This study is situated within the field of instructional design and sought to identify competencies specific to online designers-by-assignment in high school learning environments. Since existing instructional design standards currently available to guide designers-by-assignment differ from one another, a lack of clarity remains about which specific standards actually benefit this emerging professional group in the process of developing and revising courses they eventually teach. The purpose of this qualitative Delphi study was to identify, through expert agreement, instructional design competencies that can benefit high school online designers-by-assignment and the instructional design profession. This study employed the qualitative Delphi design to achieve consensus among experts in five fields (high school online practitioners, instructional design academics, university pre-service instructors, online high school administrators and high school online instructional designers).
The focus area of this paper is on the assignment problem with budget constraints which is one of the application area of combinatorial optimization that operates on the domain of those optimization problems,in which the set of feasible solutions is discrete or can be reduced to discrete,and in which the goal is to find the best solution. It is particularly concerned with solving the unconstrained assignment problems with Hungarian algorithm and the constrained assignment problem by cutting plane or outer linearization algorithm for solving the Lagrangian dual problem in which, at each iteration,the function that approximates the dual function is optimized. The paper is divided in to two chapters. In the first chapter,the classical assignment problem,the problem of finding optimum (minimum or maximum) cost or profit assignment a set of workers or resources to jobs or activities to gather with its mathematical formulation,solution methods and special cases in assignment problems were considered. Under the second chapter, we have considered generalization of the classical assignment problem concerning resource(or budget) constraints, due to the variety of real life problems.
The problem of distributing goods from depots to consumers plays an important role in the management of many distribution systems, and therefore when it is programmed efficiently it may yield significant savings. In a typical distribution system, trucks provide pick-up and delivery services to customers that are geographically dispersed in a given area. In many of its applications, the main objective of distribution is to find a set of routes for such trucks, satisfying a variety of constraints, so as to minimize the total distribution cost. This work focuses on a decision model for a real world problem. The problem reveals itself as assignment of trucks to routes by Latex Foam Rubber Products Limited-Kumasi, Ghana. This study addresses the problem of finding an efficient assignment of the limited number of trucks at the company’s disposal to the routes they ply while serving its customers outside the metropolis. In this work we use a solution procedure based on Munkres Assignment Algorithm for optimal assignment of non-homogenous fleet of trucks to a given set of routes, where Latex Foam Rubber Products Limited-Kumasi, distributes its products to its customers.
Companies, society and individuals' dreams have been shattered as a result of directors' reckless acts. In an effort, to avoid such situations, there is total failure to add another fundamental aspect which is "directors' responsibilities to creditors of the company" they direct. Many a judge, lawyers and practitioners have least thought of this as a serious factor. They are blinded by the principles that directors are directly responsible to their employer company and that their acts are protected by the company. Even in those circumstances where the veil of incorporation is lifted, to expose directors for "ultra vires" acts in the company, nothing or little is done to involve the creditors' interest who provide the capital. Creditors' interest have been relegated to insolvency. This book sets to illustrate to investors, businessmen, judges, lawyers and practitioners, policymakers and students that for companies/establishments to stay healthy in business, managing directors must be responsible to creditors whose interests need to be protected like those of other stakeholders in the company. South Africa and OHADA region are used for illustration.
This work on pooling in insolvency was based onresearch supervised at the Australian NationalUniversity. Its objectives are two fold. The first concernsdissecting and critiquing the concept of pooling. Theideas developed in the work shift the key focus ofpooling from an inquiry into the insolvent companiesthemselves to a focus on unsecured creditors. This shifted focus thereby addresses the subtlety ofhow the costs of corporate group insolvenciesactually impact on creditors. Additional analysis isdone through an interest’s analysis of the differentcategories of unsecured creditors. The second objective of the book is to consider theadequacy of Australian legislation and policy toassist developments in this field.
In cellular mobile communication, since there will be conversation in progress in case of handover calls, GOS for them should be less than that for newly originating calls. Basically, there are three channel assignment schemes, fixed, dynamic & hybrid channel assignment schemes for handling newly originating and handover calls. In this study, capacity design for cellular mobile network in area inside ring road in Kathmandu valley has been done according to the findings of data collection and analysis of mobile communication service being provided by Nepal Telecom. Capacity planning has been done with GOS equal to 2% for newly originating calls and 1% for handover calls. In addition to capacity planning, efficient channel assignment scheme in terms of blocking and throughput has been evaluated with optimal utilization of the designed capacity for getting minimum blocking for both types of calls maintaining the blocking for handover calls always less than that for newly originating calls. The simulated values of GOS & throughput for all channel assignment schemes at different penetration have been compared and hybrid channel assignment scheme has been found to be most efficient.
