Companies, society and individuals' dreams have been shattered as a result of directors' reckless acts. In an effort, to avoid such situations, there is total failure to add another fundamental aspect which is "directors' responsibilities to creditors of the company" they direct. Many a judge, lawyers and practitioners have least thought of this as a serious factor. They are blinded by the principles that directors are directly responsible to their employer company and that their acts are protected by the company. Even in those circumstances where the veil of incorporation is lifted, to expose directors for "ultra vires" acts in the company, nothing or little is done to involve the creditors' interest who provide the capital. Creditors' interest have been relegated to insolvency. This book sets to illustrate to investors, businessmen, judges, lawyers and practitioners, policymakers and students that for companies/establishments to stay healthy in business, managing directors must be responsible to creditors whose interests need to be protected like those of other stakeholders in the company. South Africa and OHADA region are used for illustration.
This study is situated within the field of instructional design and sought to identify competencies specific to online designers-by-assignment in high school learning environments. Since existing instructional design standards currently available to guide designers-by-assignment differ from one another, a lack of clarity remains about which specific standards actually benefit this emerging professional group in the process of developing and revising courses they eventually teach. The purpose of this qualitative Delphi study was to identify, through expert agreement, instructional design competencies that can benefit high school online designers-by-assignment and the instructional design profession. This study employed the qualitative Delphi design to achieve consensus among experts in five fields (high school online practitioners, instructional design academics, university pre-service instructors, online high school administrators and high school online instructional designers).
Assignment is a crucial topic in commercial law, and this new work by Gregory Tolhurst is the most comprehensive work on the assignment of contractual rights ever published. It seeks to explain the existence, meaning and application of the rules governing the assignment of contractual rights and it does this by reference to the idea that assignments involve transfers. The book is logically structured to follow the issues that arise in planning, drafting and enforcing an assignment, including: - what is meant by 'assignment'; - what is the distinction between legal and equitable assignments; - how an assignable contractual right is identified; - what formalities apply to assignment; and - what rights and remedies are available to the parties to an assignment. The topic of assignment is of such universal importance to commercial lawyers that all practicing lawyers will find this work invaluable. However, the work will also be required reading for academics teaching contract, equity and personal property.
The focus area of this paper is on the assignment problem with budget constraints which is one of the application area of combinatorial optimization that operates on the domain of those optimization problems,in which the set of feasible solutions is discrete or can be reduced to discrete,and in which the goal is to find the best solution. It is particularly concerned with solving the unconstrained assignment problems with Hungarian algorithm and the constrained assignment problem by cutting plane or outer linearization algorithm for solving the Lagrangian dual problem in which, at each iteration,the function that approximates the dual function is optimized. The paper is divided in to two chapters. In the first chapter,the classical assignment problem,the problem of finding optimum (minimum or maximum) cost or profit assignment a set of workers or resources to jobs or activities to gather with its mathematical formulation,solution methods and special cases in assignment problems were considered. Under the second chapter, we have considered generalization of the classical assignment problem concerning resource(or budget) constraints, due to the variety of real life problems.
In recent years, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of communication networks. This is because they are widely used in all walks of life, and this trend continues increasing. The research on computer communication networking field has also grown explosively due to a large variety of combinatorial optimisation problems. One of these problems is the Terminal Assignment Problem which implies fixing the minimum cost links to construct a network between a specified set of terminals and concentrators. A good solution for this problem should maintain small distances between concentrators and terminals assigned to them without exceeding the capacity of any concentrator. Additionally, it should also maintain a balanced distribution of terminals among concentrators. The intractability of this problem is a motivation for the pursuits of different approximation algorithms. In this book, we explore several metaheuristics applied to the Terminal Assignment Problem and other similar problems. Simulation results verify the effectiveness of these algorithms.
The problem of distributing goods from depots to consumers plays an important role in the management of many distribution systems, and therefore when it is programmed efficiently it may yield significant savings. In a typical distribution system, trucks provide pick-up and delivery services to customers that are geographically dispersed in a given area. In many of its applications, the main objective of distribution is to find a set of routes for such trucks, satisfying a variety of constraints, so as to minimize the total distribution cost. This work focuses on a decision model for a real world problem. The problem reveals itself as assignment of trucks to routes by Latex Foam Rubber Products Limited-Kumasi, Ghana. This study addresses the problem of finding an efficient assignment of the limited number of trucks at the company’s disposal to the routes they ply while serving its customers outside the metropolis. In this work we use a solution procedure based on Munkres Assignment Algorithm for optimal assignment of non-homogenous fleet of trucks to a given set of routes, where Latex Foam Rubber Products Limited-Kumasi, distributes its products to its customers.
