This study is situated within the field of instructional design and sought to identify competencies specific to online designers-by-assignment in high school learning environments. Since existing instructional design standards currently available to guide designers-by-assignment differ from one another, a lack of clarity remains about which specific standards actually benefit this emerging professional group in the process of developing and revising courses they eventually teach. The purpose of this qualitative Delphi study was to identify, through expert agreement, instructional design competencies that can benefit high school online designers-by-assignment and the instructional design profession. This study employed the qualitative Delphi design to achieve consensus among experts in five fields (high school online practitioners, instructional design academics, university pre-service instructors, online high school administrators and high school online instructional designers).
This book explores agreement in MG coordinate nouns within the constraint-based framework of Lexical-Functional Grammar. It investigates predicate-argument and head-modifier agreement with coordinate nouns and agreement with disjunctively conjoined nouns. In predicate-argument agreement, in addition to the syntactic and semantic agreement principles, we also find the referential principle, motivated by a Contextually Introduced Referent, the superordinate term of the coordinate nouns implied in the sentence. In head-modifier agreement, the shared MG definite determiner shows concord agreement and occurs only with the joint interpretation. It exceptionally occurs with a split reading when nouns are a natural coordination. A shared determiner shows index/concord agreement and occurs either with the joint or split interpretations. In disjunctively conjoined nouns, native speakers choose an agreeing verb based on the interpretation of disjunction as ‘and-coordinate’ and as ‘exclusive-or’. Other factors, however, such as syntactic, may also determine number verb agreement.
A wireless mesh networks (WMNs) has emerged recently, WMN consist of two types of nodes mesh routers and mesh clients.WMN is dynamically self-organized and self-configured, with the nodes in the network automatically establishing and maintaining mesh connectivity among themselves. Channel assignment is a critical issue in WMN which is the mapping between the available channels and the radios at each node such that the network performance is optimized, and hence the focus of this work along with static channel assignment, multi-radio, multi-channel. Multi-radio MAC can potentially achieve higher network capacity than single-radio MAC. We design and implement a new agent (DSBCA) distributed channel assignment spanner base, the routing protocol Optimize the network performance considering the throughput, end-to-end delay, connectivity and the interference of our channel assignment algorithm. Base on the network simulations NS2.34 on Linux Fedora and our proposed channel assignment algorithm improved the throughput, minimal-connectivity preserving channel assignment algorithm.
Assignment Problem is one of the first fundamental problems in the area of combinatorial optimization. Despite its historical roots, the problem has tremendous importance to date, due to its numerous real life applications in like facility location, personnel scheduling, job scheduling, production planning, project assignment, task assignment, time-tabling, vehicle routing, storage space allocation, etc. This book comprises some real life assignment and related problems involving imprecise cost/time parameters. In order to represent those imprecise parameters, interval numbers have been used here as this representation is the best among others. The associated problems have been solved using Genetic Algorithm efficiently. A salient feature of this book is that most of the algorithms have been written in a lucid manner with suitable examples using figures. This book should interest academicians, OR/GA practitioners and executives of different industries and business organizations.
This study is an empirical examination of the first contract arbitration model available in the province of British Columbia (B.C.), Canada, which features a unique focus on mediation as an alternative, preferred method for resolving first contract disputes. The B.C. model allows a mediator to issue non-binding recommendations for the terms of the first collective bargaining agreement, which are accorded considerable deference by subsequent arbitrators and courts. The key goal of this model is to establish first collective bargaining agreements and enduring bargaining relationships without resorting to arbitration. The assumption underlying this model is that agreements voluntarily reached by the parties, even with the assistance of a mediator, better achieve this goal than arbitration. Through data analysis and interviews with key participants in the B.C. model, this study empirically tests the validity of this assumption and the impact of mediator’s recommendations. The data confirm that parties who accept the mediator’s recommendations are the most likely to obtain a first collective bargaining agreement (at 97.4%) and be in a current bargaining relationship (at 82.1%).
The present book is a take on the relevance and need for a global competition agreement in today's globalised world. The present book looks at the earlier efforts in establishing global competition rules. The book then goes on to suggest the core principles of a global competition agreement and at the same time looks at the suitability of the WTO as an appropriate mechanism for the formation and operation of a global competition agreement.
