A brief and accessible introduction to the concepts and techniques used in applied linguistics research, which will be illustrated using real-life examples. The book covers both qualitative and quantitative research design, sampling procedures, instrumentation and analyses found in applied linguistics research.
Applied Linguistics presents in a most direct and concise manner, some of the essential topics in the area that need the attention of the practitioners across the globe. The reader is introduced to such areas of essential linguistic implications in current research findings that are most relevant to those in applied linguistics as: * a clear distinction between linguistics and applied linguistics, * importance of linguistic insights for proficiency, * TESL teaching methods, contrastive and error analysis, * language testing, L1 and L2 acquisition/ learning, * language theories and the role of context in learning,and * vocabulary in L2 learning. In an unprecedented and lucid style, the book lays bare what the applied linguists especially those in Teaching English as a Second Language (TESL), English as a Foreign Language (EFL), Teachers, Students and Researchers need.
This interdisciplinary study explores the interaction between the Qur’an as a holy scripture, science, linguistics and translation studies. It investigates the problems of translating polysemous words with scientific hints in the Qur’an in four English translations which are analyzed diachronically to detect any development in the translation of these ambiguous words, and to identify the most effective translation strategies that should be adopted to render them successfully. Outlining the history and controversy of scientific exegesis, the book discusses the concepts of "wujuh Al-Qur’an" as well as polysemy in Arabic and English and their implications for Qur’an exegesis and translation. It discusses the concepts of equivalence, approximation, translation loss and compensation in light of Christiane Nord's Functional Approach which is applied to analyze some verses that talk about scientific phenomena related to astronomy, physics, chemistry, geography, geology, oceanography, embryology and physiology. This book is an essential reading for students and researchers of translation, linguistics, and Qur’anic studies.
Applied Linguistics is concerned with practical issues involving language in the life of the community. The most important of these is the learning of second or foreign languages. Others include language policy, multilingualism, language education, the preservation and revival of endangered languages, and the assessment and treatment of language difficulties. Applied Linguistics is concerned with the systematic study of language structure, the acquisition of first and subsequent languages, the role of language in communication, and the status of language as the product of particular cultures and other social groups. A background in linguistics is essential for language teachers, translators, speech-language pathologists, audiologists, and many other language professionals. Applied Linguistics, generally examines the structure of language and its role in communication; explores how children acquire language; studies how the skills of second-language speakers develop; and investigates how the social or cultural environment interacts with language. Linguistics and Applied Linguistics is a challenging and stimulating discipline, offering many opportunities for original work.
This book is a collection of some of the recent research papers carried out by the author. The first paper deals with the relationship between language and gender. The second paper reviews the research on cognitive theory, with special reference to listening comprehension skill. The third and fourth papers deal with the skill of L2 writing from different perspectives. The fifth paper examines the skill of L2 reading from linguistic, cognitive, and cultural perspectives. The sixth paper deals with L2 learners'' grammaticality judgments. The seventh and eighth papers deal with different aspects of L2 writing from both linguistic and cognitive perspectives. The ninth and tenth papers belong to the areas of contrastive linguistics and translation, respectively.
This study investigated the relationship between the knowledge of Applied Contrastive Analysis (CA) and Translation Quality of Translation Trainees. To achieve the purpose of the study, 70 male and female participants took an English proficiency test and 60 of them were selected to take part in the study. Then, they sat for the test of the knowledge of Applied Contrastive Analysis and translation tests. The CA test only contained lexical and grammatical CA points. Regarding the translation quality of translation trainees, a text including three paragraphs was given to them and then the quality of the translated work was measured using Waddington (2001) model. After that, correlational analyses were conducted to determine if there is any meaningful correlation between them or not. Regarding the question of the study, the result showed that, there is a significant relationship between Applied Contrastive Analysis knowledge and translation quality (r = 0.757). Therefore, we can conclude that knowledge of Applied Contrastive Analysis has a positive impact on Persian-English translation of translation trainees.
