Assignment Problem is one of the first fundamental problems in the area of combinatorial optimization. Despite its historical roots, the problem has tremendous importance to date, due to its numerous real life applications in like facility location, personnel scheduling, job scheduling, production planning, project assignment, task assignment, time-tabling, vehicle routing, storage space allocation, etc. This book comprises some real life assignment and related problems involving imprecise cost/time parameters. In order to represent those imprecise parameters, interval numbers have been used here as this representation is the best among others. The associated problems have been solved using Genetic Algorithm efficiently. A salient feature of this book is that most of the algorithms have been written in a lucid manner with suitable examples using figures. This book should interest academicians, OR/GA practitioners and executives of different industries and business organizations.
A wireless mesh networks (WMNs) has emerged recently, WMN consist of two types of nodes mesh routers and mesh clients.WMN is dynamically self-organized and self-configured, with the nodes in the network automatically establishing and maintaining mesh connectivity among themselves. Channel assignment is a critical issue in WMN which is the mapping between the available channels and the radios at each node such that the network performance is optimized, and hence the focus of this work along with static channel assignment, multi-radio, multi-channel. Multi-radio MAC can potentially achieve higher network capacity than single-radio MAC. We design and implement a new agent (DSBCA) distributed channel assignment spanner base, the routing protocol Optimize the network performance considering the throughput, end-to-end delay, connectivity and the interference of our channel assignment algorithm. Base on the network simulations NS2.34 on Linux Fedora and our proposed channel assignment algorithm improved the throughput, minimal-connectivity preserving channel assignment algorithm.
Assignment is a crucial topic in commercial law, and this new work by Gregory Tolhurst is the most comprehensive work on the assignment of contractual rights ever published. It seeks to explain the existence, meaning and application of the rules governing the assignment of contractual rights and it does this by reference to the idea that assignments involve transfers. The book is logically structured to follow the issues that arise in planning, drafting and enforcing an assignment, including: - what is meant by 'assignment'; - what is the distinction between legal and equitable assignments; - how an assignable contractual right is identified; - what formalities apply to assignment; and - what rights and remedies are available to the parties to an assignment. The topic of assignment is of such universal importance to commercial lawyers that all practicing lawyers will find this work invaluable. However, the work will also be required reading for academics teaching contract, equity and personal property.
This study is an empirical examination of the first contract arbitration model available in the province of British Columbia (B.C.), Canada, which features a unique focus on mediation as an alternative, preferred method for resolving first contract disputes. The B.C. model allows a mediator to issue non-binding recommendations for the terms of the first collective bargaining agreement, which are accorded considerable deference by subsequent arbitrators and courts. The key goal of this model is to establish first collective bargaining agreements and enduring bargaining relationships without resorting to arbitration. The assumption underlying this model is that agreements voluntarily reached by the parties, even with the assistance of a mediator, better achieve this goal than arbitration. Through data analysis and interviews with key participants in the B.C. model, this study empirically tests the validity of this assumption and the impact of mediator’s recommendations. The data confirm that parties who accept the mediator’s recommendations are the most likely to obtain a first collective bargaining agreement (at 97.4%) and be in a current bargaining relationship (at 82.1%).
The Central Government’s approach to the Aceh conflict has shifted from the use of top-down security approaches to the devolution of economic and political power to the region. Through the signing of the Helsinki Agreement, both Jakarta and GAM compromised their interests to end the conflict. The Law on Governing of Aceh (LoGA) and the MoU provide a strong framework for addressing many of the centre-periphery issues. In fact, the situation in Aceh is relatively peaceful almost six years after the signing of the MoU. Basically, the goal of peace building process is to generate agreement and outcomes that are acceptable to all conflicting parties with a minimum of compromise. This book examines the compromises of the interests between GAM and Jakarta particularly in the context of power-sharing arrangements provided by the Helsinki Agreement. This book also finds out that the ability of the local government is significant to ensure the power-sharing arrangements provided by the Helsinki Agreement implemented properly. The issues of accountability and transparency become challenges to all parties to ensure the stability of the peace process.
This book explores agreement in MG coordinate nouns within the constraint-based framework of Lexical-Functional Grammar. It investigates predicate-argument and head-modifier agreement with coordinate nouns and agreement with disjunctively conjoined nouns. In predicate-argument agreement, in addition to the syntactic and semantic agreement principles, we also find the referential principle, motivated by a Contextually Introduced Referent, the superordinate term of the coordinate nouns implied in the sentence. In head-modifier agreement, the shared MG definite determiner shows concord agreement and occurs only with the joint interpretation. It exceptionally occurs with a split reading when nouns are a natural coordination. A shared determiner shows index/concord agreement and occurs either with the joint or split interpretations. In disjunctively conjoined nouns, native speakers choose an agreeing verb based on the interpretation of disjunction as ‘and-coordinate’ and as ‘exclusive-or’. Other factors, however, such as syntactic, may also determine number verb agreement.
