Operations Research (OR) is a branch of mathematics which is concerned with the application of scientific methods and techniques to decision making problems. The optimum seeking methods are also known as mathematical programming techniques and are generally studied as a part of OR. Stochastic Programming, a mathematical programming technique for modeling and solution of optimization problems with uncertain data parameters, especially when we have random variables with known distributions. An application of Stochastic programming to the optimization of Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) data communication networks design.
In this book the different steps in the operationalization of an activity-based model for Flanders (Belgium) inside the FEATHERS activity-based simulation framework are worked out. FEATHERS, with its modular structure, is meant to accommodate different activity-based models so that this framework can be used as a research instrument for transportation researchers. Furthermore, in order to make use of a specific activity-based model for Flanders, this book reports on the validation process of the activity-based model that was chosen. As the activity-based model inside FEATHERS performs well, this micro simulation framework together with its current activity-based model can be used in a next step to investigate transportation demand management policies for Flanders such as a telecommuting scenario and an electric vehicles power demand scenario.
This book concerns an investigation how modern technology could be used to enhance children’s learning, which had an outcome in an application for Android tablets. A theory study was conducted regarding what is considered as good pedagogics and what is needed in order to motivate students to learn. This study stood as a foundation while conceptualizing the resulting application. The final application is called Flisan at the supermarket and is an educational application with gaming components, directed to 7-year-old boys and girls. This degree project is done in collaboration with the interaction design agency Screen Interaction.
How to create a profitable, sustainable business developing and marketing iPhone apps iPhone apps are hot; the average app is downloaded more than 30,000 times. If you have some great apps in mind, Starting an iPhone Application Business For Dummies will show you how to produce and market them effectively. Starting an iPhone Application Business For Dummies provides clear, reliable business information to help developers and entrepreneurs create a profitable, sustainable business in this new and exciting market. Identifies what goes into a successful iPhone application business Helps you find the market niche your applications can fill, market and promote your business, and build your brand Explains how to develop a pricing strategy, build your applications efficiently, and get them into the App Store Explores finding a sustainable revenue model, including free trials, social media models, ad-based revenue models, and subscription models Demonstrates effective ways to provide service and support to customers Written by a team that combines knowledge of iPhone app development with sound business experience Starting an iPhone Application Business For Dummies can help you turn your ideas into income.
This thesis starts from the description of two main concepts: ''poverty'' and ''vulnerability to poverty''. It first presents the main definitions available in the existing literature and draws a basic premise: vulnerability has to be accounted for as likelihood and severity of future poverty (in other words, as the ex-ante perspective of the risk for an individual to become poor). It then lists the main indices used to measure vulnerability to poverty and poverty itself, setting the ground for an empirical application to the Italian panel data of households'' income from 1994 to 2001. The final aim of this work is to provide evidence of the necessity to give risk and uncertainty a central role in the political and economic measures to face current destitution.
Here an attempt has been made to discuss the application of Queueing theory as applicable to hospital registration services i.e. outpatient registrations, inpatient registrations and registration for ICU admissions. Then illustrates the practical application of queueing theory to a simple problem in manpower planning: how large staff is required to give adequate service for a central laboratory? The problem is simple enough to be amenable to an analytic solution, and the optimal solution arrived at by the use of queueing theory resulted in a considerable saving to the central laboratory studied. A model of the patient care process, based on queueing theory, is described and its parameters defined empirically for application to an ICU unit. The model is descriptive, with an output of expected waiting times for various priorities of patient demand. The waiting times so estimated constitute an index of the quality of nursing care and afford a means of predicting changes in quality with changes in staffing or inpatient load. The model facilitates investigation of the relationships among three factors: patient condition, nurses' activity priorities, and patient load per nurse.
A strong image is one of the key long-term success factors for a brand. After examining the meaning and the function of a brand, this research suggests how to improve its image. In particular, the book analyses the essential elements in managing a successful hotel brand. It evaluates the differentiating strategies to stay competitive and attract more guests. An emphasis is placed on the advantages achieved by building emotional connections and encouraging long-term relationships with customers. As empirical evidence, a study was undertaken to determine the impact that emotions play in the consumers' purchasing decision with a lodging facility. This research would be useful for hospitality professionals to better understand guests' needs and take adequate steps to improve their experiences. Consequently, they would be able to attract more loyal customers, increase their revenues and brand recognition.
Besides deep changes, that are taking place in religion today, one can also speak about the tendencies towards fundamental transformation of the paradigms of scientific knowledge (the processes, viewed in the book as interrelated). One of the purposes of this work was to analyze and systematize the key aspects of the new paradigm, which is being formed in the last decades; it includes different integral theories, focusing on the holistic vision of a man and the world. A methodological “map” (developing the fundamentals of K. Wilber’s theory) was constructed as well, which allows to integrate diverse specific theories on religion and thus to provide a holistic study of religion in the context of the modern interdisciplinary knowledge. Also, a conception of the mechanism of transformation of religious forms in the modern world was elaborated; synthesized theoretical concept of the stages of development of (religious) consciousness was applied to the analysis of religiosity (with the focus on empirical studies in Russia). The book would be of a special interest to those, interested in Philosophy, Psychology, and Sociology of Religion, as well as in Integral Studies.