Afghanistan is a land locked country and Pakistan is obliged to provide it with access to sea ports under its international treaty obligations. The first Afghanistan-Pakistan Transit Trade Agreement, also known as ATTA was signed on 2nd March, 1965. The Afghan Commerce Minister Dr. Anwar-ul-Haq Ahady and the Pakistani Commerce Minister Makhdoom M. Amin Fahim signed the new Pak-Afghan Transit Trade Agreement on 28th October, 2010. Certain fears and apprehensions had been expressed that the interests of Pakistan have been compromised at the behest of some external powers. In this background this book provides a comprehensive clarification regarding the agreement and analyzes the positive and negative implications of this agreement for Pakistan.
The Paris Agreement fundamentally alters the reach and scope of the international climate change regime. This book provides the first legal commentary to the Agreement's articles, putting them in context and detailing how they are to be understood and put into action.
Over the past decades majority of conflicts ended signing peace agreement between conflicting parties. This paper explores the political dimensions of peace process in Nepal through Comprehensive Peace Agreement signed between political parties and Maoist rebel. The essence of this peace agreement was to share the power, reform the state and demobilize Maoist's arms and armies. Concluding a decade long civil war between Maoists and the government Nepal has turned a new page on its political, social history and declared as a federal democratic republic country. As Nepal was ruled by King and some other family regimes for some two and a half century it was a great turning point in strengthening the state with the support of local, national and international experts inclusively. The agreement was expected to ensure fundamental human rights as well as a progressive and inclusive social, political and economic status of the country. This paper has explored and analyzed wide range of pros and cons seen before and after the peace agreement. What implementation mechanism and modalities were provided in the Comprehensive Peace Agreement? What are the challenges of implementing peace?
The focus area of this paper is on the assignment problem with budget constraints which is one of the application area of combinatorial optimization that operates on the domain of those optimization problems,in which the set of feasible solutions is discrete or can be reduced to discrete,and in which the goal is to find the best solution. It is particularly concerned with solving the unconstrained assignment problems with Hungarian algorithm and the constrained assignment problem by cutting plane or outer linearization algorithm for solving the Lagrangian dual problem in which, at each iteration,the function that approximates the dual function is optimized. The paper is divided in to two chapters. In the first chapter,the classical assignment problem,the problem of finding optimum (minimum or maximum) cost or profit assignment a set of workers or resources to jobs or activities to gather with its mathematical formulation,solution methods and special cases in assignment problems were considered. Under the second chapter, we have considered generalization of the classical assignment problem concerning resource(or budget) constraints, due to the variety of real life problems.
The most popular measure of agreement is Cohen’s Kappa which is an agreement index for the correlation between categorical variables often used as a reliability or validity measure. Although kappa has meaning as percentage agreement corrected for chance, its definition does not give a direct probabilistic support. The book studies a probability framework to model rater agreement in medical diagnosis, and hence a new index of agreement based on a probability model is proposed, which carries some useful interpretations along with providing information about intrinsic agreement not due to chance. The new index results in the same form as Cohen’s kappa in practice and thus provides a novel means to understand kappa. Estimation based on maximum likelihood and statistical tests for hypothesis related to this new index are developed for inferences. Monte Carlo simulations are used to confirm the theoretical findings and numerical analysis of data from medical studies are used to demonstrate the practical applications. This book will be very helpful for the researchers in biomedical sciences, education, psychology, sociology and also in other fields in measuring agreement index.
Collaboration between industry and investigators is essential in the ongoing development and marketing of medical products. With the majority of funding for clinical trials coming from industry it is critical that the investigator is able to appropriately manage the clinical trial agreement which governs the conduct of the study. Very little literature exists defining the investigator's role or involvement in the clinical trial agreement process. This book provides the first systematic examination of current practices by U.S. investigators in the management of the Clinical Trial Agreement. Topics examined include the level of investigator engagement in the contract process, knowledge and understanding, factors affecting involvement, and issues surrounding the agreement. This book is especially useful to research professionals who conduct industry-sponsored research and can assist in negotiating a fair and balanced contact for your clinical trials.
The efficient management of Change Requests (CRs) is fundamental for successful software maintenance; however the assignment of CRs to developers is an expensive aspect in this regard, due to the time and expertise demanded. To overcome this, researchers have proposed automated approaches for CR assignment. Although these proposals present advances to this topic, they do not consider many factors inherent to the assignments, such as: developers’ workload, CRs severity, interpersonal relationships, and developers know-how. Actually, as we demonstrate in this work, CR assignment is a complex activity and automated approaches cannot rely on simplistic solutions. Ideally, it is necessary to consider and reason over contextual information in order to provide an effective automation. Beyond investigating all these aspects through an extensive systematic literature review, this work also proposes a context-aware architecture solution to semi-automated assignment of CRs.
