The first concept of solid phase synthesis was performed by Merrifield (1) in a dipeptide synthesis from two amino acids. Not surprisingly, Solid phase synthesis did not remain limited to peptides, but also it was extended to heterocycles, so many synthesis methods in solution phase had been transferred to solid phase processes.So, solid phase organic synthesis had become very attractive route of synthesis due to its simplicity of separation of synthetic intermediates from soluble components of a reaction mixture by simple filtration and washing of the resin bound reaction product.
Research is often conducted using the hourglass model structure of research.The hourglass model starts with a broad spectrum for research, focusing in on the required information through the method of the project (like the neck of the hourglass), then expands the research in the form of discussion and results. The major steps in conducting research are: 1.Identification of research problem 2.Literature review 3.Specifying the purpose of research 4.Determine specific research questions or 5.hypotheses 6.Data collection 7.Analyzing and interpreting the data 8.Reporting and evaluating research
This review article compares the two methods of treating diabetes that is traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and Western medicine. Both healing arts are known worldwide for eradicating the symptoms of the disease. There are key concepts used in TCM to explain the disease and hence makes the approach to the diabetes very different in comparison with the western forms of treatment. Diabetes is one of the most common chronic diseases in the world and the battle to fight this deadly disease is ongoing. In the developing countries it is known to be a disease of the rich. Unlike ancient times where the disease was not common since the people maintained a balanced kind of lifestyle and ate nutritionally balanced diet.However in China the diabetes cases are not so pronounced unlike other parts of the world. This is linked to their diet and traditional beliefs of maintaining harmony in the body using mental and physical activities such as kung fu. This research compares treatment and harmful effects of each while trying to maintain a balance in combining TCM and western medicine.This article gives an outline of this comparison and the significance to each method of treatment.
Shortlisted for the 2008 Inner Temple Book Prize The Law and Economics of Article 82 EC is a comprehensive, integrated treatment of the legal and economic principles that underpin the application of Article 82 EC to the behaviour of dominant firms. Traditional concerns of monopoly behaviour, such as predatory pricing, refusals to deal, excessive pricing, tying and bundling, discount practices, and unlawful discrimination are treated in detail through a review of the applicable economic principles, the case law and decisional practice, and more recent economic and legal writings. In addition, the major constituent elements of Article 82, such as market definition, dominance, effect on trade, and applicable remedies are considered at length. Jointly authored by a lawyer and an economist, The Law and Economics of Article 82 EC contains an integrated approach to the legal and economic principles that frame policy in this major area of competition law. Although written primarily with practitioners and in-house lawyers in mind, it is essential reading for anyone with an interest in competition-law enforcement against monopoly behaviour.
"The Law and Economics of Article 82 EC" is a comprehensive, integrated treatment of the legal and economic principles that underpin the application of Article 82 EC to the behaviour of dominant firms. Traditional concerns of monopoly behaviour, such as predatory pricing, refusals to deal, excessive pricing, tying and bundling, discount practices, and unlawful discrimination are treated in detail through a review of the applicable economic principles, the case law and decisional practice, and more recent economic and legal writings. In addition, the major constituent elements of Article 82, such as market definition, dominance, effect on trade, and applicable remedies are considered at length. Jointly authored by a lawyer and an economist, "The Law and Economics of Article 82 EC" contains an integrated approach to the legal and economic principles that frame policy in this major area of competition law. Although written primarily with practitioners and in-house lawyers in mind, it is essential reading for anyone with an interest in competition-law enforcement against monopoly behaviour.
This book is this writer's fourth book in her Lecture Notes Series. In essence, each book of the series represents this writer’s compilation of working papers. As a faculty member, one of the courses this writer teaches at AlFaisal University in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, is ENG 101 Freshman English 1. The course comprises several components that are required to be delivered to students. The Functional Language Use component is aimed at giving students more exposure to the content and linguistic elements of their pathway studies. Students worked on writing an Article Reflection Essay Paper after critically reading a pathway study related article selected by this writer. This book displays selected works by AlFaisal University students from each pathway study towards demonstrating their performance in this component.
Perusal of literature reveals the importance of 2,4-pyrandione derivatives, especially those substituted heterocyclic moieties at position 3 as antimicrobial agents. In conjuction with our current research with pyrandione and related compounds, we report herein on the chemistry of dehydroacetic acid that accommodates the pharmacological active moieties. However, no review article regarding the synthesis and reactions of such compound was found during the literature survey, and it is the first time to publish such review by us.
Between 2003 and 2009, the Colombian Constitutional Court attempted to define the contours of the doctrine of ‘constitutional substitution’ and to define the methodology for the Court to apply every time it reviewed a constitutional amendment. However, the Court’s decision C-588 of 2009 diminished the internal coherence of the doctrine, raised the tier of scrutiny of the substitution test and magnified the scope of the Court’s jurisdiction. With this opinion, the Court shed virtually all limitations on reviewing the substantive aspects of a constitutional amendment, and instead revised the challenged reform as if it were an inferior provision, a practice against which the Court itself had warned since 2003. Therefore, under the theory of the “substitution” of the Charter, the Court significantly broadened the scope of its jurisdiction to review constitutional amendments, overruling the traditional reading of article 241 of the Charter. Given the political context at the time, these rulings raised intriguing questions regarding the limits of judicial review of constitutional amendments in Colombia and, consequently, the limits of the secondary constituent in amending the Charter.
Academic Writing has been written for intermediate level students who are preparing to study, or are already studying, in an academic environment and need to improve their writing skills. Academic Writing provides students with: - a variety of group, pair and individual planning and writing tasks. - plenty of practice to help with each stage of the writing process. - models of writing that are based on real assignments. Academic Writing takes students from paragraph structuring to essay writing through a process approach. It teaches learners how to order and link paragraphs into cohesive and coherent essays and to create the various paragraph types that are used in written assignments. Academic Writing includes work on how to generate ideas, organise material, draft, review and revise written work. There are extra sample and reference materials at the back of the book, including models of essay development and a punctuation guide, to help students learn to evaluate their own work. Academic Writing includes a complete answer key and can be used in class or as a self-study book.
The environmental impact of synthetic plastic wastes is of global concern as these are inert to the attack by the microorganisms. These persistent polymers are a significant source of environmental pollution and harm wild life when these are dispersed in nature. Therefore, recycling and degradations of plastics is an important issue for environment and economic reasons. Partially biodegradable polymers obtained by blending biodegradable and non biodegradable commercial polymers can effectively reduce the volume of plastic waste by partial degradation. They are more useful than completely biodegradable ones due to the economic advantages and superior properties, imparted by the commercial polymer used as a blending component. Pure starch does not form a film due to hydrophilic nature. This article gives an excellent account of the recent research and developments on starch based plastic films. The article is very informative for the researcher, academicians, business strategist, and environmentalist for their effort in reducing the pollution from these wastes and for sustainable growth using natural resources.