This project examined the status of data-based research in applied linguistics through an analysis of published research studies in nine peer-reviewed applied linguistics journals (Applied Language Learning, The Canadian Modern Language Review / La Revue canadienne des langues vivantes, Current Issues in Language Planning, Dialog on Language Instruction, Language Learning, Language Teaching Research, Language Testing, The Modern Language Journal, TESOL Quarterly) recommended by the American Association for Applied Linguistics (AAAL), during a particular seven-year period (2002-2008), so as to determine the research methods used. It analyzed the implementation of statistical procedures in those studies that use quantitative research methodology, and classified qualitative studies according to research methodology. Mixed studies were categorized according to research methodology and statistical procedures.
Shorttitle: These translational issues in English- Arabic texts hope to explore the translation problems and the solutions on an extended dimension of linguistics, in the sense that the analysis shall include the realm of style. It shall analyze the translation of English political news-texts (source text =ST) into Arabic news-texts (target text = TT) paying more attention on style as well as looking at the changes on the whole message. Mainly, it is a comparative study that examines the stylistic differences between the English ST and their corresponding Arabic texts.
Many people find it difficult to translate; some think that translation is a talent and that a translator is born not made. Modern studies in the field of linguistics, psychology and translation studies, however, have shown that translation is a mental activity that requires knowledge and practice. As a mental process, translation can be divided into certain skills. Through training on these skills, a novice translator can find his way and plant his feet firmly on the land of translation. This course is meant as a first training guide to novice translators and students who need translation in their academic work. Throughout the units and lessons of the course, the translators'' abilities will be enhanced and good translation products will be attained.
High Quality Content by WIKIPEDIA articles! Applied linguistics is an interdisciplinary field of study that identifies, investigates, and offers solutions to language-related real-life problems. Some of the academic fields related to applied linguistics are education, linguistics, psychology, computer science, anthropology, and sociology. Данное издание представляет собой компиляцию сведений, находящихся в свободном доступе в среде Интернет в целом, и в информационном сетевом ресурсе "Википедия" в частности. Собранная по частотным запросам указанной тематики, данная компиляция построена по принципу подбора близких информационных ссылок, не имеет самостоятельного сюжета, не содержит никаких аналитических материалов, выводов, оценок морального, этического, политического, религиозного и мировоззренческого характера в отношении главной тематики, представляя собой исключительно фактологический материал.
This book is intended primarily for practicing students of translation and those preparing to become professional translators, it is my hope that it may also be of interest for teachers of translation and new translators who wish to know more about Arabic/English/Arabic translation. The book is also for those who have a little training in translation, hence it is intended to provide an overview or''shop window'' of what translation is about, as seen through the eyes of the professional and applied linguist as the author of this book
There are many opinions about what a good translation is, and as my study shows, direct translations are often equated with adequate translations. But should the direct translation strategy be preferred over other microstrategies, and what makes a translator choose one strategy over another? In order to answer this question, I chose to examine one of our time''s most beloved animated films, Shrek. By conducting a comparative analysis of the macro- and microstrategies applied to the subtitled and dubbed Danish translations of Shrek, I have investigated which choices the translator made and why. Furthermore, I have estimated whether the applied strategies are suitable or not. The target audience of the study is anybody with an interest in translation strategies. It may be of use to language students or people who in general wonder about translation choices.
The goal of this book is to review the traditional concepts of theory and practice, as well as the concept of history, as have been applied to translation training and translation studies in general. Therefore, postmodern approaches have been applied to deconstruct the theory/practice binary opposition in order to show the impossibility of claiming that there is a rift between these concepts. Also, the definition of deconstructive history has been used to show that all historical work includes interpretative narratives that are influenced by the historian's construction and ideology, and that there can never be a definitive historical rendition of any event. Finally, two exemplary cases are challenged to back the theoretical claims made in this book, which are: prescriptive translation training, and the history of the “Toledo Translation School”.
In considering the case of the Italian vehicle manufacturer, this book tries to answer the following question: What are the key business communication issues facing a multinational aiming to consolidate its position in an intensely competitive global environment? The analysis is carried out within the discipline of business communication, a multidisciplinary area encompassing discourse analysis, applied linguistics, legal, economic and marketing discourse, terminology and translation studies, cross-cultural studies, labour law, and industrial relations.