This project is aimed at downloading and uploading online assignments for students; with each assignment having information about the instructions, description, deadline, and submission details. The main goal of this thesis is to design and implement online assignment submission and provide an interface use for uploading test program (Nant script file) by instructors, who would be able to evaluate assignments automatically. The system provides an interface for testing assignments such that they can be plugged in by the teachers. This testing could invoke a compiler and make a test-run of the compiled code and check the result or test for plagiarism, existence of certain documents or simply check the file type (extension). The most obvious advantage offered by online assignment submission is that it offers faster transmission of assignments than using traditional way by using online system. The interface use to invoke different testing program by teachers, So Save the time and cost for teachers by enabling them to put up a fast response for students as well as increasing the quality of the feedback provided to students.
Modern day public transport assignment faces lots of problems. Solutions may exist but needs some form of backings. A sensitivity analysis in most cases could just be sufficient to provide this backing. The developments in this book are very important for students, academic researchers and policy makers. The book provides an extensive review on transit assignment, sensitivity analysis and OmniTRANS. It highlights important conclusions such as:- - Passenger access-egress distances significantly affects their access stop choices. - The travel distance parameter of the generalized cost function has the highest influence on transit assignment - The number of transfers to be made by passengers significantly determines their generalized cost of travel - A carefully conducted partial sensitivity analysis can provide better predictions than a Monte-Carlo sensitivity analysis. As a policy advice to public transport operators in Flanders-Belgium, the developments in this book suggest that; to improve transit assignment, it is sufficient to reduce passengers access-egress distances & the number of transfers either through the institution of more direct transit lines or missing links.
Network recovery is critical capability that service providers must provide. It can be accomplished in four ways. Span, or local, protection is the most common recovery method. Another common method is path restoration which is accomplished end-to-end. Some service providers apply both span protection and path restoration in different parts of their networks in a “hybrid” configuration. Another more recent alternative is a feature in Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) called “Fast Reroute.” This praxis addresses several fundamental problems related to each of the above network recovery options in large service provider networks. First, the effects of the numbers of links, demand unit sizes, and link size modularity have on the four recovery methods, individually and collectively, are examined. Next, the selection of the minimum cost recovery method given the presence and levels of the other options is determined. Finally, the cost differences of the recovery methods given any combination of the other options and their levels are presented.
This report is a Master Thesis for the Agricultural Engineering School of the Polytechnic University of Madrid. The report has been carried out during an Erasmus Programme Stage in the Department of Forest and Landscape at the Faculty of Life Sciences of University of Copenhagen. The purpose of this study was to practice and test the current methodologies of economic assessment of environmental projects. This valuation can serve as an example on how to evaluate the benefits obtained by an ecological restoration project in European countries.
A shortened assignment, as an accommodation, can help learning disabled students learn and demonstrate their knowledge. The purpose of this qualitative case study using grounded theory analysis was to explore the administration and implementation of shortened assignments for four learning disabled students and to describe the perceptions of co-teachers and parents of how shortened assignments benefit or hinder learning for these students within a co-teaching context at an urban middle school. Shortened assignments, when applied consistently and appropriately by general and special education teachers, can help learning disabled students in a variety of ways.
Increased share of wind power in the electricity generation mix brings fluctuating generation and increases the uncertainty in power system. To handle this varying net load (i.e. the difference between generation and load), the need for balancing services increases. It can be said that reducing the cost of balancing services becomes one of the major challenges in the following years for the electricity market. The idea of this project is to prove that additional transmission capacities can increase the alternatives for procurement of the balancing services by substituting the remote cheap balancing services with the local expensive ones. Transmission planning processes which consider this type of benefit of transmission investments, the diversification benefit, can help to reduce the cost of the procurement of ancillary services.
In the last 60 years different efforts have been made for the construction of a metro system in Bogota the capital of Colombia. The closer the city has got to building a large transport project was with the implementation of a Bus Rapid Transport (BRT) System in 1999 called Transmilenio. This BRT system helped organize the chaotic transport system of the city, but it is currently suffering from capacity and operational problems and the need for a rail base system is evident. Bogota and London are two cities with similar characteristics such as population, area, density and type of soil. Furthermore both cities are in the process of building a new mass transport system; in Bogota the first line of the metro and in London Crossrail. Based on these similarities the aim of this project was to construct a practical analytical tool for decision makers to consider the direct income and costs of the metro project and key social and economic benefits that involve the user and non-users of the transport system. Three different scenarios and seven sensitivity tests indicate the project is feasible, it should be constructed, and will bring benefits for the Colombian society.