Mesh Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) is a promising access network to enhance channels utilization, extend access coverage using simple and cheap network components. Power management affects mesh WLAN network coverage, topology, throughput, traffic routing and end to end delay. Channel assignment affects the mesh nodes interference level and so the transmission capacity. It also controls the number of nodes share the same channel which increases the probability of collision and reduces the network throughput. In this book, the power management problem is formulated to show its impact on mesh WLAN network throughput. Then this formulation is used to propose a new ranking based cooperative game strategy. Mesh WLAN channel assignment problem is also formulated. Then different algorithms throughput and processing delay is analyzed. This analysis is based on evaluating average users’ data rate and processing delay for different assignment techniques in many mesh WLAN network configurations.
The focus area of this paper is on the assignment problem with budget constraints which is one of the application area of combinatorial optimization that operates on the domain of those optimization problems,in which the set of feasible solutions is discrete or can be reduced to discrete,and in which the goal is to find the best solution. It is particularly concerned with solving the unconstrained assignment problems with Hungarian algorithm and the constrained assignment problem by cutting plane or outer linearization algorithm for solving the Lagrangian dual problem in which, at each iteration,the function that approximates the dual function is optimized. The paper is divided in to two chapters. In the first chapter,the classical assignment problem,the problem of finding optimum (minimum or maximum) cost or profit assignment a set of workers or resources to jobs or activities to gather with its mathematical formulation,solution methods and special cases in assignment problems were considered. Under the second chapter, we have considered generalization of the classical assignment problem concerning resource(or budget) constraints, due to the variety of real life problems.
This study is situated within the field of instructional design and sought to identify competencies specific to online designers-by-assignment in high school learning environments. Since existing instructional design standards currently available to guide designers-by-assignment differ from one another, a lack of clarity remains about which specific standards actually benefit this emerging professional group in the process of developing and revising courses they eventually teach. The purpose of this qualitative Delphi study was to identify, through expert agreement, instructional design competencies that can benefit high school online designers-by-assignment and the instructional design profession. This study employed the qualitative Delphi design to achieve consensus among experts in five fields (high school online practitioners, instructional design academics, university pre-service instructors, online high school administrators and high school online instructional designers).
The fundamental goal of multi-agent robotics is simple: how to create control laws and behaviors that, when executed by each individual robot, some desirable global behavior emerges. The global behavior may range from something as simple as the robots meeting at a single point, to something as complex as a collective search and rescue mission. Our research focuses on one of the more fundamental issues in multi-agent, mobile robotics: the formation control problem. The idea is to create controllers that cause robots to move into a predened formation shape. This is a well studied problem for the scenario in which the robots know in advance to which point in the formation they are assigned. In our case, we assume this information is not given in advance, but must be determined dynamically. This thesis presents an algorithm that can be used by a network of mobile robots to simultaneously determine ecient robot assignments and formation pose for rotationally and translationally invariant formations. This allows simultaneous role assignment and formation sysnthesis without the need for additional control laws.
Revision with unchanged content. Over the last 30 years the study of group key agreement has stimulated much work. And as a result of the increased popularity of ad hoc networks, some approaches for the group key establishment in such networks are proposed. However, they are either only for static group or the memory, computation and communication costs are unacceptable for ad-hoc networks. In this thesis some protocol suites from the literature (2d-cube, 2d-octopus, Asokan-Ginzboorg, CLIQUES, STR and TGDH) shall be discussed. We have optimized STR and TGDH by reducing the memory, communication and computation costs. The optimized version are denoted by uSTR and uTGDH respectively. Based on the protocol suites uSTR and uTGDH we present a Tree-based group key agreement Framework for Ad-hoc Networks (TFAN). TFAN is especially suitable for ad-hoc networks with limited bandwidth and devices with limited memory and computation capability. To simulate the protocols, we have implemented TFAN, uSTR and uTGDH with J2ME CDC. The TFAN API will be described in this thesis.