Interested in discovering how language works? Daunted by the prospect of studying linguistics at university? The English Language and Linguistics Companion is a tool-kit for the novice linguist. Integrating study skills with substantive coverage, it offers an innovative approach to the study of English language and linguistics, helping students see how their chosen discipline 'fits together'.A one-stop resource, this practical and highly accessible guide:• Provides a comprehensive overview of contemporary approaches to the study of language and outlines the contribution of significant scholars to the development of the field• Introduces the core topics and concepts of linguistics and the study of language and summarizes key issues in applied linguistics • Defines and illustrates the key terms and concepts in the discipline of linguistics• Offers practical advice on the skills required when studying linguistics and suggests a range of possible career pathways• Illustrates approaches to linguistic research and recommends resources for linguistic inquiry and the study of language Packed full of information and guidance, this is an essential resource for prospective linguistics students and anyone with an interest in the study of language.
Using a reader-friendly, structured approach, Qualitative Research in Applied Linguistics: A Practical Introduction presents an easy-to-follow and straightforward guide to qualitative inquiry. Written by leading authors in a clear, informal style, it is an essential companion for graduate students and practicing teachers embarking on their first qualitative research study in applied linguistics. The ten central chapters introduce core qualitative research approaches and commonly used data collection methods. Each of these chapters offers: • A comprehensive guide to help you understand and use each approach or method • An illustrative example from applied linguistics research to help you see the approach or method 'in action' • A succinct outline of how you can avoid common mistakes and improve the quality of your research • Discussion questions and tasks to give you hands-on experience working with each research approach or data collection method Additional chapters offer engaging introductions to the qualitative research cycle, ethics, and writing up your research. There is also a glossary of important key words. This book has been carefully written to provide you with the essential research knowledge, skills - and confidence - you need to begin your qualitative research project.
This book focuses on a relatively new branch of linguistics, i.e. machine translation. This field seems to be particularly interesting since computers continuously increase their role in our lives. The work presents the role of computers as automated translators, from the very first ideas of machine translation to the contemporary and commercially successful systems. Basic notions and concepts of machine translation, regarding the division of MT systems and the application of automatic translation are briefly explained in this work, along with some of the misconceptions about machine translations and the perspectives for the future development. The most important aspect of this study is the development of a simple experimental rule-based system based on a free Apertium engine. The process of creation of the system is presented in detail and the output of the system is confronted with some popular professional systems.
"In this innovative study, M. Shahabi shows how translators should approach metaphors in order to achieve a meaningful and competent translation. In her own words, metaphor is originated and used in order to fill a gap when a concept cannot be expressed economically, thoroughly and clearly, in literal language. She compares animal personification in three languages: English, Persian and Portuguese. Using a cognitive linguistics approach, following Al-Hasnawi & Maalej, Shahabi studies the metaphors implied in the characters of Animal Farm (Orwell, 1945) as examples to debate the virtues of her approach to translation. With great scientific acumen, her comparative study in three languages establishes common patterns and limits to the task of translation. A humorous and inspired work, this contrastive study of the constitutive metaphorical concepts provides translation and linguistics students with a very sound comparative casebook study of the use of animal metaphor in three languages. The examples with transliteration and phonetic transcription make the work accessible and a pleasure to read." Maria Filomena Rodrigues Louro, Associate Professor at the University of Minho, Portugal.
Loan words compose a particular chapter in the field of translation. The current book has been set out to investigate the phenomenon of loanwords in medical translation. To achieve depth in the analysis, we are going to investigate the presence and the use of loanwords, in medical terminology. The language pair that we examine is from English to Greek and vice versa. We examine the type, the style, the register, the grammatical and syntactical structure of the texts, with the use of some examples. We highlight various definitions of loanword, calque and loan translation. Furthermore,we present a historical review of the English, Greek and Latin language through centuries. Finally we refer to some methodology techniques followed by translators and linguistics all over the world.
This volume explores an important aspect of researchon academic discourse and disciplinary culture, withexamples given from corpus-assisted discourseanalysis. The analysis proceeds through a detailedquantitative and qualitative analysis of the use oflanguage patterns in two large corpora of authentictexts. The empirical focus of the study will be ontwo 'soft-applied' disciplines (Becher & Trowler,2001), Applied Linguistics and Business Studies, asrepresented by two corpora of research articles drawnfrom 16 leading journals in each field. Comparison ofthe results for each corpus shows that there are manydifferences in form and meaning between the twodisciplines: it is argued that the features revealedby analysis shown are indicative of theepistemological characteristics of these twodifferent disciplinary discourses. This volume arguesthat these differences reflect the different academiccultures and norms of Applied Linguistics andBusiness Studies.