The fundamental goal of multi-agent robotics is simple: how to create control laws and behaviors that, when executed by each individual robot, some desirable global behavior emerges. The global behavior may range from something as simple as the robots meeting at a single point, to something as complex as a collective search and rescue mission. Our research focuses on one of the more fundamental issues in multi-agent, mobile robotics: the formation control problem. The idea is to create controllers that cause robots to move into a predened formation shape. This is a well studied problem for the scenario in which the robots know in advance to which point in the formation they are assigned. In our case, we assume this information is not given in advance, but must be determined dynamically. This thesis presents an algorithm that can be used by a network of mobile robots to simultaneously determine ecient robot assignments and formation pose for rotationally and translationally invariant formations. This allows simultaneous role assignment and formation sysnthesis without the need for additional control laws.
In cellular mobile communication, since there will be conversation in progress in case of handover calls, GOS for them should be less than that for newly originating calls. Basically, there are three channel assignment schemes, fixed, dynamic & hybrid channel assignment schemes for handling newly originating and handover calls. In this study, capacity design for cellular mobile network in area inside ring road in Kathmandu valley has been done according to the findings of data collection and analysis of mobile communication service being provided by Nepal Telecom. Capacity planning has been done with GOS equal to 2% for newly originating calls and 1% for handover calls. In addition to capacity planning, efficient channel assignment scheme in terms of blocking and throughput has been evaluated with optimal utilization of the designed capacity for getting minimum blocking for both types of calls maintaining the blocking for handover calls always less than that for newly originating calls. The simulated values of GOS & throughput for all channel assignment schemes at different penetration have been compared and hybrid channel assignment scheme has been found to be most efficient.
A wireless mesh networks (WMNs) has emerged recently, WMN consist of two types of nodes mesh routers and mesh clients.WMN is dynamically self-organized and self-configured, with the nodes in the network automatically establishing and maintaining mesh connectivity among themselves. Channel assignment is a critical issue in WMN which is the mapping between the available channels and the radios at each node such that the network performance is optimized, and hence the focus of this work along with static channel assignment, multi-radio, multi-channel. Multi-radio MAC can potentially achieve higher network capacity than single-radio MAC. We design and implement a new agent (DSBCA) distributed channel assignment spanner base, the routing protocol Optimize the network performance considering the throughput, end-to-end delay, connectivity and the interference of our channel assignment algorithm. Base on the network simulations NS2.34 on Linux Fedora and our proposed channel assignment algorithm improved the throughput, minimal-connectivity preserving channel assignment algorithm.
Traditional agriculture in Northern Bangladesh is unsustainable and keeps farmers in a vicious circle of poverty. Agroforestry is a promising alternative, which is considered as one of the very few options to lift people out of the poverty trap and to protect the existing forest as well as improving environmental sustainability. Agroforestry may not only be good for (agro)biodiversity and sustainability, but also has a good economic rate of return. This research identifies the potential role of agroforestry on rural household development and assesses benefit-cost of agroforestry compared to traditional agriculture. Both quantitative, semi-quantitative and qualitative methods are used for analyzing data. The quantitative-economic parts of the study used descriptive statistics and econometric techniques combined with micro-economic models, especially cost-benefit analysis of agroforestry and traditional agriculture combinations at the household level.
This book contains a good literature survey of various mathematical models and routing & wavelengths assignment algorithms in WDM optical networks. Some of the new algorithms for optimization of blocking probability have aslo been covered. This book is good for researchers who are working on optical networks and advancements in fiber optics communication. Mathematical models covered in this book are simple and easy to implement. A good number of routing and wavelength assignment algorithms have also been covered in this book which can be used to reduce blocking probability of the optical network. This book can be very helpful to the research scholars.
Stress in Moroccan Arabic, and also in other languages, poses challenging problems for phonological theory. This is due to the fact that stress exhibits conflicting properties; which makes it difficult to provide answers to a number of issues. This book provides an investigation into a prominent aspect of prosodic phonology in Moroccan Arabic (a case study of the dialect of Rabat city), namely, stress assignment in the grammatical category of verbs within the framework of optimality theory as proposed in Prince and Smolensky and McCarthy and Prince. It particularly addresses a range of issues such as: the position of stress, the basis on which stress is located, the factors on the basis of which stress location is effected, the importance of the perceptual and the instrumental tests in shedding light on stress assignment, and the extent to which the optimality theoretic analysis confirm or disconfirm the results of the perceptual and the instrumental tests concerning stress placement. This book will be of interest to linguistics, teachers, researchers and to anyone interested in language study and phonological theory.
What does corporate bankruptcy law aim to achieve and how should it achieve its aim? This book comprehensively reviews and analyzes the theoretical debate and the existing empirical evidence that aspire to answer these two questions. It studies what various country-specific and cross-country empirical studies have shown, and what they have failed to prove so far. By highlighting the findings and methodological limitations of these studies, this book formulates and implements a research agenda whose final purpose is to provide a decisive answer to the debate on what are, or should be, the goals and means of bankruptcy law. While protecting creditors seems always a right policy choice that enhances the supply of credit, a carefully crafted collective bankruptcy statute that balances the rights of creditors and debtors equally promotes credit availability. In addition, it provides creditors with higher recovery rates in bankruptcy and significantly lowers the cost of capital. Overall, this book argues that efficient collective procedures are more equitable and more conductive to financial development than divisive auction bankruptcies.