The necessity was to amend the law also arose as India became original member of W.T.O. in 1995 and it was necessary to bring Indian law in conformity with TRIPS. It acceded to the Paris Convention with effect from 8 Dec,1998. There has been a need for Indian IP Laws to be in line with advancements in global thinking on the subject and to use the IP regime to its advantage. It encouraged debate over issues such as- the concepts behind TRIPS versus its impact on Indian Intellectual Property Laws, How globally recognized IP norms are applied in India? Need to discuss that how many Amendments that India did in its IP Law system due to Impact of TRIPS and their time of enforcement. In this book ‘TRIPS AGREEMENT AND ITS IMPACT ON INDIAN INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY LAWS’ author has explained it. The book relies on the historical facts of TRIPS and the debates in India regarding to IP system of India and also includes the Case Law developments for IP Laws system in India. This book is an invaluable aid for Lawyers, Judges, Academics, Researchers and Professionals and others to understand IP Laws of India under the regime of TRIPS.
This book contains a good literature survey of various mathematical models and routing & wavelengths assignment algorithms in WDM optical networks. Some of the new algorithms for optimization of blocking probability have aslo been covered. This book is good for researchers who are working on optical networks and advancements in fiber optics communication. Mathematical models covered in this book are simple and easy to implement. A good number of routing and wavelength assignment algorithms have also been covered in this book which can be used to reduce blocking probability of the optical network. This book can be very helpful to the research scholars.
Afghanistan is a land locked country and Pakistan is obliged to provide it with access to sea ports under its international treaty obligations. The first Afghanistan-Pakistan Transit Trade Agreement, also known as ATTA was signed on 2nd March, 1965. The Afghan Commerce Minister Dr. Anwar-ul-Haq Ahady and the Pakistani Commerce Minister Makhdoom M. Amin Fahim signed the new Pak-Afghan Transit Trade Agreement on 28th October, 2010. Certain fears and apprehensions had been expressed that the interests of Pakistan have been compromised at the behest of some external powers. In this background this book provides a comprehensive clarification regarding the agreement and analyzes the positive and negative implications of this agreement for Pakistan.
This book is abstracted form of a thesis which was done in IRAN. The Agreement between primary and final diagnosis will show the relationship between correct diagnosis and appropriate treatment.So it is too important how the physicians may achieve diagnosis. Because children haven't enough capacity to explain their problem, so it may be too difficult than adults. It may be depends on the power of the physicians.In this research we Examined this ability of physician by comparing the primary and final diagnosis by the chapter of International classification of Diseases (ICD-10).
The present book is a take on the relevance and need for a global competition agreement in today's globalised world. The present book looks at the earlier efforts in establishing global competition rules. The book then goes on to suggest the core principles of a global competition agreement and at the same time looks at the suitability of the WTO as an appropriate mechanism for the formation and operation of a global competition agreement.
In recent years, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of communication networks. This is because they are widely used in all walks of life, and this trend continues increasing. The research on computer communication networking field has also grown explosively due to a large variety of combinatorial optimisation problems. One of these problems is the Terminal Assignment Problem which implies fixing the minimum cost links to construct a network between a specified set of terminals and concentrators. A good solution for this problem should maintain small distances between concentrators and terminals assigned to them without exceeding the capacity of any concentrator. Additionally, it should also maintain a balanced distribution of terminals among concentrators. The intractability of this problem is a motivation for the pursuits of different approximation algorithms. In this book, we explore several metaheuristics applied to the Terminal Assignment Problem and other similar problems. Simulation results verify the effectiveness of these algorithms.
In this book we consider the Frequency Assignment Problem, where the objective is to minimize the cost due to interference arising in a solution. We use a quadratic 0-1 integer programming formulation of the problem as a basis to derive new lower bounds and problem reduction rules. A tree search algorithm that uses the lower bounds and dominance criteria is also presented. Computational results are shown on standard benchmark instances from the literature.
The most popular measure of agreement is Cohen’s Kappa which is an agreement index for the correlation between categorical variables often used as a reliability or validity measure. Although kappa has meaning as percentage agreement corrected for chance, its definition does not give a direct probabilistic support. The book studies a probability framework to model rater agreement in medical diagnosis, and hence a new index of agreement based on a probability model is proposed, which carries some useful interpretations along with providing information about intrinsic agreement not due to chance. The new index results in the same form as Cohen’s kappa in practice and thus provides a novel means to understand kappa. Estimation based on maximum likelihood and statistical tests for hypothesis related to this new index are developed for inferences. Monte Carlo simulations are used to confirm the theoretical findings and numerical analysis of data from medical studies are used to demonstrate the practical applications. This book will be very helpful for the researchers in biomedical sciences, education, psychology, sociology and also in other fields in measuring agreement index.
The Paris Agreement fundamentally alters the reach and scope of the international climate change regime. This book provides the first legal commentary to the Agreement's articles, putting them in context and detailing how they are to be understood and put into action.
Special Agent Fangs Enigma and his sidekick, werewolf Agent Puppy Brown, were recruited by secret intelligence agency MP1 (Monster Protection, 1st division) to stop the world's super(natural) villains and monster criminals from realizing their evil plans.