Language policy and planning (LPP) is one of the fastest growing sub??“disciplines of applied linguistics. This book is the first volume that is exclusively devoted to research methods in language policy and planning. As in other areas of applied linguist
The book is devoted to Professor O?ladele Awobuluyi of Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko, Nigeria. It contains forty (40) well-researched papers selected through a rigorous assessment process out of the many submitted for consideration. The papers are grouped into four sections: Language and Society; Formal Linguistics; Applied Linguistics; Pragmatics, Language Acquisition & Lexicography. Readers will find these papers useful in their continuous quest for invaluable knowledge in African linguistics.
The current research was done to identify the types/frequencies of the translation strategies applied by the translator (Sabzian) in rendering the literary technical terms of "a glossary of Literary Terms" compiled and written by M. H. Abrams, from English into Persian. The research was done on the basis of Baker's 1992 theoretical framework which contains eight procedure to do a translation task.
This book is about the effect of Discourse Analysis in translation. Discourse Analysis has beeen a new field of study for the last decade. Mixing up such a new field with an ancient study, traced back to Ancient Greece, translation can be an illuminating approach both for Linguistics and for Language Teaching. Inside the book; there is a large amount of information about discourse anaylysis and how it can contribute to foreign language teaching. There are also some classroom applications about it; and some experimental parts that can used in EFL translation classes. For further study, the experimental parts can be enlarged and implemented on larger groups of foreign language learners.
Because of the limited experience of children, translators encounter problems for adapting the text to the level of children's knowledge. Therefore,this book is focused on the applied translation strategies by the Persian translator of Dr. Seuss books in dealing with Vinay and Darbelnet translation theory in order to find the degree of directness and obliqueness in translation of children's books.
This book focuses its attention on developing Al Azhar first year secondary institutes students’ knowledge and use of Islamic vocabulary based on using some translation strategies (synonyms, antonyms, illustrations, and examples). This book would be of benefit to the researchers in the field of Islamic vocabulary and in using translation strategies. Educational theories that deal with Islamic vocabulary should be applied in the field of English language teaching. This book is considered an example of how these translation strategies (represented in synonyms, antonyms, illustrations, and examples) can be applied in the field of English language teaching (represented in Islamic vocabulary) for Al Azhar first year secondary institutes students. Language course designers can benefit from this book by developing similar supplementary materials for upper intermediate students specially the Azharite one in different educational institutions (centres and university).
The present volume is the fruits of the BA projects in the School of Foreign Studies of Yangtze University with special regard to translation. It contains ten theses which deal with ten topics in Translation Studies, including culture in idioms and translation, translation teaching for undergraduates, tourism translation, kinship terms and translation, English syntax and translation, classical Chinese poetry and translation, Chinese syntax and translation, translation competence, news translation and advertising translation.
The main objective of this book is to bring out a survey on different developments in computational linguistics tools and machine translation systems for Indian languages. Additionally, it discusses briefly the different existing approaches that have been used to develop various computational linguistics tools and machine translation systems. Literature survey shows that, the NLP though growing rapidly, it is still an immature area in Indian languages. Indian languages are highly agglutinative and rich morphological in nature. Syntactic and semantic variance is another reason that makes NLP is much harder for Indian languages. Literature reveals that the rule based grammar refinement process is extremely time consuming and difficult. Hence, most modern NLP developments are based on statistical or at least partly statistical, which allows the system to gather information about the frequency with which various constructions occur in specific contexts.
The native languages all over the world are growing rapidly along with the growth of technology, in general, and information technology, in particular. On the one hand, the world experiences a growth in the native language and on the other hand, precious and nascent information come through foreign languages. The demand for making the information available in native languages is increasing. Therefore, we need an efficient and practical method to fulfill this demand. This book describes one such method; English to Tamil Machine Translation System. Though the book elucidates English to Tamil translation system, the methodology can be extended to other language pair especially Indian Languages. This book is especially useful to the researchers in the field of Machine Translation and the student of Computational Linguistics course.