Metallic silver in the form of silver nanoparticles has made a remarkable comeback as a potent antimicrobial agent. The most prominent nanoparticles for medical uses are nanosilver particles which are known for their high antimicrobial activity. Silver ion has been known as a metal ion that exhibit antimildew, antimicrobial and anti fungal properties for a long time. In particular, it is widely used as silver nitrate aqueous solution which has disinfecting and sterilizing actions. The use of silver nanoparticles is also important, as several pathogenic bacteria have developed resistance against various antibiotics. Hence, silver nanoparticles have emerged up with diverse medical applications. This book, therefore, provides information regarding the various synthesis and application methods of nanosilver. This book is useful to professionals and students from the field of Textiles, Medical and Garment industries.
Since the invention of Information Theory by Shannon in 1948, coding theorists have been trying to come up with coding schemes that will achieve capacity dictated by Shannon’s Theorem. The most successful two coding schemes among many are the LDPCs and Turbo codes. In this thesis, we focus on LDPC codes and in particular their usage by the second generation terrestrial digital video broadcasting (DVB-T2), second generation satellite digital video broadcasting (DVB-S2) and IEEE 802.16e mobile WiMAX standards. Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) block codes were invented by Gallager in 1962 and they can achieve near Shannon limit performance on a wide variety of fading channels. LDPC codes are included in the DVB-T2 and DVB-S2 standards because of their excellent error-correcting capabilities. LDPC coding has also been adopted as an optional error correcting scheme in IEEE 802.16e mobile WiMAX. This thesis focuses on the bit error rate (BER) and PSNR performance analysis of DVB-T2, DVB-S2 and IEEE 802.16e transmission using LDPC coding under additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) and Rayleigh Fading channel scenarios.
This book is an application of Ergodic Theory to a Geometric Ramsey Theory. We first present two examples from Geometric Ramsey theory in R^2. Then we generalize these results to higher dimensions. After that we construct our main theorem which is in a geometric form. Then we translate our geometric problem into dynamical form. Finally we prove the main theorem by using methods from ergodic theory.
In this paper we address one of the main uses for mobile applications, augmented reality. So we'll see what augmented reality, its history and what are its current uses, sopprattutto in mobile computing. We will talk about communication protocols, and we will be implementing such a combined library, augmented reality and bluetooth and using this library will create a sample application in the home. Everything will be developed using one of the technologies used in mobile Android.
This paper examines the demand for money in Libya using annual data for the period 1970—2010 by applying the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) cointegration approach and allowing for endogenous structural breaks in cointegration equation. The results based on the bounds testing procedure confirm that a stable, long-run relationship exists between demand for money and its fundamental determinants; namely, real income, inflation rate and nominal exchange rate. The empirical results indicate that there is a unique cointegrated and stable long-run relationship among real money demand (M1), real income, inflation rate, and nominal exchange rate. The real income elasticity coefficient was found positive while the inflation rate elasticity and nominal exchange rate were negative. This shows that depreciation of domestic currency decreases the demand for money. The results also reveal that after incorporating the CUSUM and CUSUMSQ tests, M1 money demand function is stable between 1982 and 2010.
The story of Hester Prynne--found out in adultery, pilloried by her Puritan community, and abandoned, in different ways, by both her partner in sin and her vengeance-seeking husband--possesses a reality heightened by Hawthorne's pure human sympathy and his unmixed devotion to his supposedly fallen but fundamentally innocent heroine. The Scarlet Letter rightly deserves its stature as the first great novel written by an American, a work of moral force and narrative power that announced an American literature equal to any in the world.
The Indian Himalayan Region is divided into North-Eastern and North-Western Himalayan Region that includes 11states out of which 3 states exist in North-Western Region.Uttarakhand is one of the 3 states embraced by North-Western Himalayan Region. U.S.Nagar is one of the promising district for production of potatoes in the state.The study was about the projection of optimum and present potato commodity system. The existing potato system reveals that the farmers has highly diversified cropping pattern while the optimum plan developed reveals that there were ample scopes of increasing farm income through optimal allocation of resources.The per cent increase in net farm family income of a potato producer over existing income situation was more in improved market situation.The recommended policies are strengthened of extension services,market support and input supply system through mobile teams and declaration of price support for the crop by the government.Further,implementation of Mandi Act,organization of farmers cooperatives ans self help groups,etc are other suggestions that might help farmers.