Revision with unchanged content. This study investigated the influence of computer-generated reminders on the rate in which distance learners submitted assignments and completed courses. The computer-generated reminders, sent via email, served as a time management support strategy. Participants were randomly divided into two groups: control and treatment. Both groups received a list of target due dates for course assignments. The control group did not receive reminders. The treatment group received reminders when they failed to submit an assignment by a target due date. The results indicated no significant difference between the control and treatment groups in terms of assignment submission rates and course completion rates. However, results of this study did reveal that the number of assignments in a distance course influences the timeliness of assignment completion and the likelihood of course completion.
Increased share of wind power in the electricity generation mix brings fluctuating generation and increases the uncertainty in power system. To handle this varying net load (i.e. the difference between generation and load), the need for balancing services increases. It can be said that reducing the cost of balancing services becomes one of the major challenges in the following years for the electricity market. The idea of this project is to prove that additional transmission capacities can increase the alternatives for procurement of the balancing services by substituting the remote cheap balancing services with the local expensive ones. Transmission planning processes which consider this type of benefit of transmission investments, the diversification benefit, can help to reduce the cost of the procurement of ancillary services.
This book explains the port operations and proposes approaches that aim to improve the most important successive steps in container terminal management activities. A multi-period assignment problem that seeks to allocate vessels to berthing spaces and quay cranes is proposed to handle the quayside operations. Subsequently, on the yard side, a discrete-event simulation model for the real life detailed processes performed during the handling of import containers is developed. In particular, the model focuses on the storage assignment problem at the operational level in a container terminal with a multiple-berth structure. An approach by means of a hierarchical structure is adapted to partition the assignment problem into two sub-problems and solve each of them using separate decision rules. Suggested storage policies are evaluated in view of the overall performance of the container terminal.
This publication is a thesis research Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Information Technology at Strathmore University. The topic is addressing the challenges related to justification of system security investment when the perception of cost benefit of the security project differs respectively from one stakeholder (top management, IT/security manager, end-users, etc.) to another. Further, Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) is very difficult to perform with exactitude because of the intangibility of security mechanism cost and benefits therefore it is worth to fully depend on it for investment decision making. The Role of Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) of Information Security Measures for Investment Justification is seeking to draw line around CBA’s limitation. It develops a framework of decision making of information security investment based on the CBA.
Assignment Problem is one of the first fundamental problems in the area of combinatorial optimization. Despite its historical roots, the problem has tremendous importance to date, due to its numerous real life applications in like facility location, personnel scheduling, job scheduling, production planning, project assignment, task assignment, time-tabling, vehicle routing, storage space allocation, etc. This book comprises some real life assignment and related problems involving imprecise cost/time parameters. In order to represent those imprecise parameters, interval numbers have been used here as this representation is the best among others. The associated problems have been solved using Genetic Algorithm efficiently. A salient feature of this book is that most of the algorithms have been written in a lucid manner with suitable examples using figures. This book should interest academicians, OR/GA practitioners and executives of different industries and business organizations.
This book presents the basis for designing a control strategy for Shunt Active Power Filters used for the compensation of harmonic currents consumed by nonlinear loads. The design of the controller is carried out using the interconnection and damping assignment technique. The control objective is to inject the adequate compensation current into the power system, so that the grid current is sinusoidal and balanced, regardless of whether the grid voltage is distorted or unbalanced. This application uses a design methodology based on interconnection and damping assignment that allows trajectory tracking control because the references of the compensating currents are variable, and they depend on the performance of the load and the grid. References of the compensation currents are calculated by using Instantaneous Active-Reactive Power Theory.
This project is aimed at downloading and uploading online assignments for students; with each assignment having information about the instructions, description, deadline, and submission details. The main goal of this thesis is to design and implement online assignment submission and provide an interface use for uploading test program (Nant script file) by instructors, who would be able to evaluate assignments automatically. The system provides an interface for testing assignments such that they can be plugged in by the teachers. This testing could invoke a compiler and make a test-run of the compiled code and check the result or test for plagiarism, existence of certain documents or simply check the file type (extension). The most obvious advantage offered by online assignment submission is that it offers faster transmission of assignments than using traditional way by using online system. The interface use to invoke different testing program by teachers, So Save the time and cost for teachers by enabling them to put up a fast response for students as well as increasing the quality of the feedback provided to students.