Vienna, 1966. To be wrongly accused of murder once is a misfortune. Twice - and it's a conspiracy. It is the height of the Cold War. When a defector from Eastern Europe mysteriously returns to the village of his birth, it's a chance for disgraced detective Brano Sev to redeem himself. Being framed for a murder should just be part of his cover story. Or is it? Exiled suddenly to Vienna, treacherous city of spies, Sev finds himself caught up in a cat-and-mouse game where survival is the only prize. But in a world where no good deed goes unpunished, loyalty can be the biggest crime of all...
Assignment Problem is one of the first fundamental problems in the area of combinatorial optimization. Despite its historical roots, the problem has tremendous importance to date, due to its numerous real life applications in like facility location, personnel scheduling, job scheduling, production planning, project assignment, task assignment, time-tabling, vehicle routing, storage space allocation, etc. This book comprises some real life assignment and related problems involving imprecise cost/time parameters. In order to represent those imprecise parameters, interval numbers have been used here as this representation is the best among others. The associated problems have been solved using Genetic Algorithm efficiently. A salient feature of this book is that most of the algorithms have been written in a lucid manner with suitable examples using figures. This book should interest academicians, OR/GA practitioners and executives of different industries and business organizations.
Due to the increasing environmental degradation and high uncertainty of the degree of the natural capital substitutability, a necessity for a decision tool, that would assess a public project/policy, apart from the private, also from the social (so also environmental) point of view, has arisen. We present the environmental cost-benefit analysis (CBA) as an ideal aid to accomplish such an objective in theory, however, as a still imperfect tool to achieve it in practice. The CBA is full of controversies. In this book we address one of the most controversial steps - the choice of the social discount rate (SDR), in particular the social time discount rate (or “pure” rate of time preference) for the public environmental projects/policies in the Czech Republic. We therefore search for the most appropriate way of the SDR determination, value the social time discount rate and the SDR in general should take in the public environmental projects/policies in the Czech Republic and whether these outcomes are in compliance with the recommendations of the European Commission. This book should be very useful to everyone worldwide who deals with environmental CBAs or sustainable development issues.
Globalization is the internationalization process. For developing countries,it means integration with the world economy. In the era of globalization where the whole world is integrated into one market, Transnational Corporations (TNCs) are of prime importance especially for developing countries. TNCs are those which have gone global i.e. extended their operations beyond the boundaries of the nation, in which they were originally started. The industrial, technological, banking and investment sector in India is undergoing a phase of transition owing to increased competition and changes in regulatory scenario due to globalization. This is forcing the companies to shed flab and become more technology oriented. Due to rapid changes in the business environment which require diligent measures from companies if they have to survive in the long run, the domestic companies particularly the public sector companies in India are finding it difficult to cope with the competition.With time it looks like, the relatively Small Indian Companies will have to either close down their operations as restructuring process would again prove to be burden for them or they can look for a sound merger partner.
When dealing with stress assignment on the word level, many exceptions to hitherto defined principles can be found in the English language. While some exceptions can be explained by word or morpheme boundaries, others do not fit so easliy into the underlying systematicity of English stress behaviour. Some are often described as simply being idiosyncratic. A new statistical analysis reveals that many of these exceptions do share some common features to a certain extent, in particular in their orthography. Can this kind of features be used to establish additional rules in order to account for exceptional cases of English stress assignment? Or is there no other means but to consider these cases as lexcially exceptional?
This book talk about how recruiting and selecting the right person can benefit an organisation; assess the recruitment and selection procedure of an organisation with the appropraite theories. Furthermore, the purpose of this book is to make initial analysis on various recruitment and selection process and its benefits to an organisation. Moreover, the book includes concepts such as legal, ethical, equal opportunities and diversity in recruitment and selection; improving the brand image of the company in the labour market and adopting of other selection methods.
The concept of reduced or zero tillage systems is not new. Many developed and developing countries also use these systems, which are often found to generate higher yields, reduce production costs and reduce erosion and other forms of land degradation, with corresponding benefits for the natural resource. A whole system of mechanization has been developed in these countries to ensure good crop establishment, proper placement of fertilizer and handling of crop residues for better yield. These equipments are accompanied by a set of recommended crop management and protection for handling weed, disease and pest problems occurring under the new tillage systems. Appropriate agriculture mechanization for commercialization of agriculture is a need to achieve timeliness in field operations, increased productivity, reduce cost of production and to minimize farm labour. So, it has no alternative to reducing the cost of cultivation that ultimately reduces the price of agricultural products through mechanization and commercialization of the agriculture sector.