This study is situated within the field of instructional design and sought to identify competencies specific to online designers-by-assignment in high school learning environments. Since existing instructional design standards currently available to guide designers-by-assignment differ from one another, a lack of clarity remains about which specific standards actually benefit this emerging professional group in the process of developing and revising courses they eventually teach. The purpose of this qualitative Delphi study was to identify, through expert agreement, instructional design competencies that can benefit high school online designers-by-assignment and the instructional design profession. This study employed the qualitative Delphi design to achieve consensus among experts in five fields (high school online practitioners, instructional design academics, university pre-service instructors, online high school administrators and high school online instructional designers).
Agreement is a prevalent phenomenon observed across languages. It helps us identify which elements in a sentence are linked or should be interpreted together (Bock et al 1999). This property of agreement may imply that the phonetic component (PF) would always be faithful to syntax/ the semantic component (LF), i.e. it would always show features of the element with which syntax establishes agreement relationship. However, natural language data does not support this view. We can get Closest Conjunct Agreement (CCA) in addition to Full Agreement with the whole coordinated phrase. Here I show that CCA in a head final language Hindi is not a result of the structure of coordination, or clausal coordination. I present an alternative analysis for CCA that assumes a compositional view of agreement. It assumes that agreement takes place in two stages: the agreement relationship is established in syntax, but the agreement features are still modifiable in PF component. Hence it suggests that, in an agreement relation, not only syntax but also the PF component of grammar plays a role. I also show briefly that this analysis is generalizable across languages with even different word orders.
This book explores agreement in MG coordinate nouns within the constraint-based framework of Lexical-Functional Grammar. It investigates predicate-argument and head-modifier agreement with coordinate nouns and agreement with disjunctively conjoined nouns. In predicate-argument agreement, in addition to the syntactic and semantic agreement principles, we also find the referential principle, motivated by a Contextually Introduced Referent, the superordinate term of the coordinate nouns implied in the sentence. In head-modifier agreement, the shared MG definite determiner shows concord agreement and occurs only with the joint interpretation. It exceptionally occurs with a split reading when nouns are a natural coordination. A shared determiner shows index/concord agreement and occurs either with the joint or split interpretations. In disjunctively conjoined nouns, native speakers choose an agreeing verb based on the interpretation of disjunction as ‘and-coordinate’ and as ‘exclusive-or’. Other factors, however, such as syntactic, may also determine number verb agreement.
The focus area of this paper is on the assignment problem with budget constraints which is one of the application area of combinatorial optimization that operates on the domain of those optimization problems,in which the set of feasible solutions is discrete or can be reduced to discrete,and in which the goal is to find the best solution. It is particularly concerned with solving the unconstrained assignment problems with Hungarian algorithm and the constrained assignment problem by cutting plane or outer linearization algorithm for solving the Lagrangian dual problem in which, at each iteration,the function that approximates the dual function is optimized. The paper is divided in to two chapters. In the first chapter,the classical assignment problem,the problem of finding optimum (minimum or maximum) cost or profit assignment a set of workers or resources to jobs or activities to gather with its mathematical formulation,solution methods and special cases in assignment problems were considered. Under the second chapter, we have considered generalization of the classical assignment problem concerning resource(or budget) constraints, due to the variety of real life problems.
Assignment Problem is one of the first fundamental problems in the area of combinatorial optimization. Despite its historical roots, the problem has tremendous importance to date, due to its numerous real life applications in like facility location, personnel scheduling, job scheduling, production planning, project assignment, task assignment, time-tabling, vehicle routing, storage space allocation, etc. This book comprises some real life assignment and related problems involving imprecise cost/time parameters. In order to represent those imprecise parameters, interval numbers have been used here as this representation is the best among others. The associated problems have been solved using Genetic Algorithm efficiently. A salient feature of this book is that most of the algorithms have been written in a lucid manner with suitable examples using figures. This book should interest academicians, OR/GA practitioners and executives of different industries and business organizations.
A wireless mesh networks (WMNs) has emerged recently, WMN consist of two types of nodes mesh routers and mesh clients.WMN is dynamically self-organized and self-configured, with the nodes in the network automatically establishing and maintaining mesh connectivity among themselves. Channel assignment is a critical issue in WMN which is the mapping between the available channels and the radios at each node such that the network performance is optimized, and hence the focus of this work along with static channel assignment, multi-radio, multi-channel. Multi-radio MAC can potentially achieve higher network capacity than single-radio MAC. We design and implement a new agent (DSBCA) distributed channel assignment spanner base, the routing protocol Optimize the network performance considering the throughput, end-to-end delay, connectivity and the interference of our channel assignment algorithm. Base on the network simulations NS2.34 on Linux Fedora and our proposed channel assignment algorithm improved the throughput, minimal-connectivity preserving channel assignment algorithm.