The present study used hierarchical linear modeling to examine correlates of benefit finding at study entry and individuals trajectories of benefit finding over time among men treated for early stage prostate cancer (n = 261). Correlates associated with benefit finding at study entry included intrinsic religiosity, perceived social support, perceived present control, approach coping, use of emotional support, avoidant coping, and religious coping. Within-persons changes in optimism, perceived social support, perceived present control, approach coping, use of emotional support, avoidant coping, and religious coping were associated with within-persons changes in benefit finding. The association between the trajectories of perceived social support and benefit finding was partially mediated by approach coping and use of emotional support. The findings suggest that coping responses may represent an important mechanism through which changes in benefit finding occur.
Revision with unchanged content. Cost-benefit analysis is normally used for evaluation of economic efficiency. Distributional weighting is a way of including income distribution effects in welfare evaluations. Weighted cost-benefit analysis (WCBA) is scarcely used, even though equity is an urgent issue. The reason may be the need for further development of the method. The object of this book is to present the method WCBA, to analyse the effect of the choice of distributional weights on project decisions and to study the relevance of the rationales for applying WCBA. The results indicate that the choice of weights has less effect on project decisions than one would expect, considering the size and progressiveness of the weights. The two rationales for distributional weighting, studied here, are individual marginal utility of income decreasing with income and individual preferences for the welfare of others (altruism). The former rationale seems to be the one most likely to hold. The issue of weighted cost-benefit analysis is of importance not only for researchers interested in equity and welfare but also for analysis and decision-makers in the public sektor.
The efficient management of Change Requests (CRs) is fundamental for successful software maintenance; however the assignment of CRs to developers is an expensive aspect in this regard, due to the time and expertise demanded. To overcome this, researchers have proposed automated approaches for CR assignment. Although these proposals present advances to this topic, they do not consider many factors inherent to the assignments, such as: developers’ workload, CRs severity, interpersonal relationships, and developers know-how. Actually, as we demonstrate in this work, CR assignment is a complex activity and automated approaches cannot rely on simplistic solutions. Ideally, it is necessary to consider and reason over contextual information in order to provide an effective automation. Beyond investigating all these aspects through an extensive systematic literature review, this work also proposes a context-aware architecture solution to semi-automated assignment of CRs.
The highly competitive environment in today's wireless and cellular network industries is making the management of systems seek for better and more advance techniques to keep masses of data, complexity of systems and deadline constrains under control with a lower cost and higher efficiency. Therefore, the management is getting significant attentions by researchers in order to increase the efficiency of the resource usage to provide high quality services. Two of the cornerstones of the management system in wireless and cellular network are carrier assignment and packet scheduling. Therefore, this work focuses on analysis and development of carrier assignment and packet scheduling methods in multi-band Wi-Fi and LTE-A networks.
Modern day public transport assignment faces lots of problems. Solutions may exist but needs some form of backings. A sensitivity analysis in most cases could just be sufficient to provide this backing. The developments in this book are very important for students, academic researchers and policy makers. The book provides an extensive review on transit assignment, sensitivity analysis and OmniTRANS. It highlights important conclusions such as:- - Passenger access-egress distances significantly affects their access stop choices. - The travel distance parameter of the generalized cost function has the highest influence on transit assignment - The number of transfers to be made by passengers significantly determines their generalized cost of travel - A carefully conducted partial sensitivity analysis can provide better predictions than a Monte-Carlo sensitivity analysis. As a policy advice to public transport operators in Flanders-Belgium, the developments in this book suggest that; to improve transit assignment, it is sufficient to reduce passengers access-egress distances & the number of transfers either through the institution of more direct transit lines or missing links.
The film tie-in edition of the cult classic Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?As the eagerly-anticipated new film Blade Runner 2049 finally comes to the screen, rediscover the world of Blade Runner...World War Terminus had left the Earth devastated. Through its ruins, bounty hunter Rick Deckard stalked, in search of the renegade replicants who were his prey. When he wasn't 'retiring' them with his laser weapon, he dreamed of owning a live animal - the ultimate status symbol in a world all but bereft of animal life.Then Rick got his chance: the assignment to kill six Nexus-6 targets, for a huge reward. But in Deckard's world things were never that simple, and his assignment quickly turned into a nightmare kaleidoscope of subterfuge and deceit - and the threat of death for the hunter, rather than the hunted...