Today,all over the world, manufacturing industries play an important role in realizing the real prosperity and has to deal most efficiently with the challenges facing the growth of the seller?s and buyer?s markets towards globalization. This has resulted in the materialization of automated industries with high performance of manufacturing systems. The manufacturing industries are motivated to enhance the productivity and flexibility of the system towards achieving a competitive edge. Cellular Manufacturing Systems (CMS) evolved as an efficient production system, with low set up time, low work-in-process inventory (WIP), short manufacturing lead time, high machine utilization and high quality.The importance of an efficient cell design is underscored by the fact that a properly designed structure is the basis for other tactical decisions related to managing the manufacturing system in the short run.This book provides an in-depth review and analysis of the influence of Artificial neural Network in cellular manufacturing system design and also discusses a hybrid algorithm as a possible solution to the cell design problem.
Crude oil markets are highly volatile and risky. Extreme Value Theory (EVT), an approach to modelling and estimating risks under rare events, has seen a more prominent role in risk management in recent years. This Book presents an application of EVT to the daily returns of Brent crude oil prices in the spot market between 1987 and 2009. We focus on the peak over threshold method by analysing the generalized Pareto distributed exceedances over some high threshold. This method provides an effective means for estimating tail risk measures specifically, Value-at-Risk (VaR) and Expected Shortfall (ES). The estimates of these risk measures computed under high quantile ie, at the 99th quantile provides the estimates of VaR approximately as 8.1% and 8.0% for daily positive and negative returns, respectively. The estimates for expected shortfall are 12.3% and 10.7% for daily positive and negative returns, respectively.
This Book is an Application of an Artificial Intelligence Models (ANFIS AND ANN) to solve pertinent Water Resources Planning, Development and Managements problems in a typical developing counrty, Nigeria. It is a vogue in Geography particularly, Hydrological Modelling for River Discharge Forecasting which has serve as an eye opener that the problem bedeviling Water Resources Development in the developing country are not Insummontable. With carefulness and easy of the uniqueness of the Models, River Discharge,and any other Geographical variables that may require Forecasting for Policies that will enhance sustainable development are now made easy.
The term 'ASIC' stands for 'application-specific integrated circuit'. An ASIC is basically an integrated circuit designed specifically for a special purpose or application. Strictly speaking, this also implies that an ASIC is built only for one and only one customer. An example of an ASIC is an IC designed for a specific line of cellular phones of a company, whereby no other products can use it except the cell phones belonging to that product line. The opposite of an ASIC is a standard product or general purpose IC, such as a logic gate or a general purpose microcontroller, both of which can be used in any electronic application by anybody.
Answering object queries (instance retrieval) is a central task in ontology based data access (OBDA). Performing this task involves reasoning with respect to a knowledge base K (ontology) over some description logic (DL) dialect L. As the expressive power of L grows, so does the complexity of reasoning with respect to K. Therefore, eliminating the need to reason with respect to a knowledge base K is desirable. We propose an optimization to improve performance of answering object queries by eliminating the need to reason with respect to the knowledge base and, instead, utilizing cached query results when possible. In particular given a DL dialect L, an object query C over some knowledge base K and a set of cached query results S obtained from evaluating past queries, we rewrite C into an equivalent query D, that can be evaluated with respect to an empty knowledge base, using cached query results U, where U is a subset of S. The new query D is an interpolant for the original query C with respect to K and S. To find D, we leverage a tool for enumerating interpolants of a given sentence with respect to some theory. We show the efficacy of our approach through experimental evaluation.
There is an increasing demand all over the world for the decoration of living and working places with eco-friendly things like fresh flowers, foliages, dried plant parts and dry flowers. Chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.) is also an important commercial crop of the world and belongs to the family Asteraceae. However knowledge of growers about role of micronutrients for higher production and good quality chrysanthemum flowers is meagre. Micronutrients play an important role in growth, flowering and yield of flowers. In view to address the above facts, the study undertaken, to find out foliar application of micronutrients (FeSO4 and ZnSO4) on growth, flowering, flower yield and quality of chrysanthemum.
This book is useful for Hospital and Health care Management students and researchers who are interested in Health care operations. The Lean Six Sigma is one of the Quality tool helpful in improving a process in operations of an Organization. This work gives an insight and example for the Six sigma process in cashless hospital billing. This project will give an idea of how to decrease the Turn around time in the billing process at various stages and help to decrease the waiting time of discharge and improve the quality of services and increase the productivity in hospitals.
Over the years, the DCF approach has been the valuation choice of many practioners, academics and corporate finance managers. Such valuation techniques include the NPV, IRR and Payback. The former is widely employed due to its intuition and easy computation. Under this approach a project’s worthiness is derived from its projected cashflows discounted at the appropriate discount rate (normally the WACC). Projects with positive NPVs are accepted whilst those with negative NPVs are rejected. However, this technique does not tell us what to do next after accepting or rejecting a project. Furthermore the choice of the discount rate is conceptually flawed. What is the most appropriate discount rate for each project? These shortcomings of DCF models are addressed by the Real Option Valuation. This research employed the BOPM to value a steel plant. Two embedded options were identified namely the abandonment and expansion options. The research concluded that apart from DCF valuation techniques being currently employed by the firm they can as well incorporate Real Options Analysis to decision making. Such actions if accurately valued and timely executed do add firm value.