The most popular measure of agreement is Cohen’s Kappa which is an agreement index for the correlation between categorical variables often used as a reliability or validity measure. Although kappa has meaning as percentage agreement corrected for chance, its definition does not give a direct probabilistic support. The book studies a probability framework to model rater agreement in medical diagnosis, and hence a new index of agreement based on a probability model is proposed, which carries some useful interpretations along with providing information about intrinsic agreement not due to chance. The new index results in the same form as Cohen’s kappa in practice and thus provides a novel means to understand kappa. Estimation based on maximum likelihood and statistical tests for hypothesis related to this new index are developed for inferences. Monte Carlo simulations are used to confirm the theoretical findings and numerical analysis of data from medical studies are used to demonstrate the practical applications. This book will be very helpful for the researchers in biomedical sciences, education, psychology, sociology and also in other fields in measuring agreement index.
The present book is a take on the relevance and need for a global competition agreement in today's globalised world. The present book looks at the earlier efforts in establishing global competition rules. The book then goes on to suggest the core principles of a global competition agreement and at the same time looks at the suitability of the WTO as an appropriate mechanism for the formation and operation of a global competition agreement.
Afghanistan is a land locked country and Pakistan is obliged to provide it with access to sea ports under its international treaty obligations. The first Afghanistan-Pakistan Transit Trade Agreement, also known as ATTA was signed on 2nd March, 1965. The Afghan Commerce Minister Dr. Anwar-ul-Haq Ahady and the Pakistani Commerce Minister Makhdoom M. Amin Fahim signed the new Pak-Afghan Transit Trade Agreement on 28th October, 2010. Certain fears and apprehensions had been expressed that the interests of Pakistan have been compromised at the behest of some external powers. In this background this book provides a comprehensive clarification regarding the agreement and analyzes the positive and negative implications of this agreement for Pakistan.
Book DescriptionReady to Use: Investor Rights Agreement for Venture Capital Deals is the definitive resource for understanding, drafting and negotiating deals. The CD-Rom features a sample investor rights agreement in a Microsoft Word document that can be customized to fit your needs. Written by top corporate lawyers and fine tuned by leading venture capitalists, the contracts represent the industry standard for these types of agreements. The documents include line by line wording on the following topics: registration rights; board of directors; company covenants; rights of first participations; form of employment agreement; form of non-disclosure, inventions & non-competion agreement. Within these documents lies a wealth of critical information which every VC, entrepreneur, CEO and lawyer should have at their fingertips.
The efficient management of Change Requests (CRs) is fundamental for successful software maintenance; however the assignment of CRs to developers is an expensive aspect in this regard, due to the time and expertise demanded. To overcome this, researchers have proposed automated approaches for CR assignment. Although these proposals present advances to this topic, they do not consider many factors inherent to the assignments, such as: developers’ workload, CRs severity, interpersonal relationships, and developers know-how. Actually, as we demonstrate in this work, CR assignment is a complex activity and automated approaches cannot rely on simplistic solutions. Ideally, it is necessary to consider and reason over contextual information in order to provide an effective automation. Beyond investigating all these aspects through an extensive systematic literature review, this work also proposes a context-aware architecture solution to semi-automated assignment of CRs.
The primary goal of this book is to investigate how a generalised notion of linguistic agreement can serve as the basis for a linguistic theory. The book approaches language through its underlying agreement relations. The motivation is that linguistic agreement plays a fundamental role in many languages and that agreement relations cannot be sufficiently managed by substitution-centred theories. Another source of motivation is that the computational properties of an agreement-based model are quite favourable. Besides demonstrating how even linguistically complex constructions can be modelled in the agreement framework, the book has also something to say about learning, speech deficits, and the processing of underspecified linguistic data. Thus the book might be of interest not only to Theoretical, or Computational Linguists but also to Neurolinguists, Cognitive Linguists, or Cognitive Scientists. Although the majority of linguistic examples are syntactic, the model is not restricted to syntax: morphologists and phonologists may find interesting ideas as well.
The Paris Agreement fundamentally alters the reach and scope of the international climate change regime. This book provides the first legal commentary to the Agreement's articles, putting them in context and detailing how they are to be understood and put into action.
The Evil Within: The Assignment – это первое из двух дополнение к The Evil Within, главной героиней которого является Джулия Кидман, напарница детектива Себастьяна Кастелланоса. В этом дополнении игроки получат часть ответов на те вопросы, которые у них остались после финала оригинальной игры.
In cellular mobile communication, since there will be conversation in progress in case of handover calls, GOS for them should be less than that for newly originating calls. Basically, there are three channel assignment schemes, fixed, dynamic & hybrid channel assignment schemes for handling newly originating and handover calls. In this study, capacity design for cellular mobile network in area inside ring road in Kathmandu valley has been done according to the findings of data collection and analysis of mobile communication service being provided by Nepal Telecom. Capacity planning has been done with GOS equal to 2% for newly originating calls and 1% for handover calls. In addition to capacity planning, efficient channel assignment scheme in terms of blocking and throughput has been evaluated with optimal utilization of the designed capacity for getting minimum blocking for both types of calls maintaining the blocking for handover calls always less than that for newly originating calls. The simulated values of GOS & throughput for all channel assignment schemes at different penetration have been compared and hybrid channel assignment scheme has been found to be most efficient.