A wireless mesh networks (WMNs) has emerged recently, WMN consist of two types of nodes mesh routers and mesh clients.WMN is dynamically self-organized and self-configured, with the nodes in the network automatically establishing and maintaining mesh connectivity among themselves. Channel assignment is a critical issue in WMN which is the mapping between the available channels and the radios at each node such that the network performance is optimized, and hence the focus of this work along with static channel assignment, multi-radio, multi-channel. Multi-radio MAC can potentially achieve higher network capacity than single-radio MAC. We design and implement a new agent (DSBCA) distributed channel assignment spanner base, the routing protocol Optimize the network performance considering the throughput, end-to-end delay, connectivity and the interference of our channel assignment algorithm. Base on the network simulations NS2.34 on Linux Fedora and our proposed channel assignment algorithm improved the throughput, minimal-connectivity preserving channel assignment algorithm.
Tax-benefit systems play an important role in the socioeconomic organisation of countries. Indeed, the distribution of income, living arrangements and the pattern of labor supply at one point in time are partly the outcome of past systems of taxation and social security benefits. The reason is that individuals react to the incentives displayed by those systems and modify their behavior accordingly. Tax-benefit systems need thus to be amended in some circumstances to account for changes in the socioeconomic circumstances. An obvious application is the ongoing question in economic literature and policy design of the choice of the unit of assessment in tax-benefit systems.The unspectacular evolution in women labor market participation observed over the past decades combined with an evolution of the structure of the family constituted major changes and challenged the traditional design of tax-benefit systems.This study will try to determine the current pattern governing household organization in terms of labor supply. The question will be to assert to what extent tax-benefit systems contribute to this situation and how they need to be amended to better reflect the changing conditions.
This study was done in 2009 to assess use and effect of credit on livestock farming in Tanahun. Survey was carried out on creditors, 35 each from Sirjana Bikas Kendra (SBK), Agricultural Development Bank Ltd (ADBL), and Sewar Dairy Cooperative (Sewar). About 74% were found taking loan for bovines,10.5% for pig, 7.6% for goat and 7.6% for poultry. About 83%,37% and 63% creditors from SBK, ADBL and Sewar were found using credit rightly. No creditors from SBK, 17.1% each from ADBL and Sewar were found misusing credit. Credit showed positive effect on housing structure. No. of creditors living in thatched mud house were reduced to 22.9% from 28.5% in SBK and 5.7% from 8.6% in Sewar. Tin cemented house owner in ADBL was increased to 62.9% from 60%. Average income of creditors from SBK, ADBL and Sewar was increased by 84%, 62% and 51% after using the credit. Saving was increased by 47%, 41% and 28% in SBK ADBL and Sewar. Better supervision, establishment of market centre, providing fodder and forage seed, lowering interest rate, training, encouragement to saving are suggested for better use of livestock credit.
Traditional agriculture in Northern Bangladesh is unsustainable and keeps farmers in a vicious circle of poverty. Agroforestry is a promising alternative, which is considered as one of the very few options to lift people out of the poverty trap and to protect the existing forest as well as improving environmental sustainability. Agroforestry may not only be good for (agro)biodiversity and sustainability, but also has a good economic rate of return. This research identifies the potential role of agroforestry on rural household development and assesses benefit-cost of agroforestry compared to traditional agriculture. Both quantitative, semi-quantitative and qualitative methods are used for analyzing data. The quantitative-economic parts of the study used descriptive statistics and econometric techniques combined with micro-economic models, especially cost-benefit analysis of agroforestry and traditional agriculture combinations at the household level.
Corporate Finance is an area of law which is obviously of significant practical importance, but the academic analysis of this area of law has also been increasingly recognised. This book provides a discussion of the most interesting theoretical and policy issues in Corporate Finance law. This book covers both the equity and debt sides of Corporate Finance law, and seeks, where possible, to compare the two, considering the desirability of each in various circumstances and pointing to areas of convergence and overlap. The topics covered in this book include: an overview of the financing options available to companies; the relationship between debt and equity; legal capital; contractual protection for creditors; proprietary protection for creditors; single and multiple lenders; transferred debt; public offers of shares; the ongoing regulation of the capital market; the regulation of debt; takeovers; schemes of arrangement and private equity. Each chapter analyses the issues so as to enable the reader to understand the difficulties, risks and tensions inherent in this area of law, and the attempts made by the legislature and the courts, as well as the parties involved, to deal with them. This book discusses areas where the law is uncertain, including some difficult conceptual problems, and considers the present law critically, including options for possible reform. This book will be of interest to practitioners, academics and students engaged in the practice and study of corporate finance law.
Tyrell Hawthorne was a naval intelligence officer - one of the best - until the rain-swept night in Amsterdam when his wife was murdered, an innocent victim of the games spies play. Now he's called out of retirement for one last assignment. For Hawthorne is the only man alive who can track down the world's most dangerous terrorist.