The highly competitive environment in today's wireless and cellular network industries is making the management of systems seek for better and more advance techniques to keep masses of data, complexity of systems and deadline constrains under control with a lower cost and higher efficiency. Therefore, the management is getting significant attentions by researchers in order to increase the efficiency of the resource usage to provide high quality services. Two of the cornerstones of the management system in wireless and cellular network are carrier assignment and packet scheduling. Therefore, this work focuses on analysis and development of carrier assignment and packet scheduling methods in multi-band Wi-Fi and LTE-A networks.
Book DescriptionReady to Use: Investor Rights Agreement for Venture Capital Deals is the definitive resource for understanding, drafting and negotiating deals. The CD-Rom features a sample investor rights agreement in a Microsoft Word document that can be customized to fit your needs. Written by top corporate lawyers and fine tuned by leading venture capitalists, the contracts represent the industry standard for these types of agreements. The documents include line by line wording on the following topics: registration rights; board of directors; company covenants; rights of first participations; form of employment agreement; form of non-disclosure, inventions & non-competion agreement. Within these documents lies a wealth of critical information which every VC, entrepreneur, CEO and lawyer should have at their fingertips.
The arbitration system is a quick,easy and confidential process with a final award to resolve disputes.The application of arbitration,precisely because of the existence of these advantages,makes it increasingly favored by the parties to the International Commercial Contracts,thus becoming one of the main settlements of international commercial disputes.The entry into force of the arbitration agreement is the conclusion that the arbitration process was initiated.Because of the development of economic globalization,the international conventions, national legislation and practice tend to the effectiveness of the detection the flaws in both the arbitration agreement and the arbitration clause.This paper seeks to determine the meaning of a flaw in the arbitration agreement which summarizes the types of flaws in the arbitration agreement,thus laying the foundations for the identified effect of flawed arbitration agreement.On International Commercial arbitration agreement,if the parties do not breach the provisions of the Law on the arbitrability and the public policy of the countries interested,they are belong to a valid arbitration agreement and it must be executed.
Revision with unchanged content. This study investigated the influence of computer-generated reminders on the rate in which distance learners submitted assignments and completed courses. The computer-generated reminders, sent via email, served as a time management support strategy. Participants were randomly divided into two groups: control and treatment. Both groups received a list of target due dates for course assignments. The control group did not receive reminders. The treatment group received reminders when they failed to submit an assignment by a target due date. The results indicated no significant difference between the control and treatment groups in terms of assignment submission rates and course completion rates. However, results of this study did reveal that the number of assignments in a distance course influences the timeliness of assignment completion and the likelihood of course completion.
In cellular mobile communication, since there will be conversation in progress in case of handover calls, GOS for them should be less than that for newly originating calls. Basically, there are three channel assignment schemes, fixed, dynamic & hybrid channel assignment schemes for handling newly originating and handover calls. In this study, capacity design for cellular mobile network in area inside ring road in Kathmandu valley has been done according to the findings of data collection and analysis of mobile communication service being provided by Nepal Telecom. Capacity planning has been done with GOS equal to 2% for newly originating calls and 1% for handover calls. In addition to capacity planning, efficient channel assignment scheme in terms of blocking and throughput has been evaluated with optimal utilization of the designed capacity for getting minimum blocking for both types of calls maintaining the blocking for handover calls always less than that for newly originating calls. The simulated values of GOS & throughput for all channel assignment schemes at different penetration have been compared and hybrid channel assignment scheme has been found to be most efficient.
South Asian Free Trade Area (SAFTA) leading subsequently towards a Customs Union, Common Market and Economic Union. The SAFTA Agreement was signed on 6 January 2004 during Twelfth SAARC Summit held in Islamabad, Pakistan. The Agreement entered into force on 1 January 2006, and the Trade Liberalization Programme commenced from 1st July 2006. The objective of the agreement is to promote competition in the area and to provide equitable benefits to the countries involved. It aims to benefit the people of the country by bringing transparency and integrity among the nations. SAFTA was also formed in order to increase the level of trade and economic cooperation among the SAARC nations by reducing the tariff and barriers and also to provide special preference to the Least Developed Countries (LDCs)among the SAARC nations.