Collaboration between industry and investigators is essential in the ongoing development and marketing of medical products. With the majority of funding for clinical trials coming from industry it is critical that the investigator is able to appropriately manage the clinical trial agreement which governs the conduct of the study. Very little literature exists defining the investigator's role or involvement in the clinical trial agreement process. This book provides the first systematic examination of current practices by U.S. investigators in the management of the Clinical Trial Agreement. Topics examined include the level of investigator engagement in the contract process, knowledge and understanding, factors affecting involvement, and issues surrounding the agreement. This book is especially useful to research professionals who conduct industry-sponsored research and can assist in negotiating a fair and balanced contact for your clinical trials.
Modern day public transport assignment faces lots of problems. Solutions may exist but needs some form of backings. A sensitivity analysis in most cases could just be sufficient to provide this backing. The developments in this book are very important for students, academic researchers and policy makers. The book provides an extensive review on transit assignment, sensitivity analysis and OmniTRANS. It highlights important conclusions such as:- - Passenger access-egress distances significantly affects their access stop choices. - The travel distance parameter of the generalized cost function has the highest influence on transit assignment - The number of transfers to be made by passengers significantly determines their generalized cost of travel - A carefully conducted partial sensitivity analysis can provide better predictions than a Monte-Carlo sensitivity analysis. As a policy advice to public transport operators in Flanders-Belgium, the developments in this book suggest that; to improve transit assignment, it is sufficient to reduce passengers access-egress distances & the number of transfers either through the institution of more direct transit lines or missing links.
The arbitration system is a quick,easy and confidential process with a final award to resolve disputes.The application of arbitration,precisely because of the existence of these advantages,makes it increasingly favored by the parties to the International Commercial Contracts,thus becoming one of the main settlements of international commercial disputes.The entry into force of the arbitration agreement is the conclusion that the arbitration process was initiated.Because of the development of economic globalization,the international conventions, national legislation and practice tend to the effectiveness of the detection the flaws in both the arbitration agreement and the arbitration clause.This paper seeks to determine the meaning of a flaw in the arbitration agreement which summarizes the types of flaws in the arbitration agreement,thus laying the foundations for the identified effect of flawed arbitration agreement.On International Commercial arbitration agreement,if the parties do not breach the provisions of the Law on the arbitrability and the public policy of the countries interested,they are belong to a valid arbitration agreement and it must be executed.
Over the past decades majority of conflicts ended signing peace agreement between conflicting parties. This paper explores the political dimensions of peace process in Nepal through Comprehensive Peace Agreement signed between political parties and Maoist rebel. The essence of this peace agreement was to share the power, reform the state and demobilize Maoist's arms and armies. Concluding a decade long civil war between Maoists and the government Nepal has turned a new page on its political, social history and declared as a federal democratic republic country. As Nepal was ruled by King and some other family regimes for some two and a half century it was a great turning point in strengthening the state with the support of local, national and international experts inclusively. The agreement was expected to ensure fundamental human rights as well as a progressive and inclusive social, political and economic status of the country. This paper has explored and analyzed wide range of pros and cons seen before and after the peace agreement. What implementation mechanism and modalities were provided in the Comprehensive Peace Agreement? What are the challenges of implementing peace?
The problem of distributing goods from depots to consumers plays an important role in the management of many distribution systems, and therefore when it is programmed efficiently it may yield significant savings. In a typical distribution system, trucks provide pick-up and delivery services to customers that are geographically dispersed in a given area. In many of its applications, the main objective of distribution is to find a set of routes for such trucks, satisfying a variety of constraints, so as to minimize the total distribution cost. This work focuses on a decision model for a real world problem. The problem reveals itself as assignment of trucks to routes by Latex Foam Rubber Products Limited-Kumasi, Ghana. This study addresses the problem of finding an efficient assignment of the limited number of trucks at the company’s disposal to the routes they ply while serving its customers outside the metropolis. In this work we use a solution procedure based on Munkres Assignment Algorithm for optimal assignment of non-homogenous fleet of trucks to a given set of routes, where Latex Foam Rubber Products Limited-Kumasi, distributes its products to its customers.
The highly competitive environment in today's wireless and cellular network industries is making the management of systems seek for better and more advance techniques to keep masses of data, complexity of systems and deadline constrains under control with a lower cost and higher efficiency. Therefore, the management is getting significant attentions by researchers in order to increase the efficiency of the resource usage to provide high quality services. Two of the cornerstones of the management system in wireless and cellular network are carrier assignment and packet scheduling. Therefore, this work focuses on analysis and development of carrier assignment and packet scheduling methods in multi-band Wi-Fi and LTE-A networks.
Revision with unchanged content. This study investigated the influence of computer-generated reminders on the rate in which distance learners submitted assignments and completed courses. The computer-generated reminders, sent via email, served as a time management support strategy. Participants were randomly divided into two groups: control and treatment. Both groups received a list of target due dates for course assignments. The control group did not receive reminders. The treatment group received reminders when they failed to submit an assignment by a target due date. The results indicated no significant difference between the control and treatment groups in terms of assignment submission rates and course completion rates. However, results of this study did reveal that the number of assignments in a distance course influences the timeliness of assignment completion and the likelihood of course completion.