This project is aimed at downloading and uploading online assignments for students; with each assignment having information about the instructions, description, deadline, and submission details. The main goal of this thesis is to design and implement online assignment submission and provide an interface use for uploading test program (Nant script file) by instructors, who would be able to evaluate assignments automatically. The system provides an interface for testing assignments such that they can be plugged in by the teachers. This testing could invoke a compiler and make a test-run of the compiled code and check the result or test for plagiarism, existence of certain documents or simply check the file type (extension). The most obvious advantage offered by online assignment submission is that it offers faster transmission of assignments than using traditional way by using online system. The interface use to invoke different testing program by teachers, So Save the time and cost for teachers by enabling them to put up a fast response for students as well as increasing the quality of the feedback provided to students.
This book presents a novel account for some unusual properties of Bantu grammar, arguing that Zulu has a robust system of syntactic and morphological case. This analysis illuminates a number of other properties in Zulu grammar, showing that despite surface unfamiliarity, its syntax is deeply similar to more familiar languages.
TRIPS throws a new challenge to the competitiveness and profitability of Indian pharma industry as it ended decades of protection by terminating “reverse-engineering.” The effect of TRIPS on FDI, R&D, technology transfer, etc. is also not clear. More importantly, the new IP regime may have far-reaching consequences on accessibility & affordability of drugs to the poor in developing and LDCs. The book is divided into three essays. The first essay investigates the emerging firm strategies of the Indian pharma industry to overcome the challenge posed by the new IP regime, and concludes that the industry is adopting a mix of competitive, collaborative, and R&D strategies. The second essay examines the effect of TRIPS on FDI, and concludes that merely enhancing IP protection may not lead to increase in FDI. The third essay explores the effectiveness of CL in controlling drug prices, and consequently its affordability & accessibility to the poor. It concludes that the issues relating to CL are part of a much wider structural problem in development policy, and the solution to inaccessibility of drugs requires mix policy interventions, including the smooth functioning of CL system.
The primary goal of this book is to investigate how a generalised notion of linguistic agreement can serve as the basis for a linguistic theory. The book approaches language through its underlying agreement relations. The motivation is that linguistic agreement plays a fundamental role in many languages and that agreement relations cannot be sufficiently managed by substitution-centred theories. Another source of motivation is that the computational properties of an agreement-based model are quite favourable. Besides demonstrating how even linguistically complex constructions can be modelled in the agreement framework, the book has also something to say about learning, speech deficits, and the processing of underspecified linguistic data. Thus the book might be of interest not only to Theoretical, or Computational Linguists but also to Neurolinguists, Cognitive Linguists, or Cognitive Scientists. Although the majority of linguistic examples are syntactic, the model is not restricted to syntax: morphologists and phonologists may find interesting ideas as well.
It has many times been said that contracts involve assumptions of obligation or liability, but what that means, and what it is that is assumed, have not often been discussed. It is to further such discussion that some of the author's previously published writings around this subject have been brought together in this book. His basic premises are that contractual obligation and liability in this context are two sides to the same coin and that an assumption of one is an assumption of both. Parties are bound not because liability has been imposed upon them by law as a result of their having entered into a contract but because, in the act of assuming, they have imposed it upon themselves. Contract provides a facility the purpose of which is to enable this to be done within the limits prescribed by law. The implication of these premises are much more significant than might be supposed when applied to such areas of contract as formation, consideration, intention to contract, exception clauses, privity and damages. The book concludes with a treatment of the role of assumption in tort. Because of the importance of its subject matter and its wide-ranging treatment, this book should appeal not only to teachers and postgraduate students of contract but also to practitioners in the field and to anyone else with an interest in contract theory.
In cellular mobile communication, since there will be conversation in progress in case of handover calls, GOS for them should be less than that for newly originating calls. Basically, there are three channel assignment schemes, fixed, dynamic & hybrid channel assignment schemes for handling newly originating and handover calls. In this study, capacity design for cellular mobile network in area inside ring road in Kathmandu valley has been done according to the findings of data collection and analysis of mobile communication service being provided by Nepal Telecom. Capacity planning has been done with GOS equal to 2% for newly originating calls and 1% for handover calls. In addition to capacity planning, efficient channel assignment scheme in terms of blocking and throughput has been evaluated with optimal utilization of the designed capacity for getting minimum blocking for both types of calls maintaining the blocking for handover calls always less than that for newly originating calls. The simulated values of GOS & throughput for all channel assignment schemes at different penetration have been compared and hybrid channel assignment scheme has been found to be most efficient.