignments for students; with each assignment having information about the instructions, description, deadline, and submission details. The main goal of this thesis is to design and implement online assignment submission and provide an interface use for uploading test program (Nant script file) by instructors, who would be able to evaluate assignments automatically. The system provides an interface for testing assignments such that they can be plugged in by the teachers. This testing could invoke a compiler and make a test-run of the compiled code and check the result or test for plagiarism, existence of certain documents or simply check the file type (extension). The most obvious advantage offered by online assignment submission is that it offers faster transmission of assignments than using traditional way by using online system. The interface use to invoke different testing program by teachers, So Save the time and cost for teachers by enabling them to put up a fast response for students as well as increasing the quality of the feedback provided to students.
The necessity was to amend the law also arose as India became original member of W.T.O. in 1995 and it was necessary to bring Indian law in conformity with TRIPS. It acceded to the Paris Convention with effect from 8 Dec,1998. There has been a need for Indian IP Laws to be in line with advancements in global thinking on the subject and to use the IP regime to its advantage. It encouraged debate over issues such as- the concepts behind TRIPS versus its impact on Indian Intellectual Property Laws, How globally recognized IP norms are applied in India? Need to discuss that how many Amendments that India did in its IP Law system due to Impact of TRIPS and their time of enforcement. In this book ‘TRIPS AGREEMENT AND ITS IMPACT ON INDIAN INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY LAWS’ author has explained it. The book relies on the historical facts of TRIPS and the debates in India regarding to IP system of India and also includes the Case Law developments for IP Laws system in India. This book is an invaluable aid for Lawyers, Judges, Academics, Researchers and Professionals and others to understand IP Laws of India under the regime of TRIPS.
It is almost two decades since Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs) have legally gone global. The WTO’s agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights, or TRIPs/WTO for short, is one of the most effective international regimes in the modern global political economy. The Agreement’s effect on the economy of member states has been central to the existing studies, though the politico-legal implications of TRIPs has occasionally been discussed, too. This book finds-out that the TRIPs Agreement is one of the principal neo-liberal disciplinary techniques of power and any examination of its effects needs to transcend orthodox conceptions of power. To do so, the book employs a Foucauldian conception of power as developed by Michel Foucault and Giorgio Agamben. The study finds that the effectiveness of TRIPs rests in its potential (possibility) to be exercised rather than in its actual (factual) exercise. The book, therefore, subjects the TRIPs agreement to a Foucauldian critique by examining the effects of power on nation-states, TNCs, and individuals - with particular focus on technology transfer, FDI, and public health.
Afghanistan is a land locked country and Pakistan is obliged to provide it with access to sea ports under its international treaty obligations. The first Afghanistan-Pakistan Transit Trade Agreement, also known as ATTA was signed on 2nd March, 1965. The Afghan Commerce Minister Dr. Anwar-ul-Haq Ahady and the Pakistani Commerce Minister Makhdoom M. Amin Fahim signed the new Pak-Afghan Transit Trade Agreement on 28th October, 2010. Certain fears and apprehensions had been expressed that the interests of Pakistan have been compromised at the behest of some external powers. In this background this book provides a comprehensive clarification regarding the agreement and analyzes the positive and negative implications of this agreement for Pakistan.
TRIPS throws a new challenge to the competitiveness and profitability of Indian pharma industry as it ended decades of protection by terminating “reverse-engineering.” The effect of TRIPS on FDI, R&D, technology transfer, etc. is also not clear. More importantly, the new IP regime may have far-reaching consequences on accessibility & affordability of drugs to the poor in developing and LDCs. The book is divided into three essays. The first essay investigates the emerging firm strategies of the Indian pharma industry to overcome the challenge posed by the new IP regime, and concludes that the industry is adopting a mix of competitive, collaborative, and R&D strategies. The second essay examines the effect of TRIPS on FDI, and concludes that merely enhancing IP protection may not lead to increase in FDI. The third essay explores the effectiveness of CL in controlling drug prices, and consequently its affordability & accessibility to the poor. It concludes that the issues relating to CL are part of a much wider structural problem in development policy, and the solution to inaccessibility of drugs requires mix policy interventions, including the smooth functioning of CL system.
Stress in Moroccan Arabic, and also in other languages, poses challenging problems for phonological theory. This is due to the fact that stress exhibits conflicting properties; which makes it difficult to provide answers to a number of issues. This book provides an investigation into a prominent aspect of prosodic phonology in Moroccan Arabic (a case study of the dialect of Rabat city), namely, stress assignment in the grammatical category of verbs within the framework of optimality theory as proposed in Prince and Smolensky and McCarthy and Prince. It particularly addresses a range of issues such as: the position of stress, the basis on which stress is located, the factors on the basis of which stress location is effected, the importance of the perceptual and the instrumental tests in shedding light on stress assignment, and the extent to which the optimality theoretic analysis confirm or disconfirm the results of the perceptual and the instrumental tests concerning stress placement. This book will be of interest to linguistics, teachers, researchers and to anyone interested in language study and phonological theory.
Since 1983 the garment industry of Bangladesh has been playing most vital role in her national economy, foreign exchange earnings, employment, growth in other sector and most prominently women employment. This industry contributes 75.64% of total exports of Bangladesh (BGMEA, 2007). People directly involved with this sector became worried because of phase out of quota system from January 2005. Despite the competition grew high, our garments industry didn't lose its market compared to that of other competitors like China, India, Sri Lanka etc. The Govt. is taking steps to remove the problem with the backward linkage industry. So, it is a matter of time to get rid of it. In this book we've tried to analyze the performance of 5 different RMG companies and tried to examine the impact of Post MFA where we observe that our RMG industry is performing well at Post MFA. As the study represents a clear image of the performance of the garments sector the firms in the industry both new entrants and the exiting, may gain competitive advantage over their rivals following the recommended strategies. Management as well as the Govt. may find it helpful to protect the sector through proper strategy.
The arbitration system is a quick,easy and confidential process with a final award to resolve disputes.The application of arbitration,precisely because of the existence of these advantages,makes it increasingly favored by the parties to the International Commercial Contracts,thus becoming one of the main settlements of international commercial disputes.The entry into force of the arbitration agreement is the conclusion that the arbitration process was initiated.Because of the development of economic globalization,the international conventions, national legislation and practice tend to the effectiveness of the detection the flaws in both the arbitration agreement and the arbitration clause.This paper seeks to determine the meaning of a flaw in the arbitration agreement which summarizes the types of flaws in the arbitration agreement,thus laying the foundations for the identified effect of flawed arbitration agreement.On International Commercial arbitration agreement,if the parties do not breach the provisions of the Law on the arbitrability and the public policy of the countries interested,they are belong to a valid arbitration agreement and it must be executed.
Debt recovery has always been a critical issue when it comes to credit management. It proved to be a challenge for those financing institutions, whether public or cooperative, dealing with clients and customers from the rural farms. This book gave an insight on how such issue can be elucidated by tying in stakeholders of the credit arrangement. The study identifies the socio-economic characteristics of beneficiaries under Tripartite Agreement, analyse the efficiency of debt-recovery under Tripartite Agreement and study the role of loans in improving livelihood standard of the beneficiaries. It also brought to light the development brought by banks among the rural farmers and the dynamics of cooperative societies in tribal economy.