The primary goal of this book is to investigate how a generalised notion of linguistic agreement can serve as the basis for a linguistic theory. The book approaches language through its underlying agreement relations. The motivation is that linguistic agreement plays a fundamental role in many languages and that agreement relations cannot be sufficiently managed by substitution-centred theories. Another source of motivation is that the computational properties of an agreement-based model are quite favourable. Besides demonstrating how even linguistically complex constructions can be modelled in the agreement framework, the book has also something to say about learning, speech deficits, and the processing of underspecified linguistic data. Thus the book might be of interest not only to Theoretical, or Computational Linguists but also to Neurolinguists, Cognitive Linguists, or Cognitive Scientists. Although the majority of linguistic examples are syntactic, the model is not restricted to syntax: morphologists and phonologists may find interesting ideas as well.
The Central Government’s approach to the Aceh conflict has shifted from the use of top-down security approaches to the devolution of economic and political power to the region. Through the signing of the Helsinki Agreement, both Jakarta and GAM compromised their interests to end the conflict. The Law on Governing of Aceh (LoGA) and the MoU provide a strong framework for addressing many of the centre-periphery issues. In fact, the situation in Aceh is relatively peaceful almost six years after the signing of the MoU. Basically, the goal of peace building process is to generate agreement and outcomes that are acceptable to all conflicting parties with a minimum of compromise. This book examines the compromises of the interests between GAM and Jakarta particularly in the context of power-sharing arrangements provided by the Helsinki Agreement. This book also finds out that the ability of the local government is significant to ensure the power-sharing arrangements provided by the Helsinki Agreement implemented properly. The issues of accountability and transparency become challenges to all parties to ensure the stability of the peace process.
Ukraine became a member of WTO in May 2008. Approximately at the same time it had been granted a status of a country with market economy from both the United States and the European Union. This all resulted in starting negotiations of an enhanced FTA between the EU and Ukraine in September 2008. Negotiations are still far from its end, due to a high number of debatable issues from both sides. Before the agreement is reached it is important to determine whether there are any economic benefits and potential disadvantages of the agreement for both sides, what immediate and long-term consequences of the FTA will be for such participants as governments, traders, producers and consumers; and finally, to observe effects of the EU-Ukraine agreement in the context of relationships with other countries
This book contains a good literature survey of various mathematical models and routing & wavelengths assignment algorithms in WDM optical networks. Some of the new algorithms for optimization of blocking probability have aslo been covered. This book is good for researchers who are working on optical networks and advancements in fiber optics communication. Mathematical models covered in this book are simple and easy to implement. A good number of routing and wavelength assignment algorithms have also been covered in this book which can be used to reduce blocking probability of the optical network. This book can be very helpful to the research scholars.
This book explains the port operations and proposes approaches that aim to improve the most important successive steps in container terminal management activities. A multi-period assignment problem that seeks to allocate vessels to berthing spaces and quay cranes is proposed to handle the quayside operations. Subsequently, on the yard side, a discrete-event simulation model for the real life detailed processes performed during the handling of import containers is developed. In particular, the model focuses on the storage assignment problem at the operational level in a container terminal with a multiple-berth structure. An approach by means of a hierarchical structure is adapted to partition the assignment problem into two sub-problems and solve each of them using separate decision rules. Suggested storage policies are evaluated in view of the overall performance of the container terminal.
Gaussian normal error assumption is a basic assumption for co-integration tests. Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) based regression techniques are also widely used together with the normality assumption. To consider the heavy-tailed structure observed in many economic and financial time series, new residual-based co-integration tests are developed and analyzed via Monte Carlo simulations. The new tests are based on Least Absolute Deviation (LAD) regressions, whose error structure follows the infinite-variance stable distribution. Empirical applications on Forward Rate Unbiasedness Hypothesis (FRUH) and Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) verify the need to make use of the infinite-variance stable distributions as the error distributions.
This project is aimed at downloading and uploading online assignments for students; with each assignment having information about the instructions, description, deadline, and submission details. The main goal of this thesis is to design and implement online assignment submission and provide an interface use for uploading test program (Nant script file) by instructors, who would be able to evaluate assignments automatically. The system provides an interface for testing assignments such that they can be plugged in by the teachers. This testing could invoke a compiler and make a test-run of the compiled code and check the result or test for plagiarism, existence of certain documents or simply check the file type (extension). The most obvious advantage offered by online assignment submission is that it offers faster transmission of assignments than using traditional way by using online system. The interface use to invoke different testing program by teachers, So Save the time and cost for teachers by enabling them to put up a fast response for students as well as increasing the quality of the feedback provided to students.