Quantitative and Statistical Research Methods This user-friendly textbook teaches students to understand and apply procedural steps in completing quantitative studies. It explains statistics while progressing through the steps of the hypothesis-testing process from hypothesis to results. The research problems used in the book reflect statistical applications related to interesting and important topics. In addition, the book provides a Research Analysis and Interpretation Guide to help students analyze research articles. Designed as a hands-on resource, each chapter covers a single research problem and offers directions for implementing the research method from start to finish. Readers will learn how to: Pinpoint research questions and hypotheses Identify, classify, and operationally define the study variables Choose appropriate research designs Conduct power analysis Select an appropriate statistic for the problem Use a data set Conduct data screening and analyses using SPSS Interpret the statistics Write the results related to the problem Quantitative and Statistical Research Methods allows students to immediately, independently, and successfully apply quantitative methods to their own research projects.
Research is a scientific and systematic search for pertinent information on a specific topic. In fact, research is an art of scientific investigation. Research is an academic activity and as such the term should be used in a technical sense. Research comprises defining and redefining problems, formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions, collecting, organising and evaluating data, making deductions and reaching conclusions, and at last carefully testing the conclusions to determine whether they fit the formulating hypothesis. This book covers each aspect of research methodology in detail. I am thankful to Dr.Babita Raghuwanshi and Dr. Sonali Rai for their contribution in making it possible.
This book presents a well-detailed approach and clearly outlined steps and concepts to research theory and practice. Using relevant illustrations, Dr. Ndikaru takes the reader through an in-depth understanding of various areas and concepts of research such as: nature and meaning of social research; stages in research process; research design; research questions and research hypothesis; conceptual and theoretical framework; literature review; measurement in research and sampling design; case study and survey methods; techniques of interviewing; data collection instruments; validity and reliability of research instruments; data collection, processing, analysis and interpretation; writing a research report; and writing a bibliography. The book is a very resourceful handbook to undergraduate and graduate students. It is also very useful to NGOs, government ministries and other policy makers dealing with research and development issues.
This is a research on the world credit crunch in 2008-2010. The rescission is not a new experience to the world. But the causes and phenomenon is different in different time. The study has tried to explain the reasons of differences justifying the Hyman P. Minsky Hypothesis on this issue. The study tried to find out the actors and the prime cause behind the rescission. Though lot of orthodox criticized the policymaker, Minsky argued the rescission as a obvious consequences in a capital society in a cyclical life.
The researcher has conducted a primary research based on the hypothesis of "violations of human rights contribute to generate conflict as trigger forces." Different areas of the Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT), south-eastern part of Bangladesh, have been selected for this research as study areas. Above all, this research is an organized attempt to study conflict analysis from human rights perspectives.
Revision with unchanged content. This book investigates the effects of an empathetic emotional disposition in political decision making. Previous research has shown that empathy has important implications in group-centered behavior. However, little research has been done with experimental tests of how empathy directly impacts behavior. This book uses experimental and survey research methods to test the hypothesis that empathy is a general guide to collective action. Empathy is not only a significant predictor of behavior, but is a conditional characteristic that interacts with other factors in cooperative action.
This research is an ambitious attempt to study the determinants of debt maturity in the Indian corporate sector using panel OLS regression methodology. The corporate debt portfolio analysis discloses that the dominance of traditional debt instruments, predominance of banks, declining trend in the issue of debentures, conservative financing strategies, and absence of innovative and diverse debt instruments for investment, speculation, and risk diversification are the major imperfections prevail in the corporate debt market. The corporate debt market imperfections and the dysfunctional corporate bond market have hampered the growth and development of business and industry. The Indian corporate sector has been characterized by a moderate level of long term debt maturity. This research finds that growth options, firm size, firm quality, asset maturity, corporate tax rate, term structure, and asset variance jointly determine the debt maturity. These research findings lead to the conclusion that agency cost hypothesis, signaling hypothesis, liquidity risk hypothesis, matching hypothesis, and tax hypothesis determine debt maturity in the Indian corporate sector.
This research work integrates James Messerschmidt’s Masculinity Theory (1997) with Robert Agnew’s General Strain Theory (1992) to examine the relationship between failure to achieve ideal masculine standards, resultant psychological stressors, and the decision to engage in illicit drug activity. OLS and Binary Logistic Regression was performed on a sample of male college students (N = 851) to examine three hypotheses. Findings support the hypothesis that a positive relationship exists between failed masculinity and negative emotions. Partial support was found for the hypothesis that a positive relationship exists between negative emotions and drug trafficking. Partial support was also found for the hypothesis that negative emotions mediate the relationship between failed masculinity and selling drugs. Further examination of these relationships is encouraged.
This study examines the factors influences employee turnover in Malaysian commercial banking industry. This study has identified 5 main factors why employees quit their job. A quantitative research method was used to collect the primary data by using questionnaire. A sample size of 150 respondents from various commercial banking employees was participated in this research project to infer a valid and reliable data to support the hypothesis.
This book is based on the observed relationship between science teacher assessment tools and students cognitive development in secondary schools. Four research questions were raised and answered with a hypothesis tested. The population for the study included 130 science teachers, from 20 randomly selected mixed sampled schools. The research questions were analyzed using simple percentages while the hypothesis was tested with the use of Chi-square, at 0.05 significance level. The result of the study showed that the level of question asked during assessment play a significant role in assessing student performance, when high level questions are used in preparing examination questions, the students cognitive development can be ascertained
A key contribution of this research was to define probability as “ the mystery of mathematics”, or “the existence of non existing theory”. This study analyzed some hypothesis on the difficulties facing the teaching of probabilities , and found how models of probability were useful to solve any confusion. This was clarified by formulating questions that were addressed with data,collect,organize, and display relevant data to answer them . This research gave the solution of the problem “ who will win the million“, which was a good example of improving probability education through statistical experiments.
An attempt has been made by the researcher to study the profile and expected rate of return on their investment of the Judicial Department Employees. Hypothesis of a casual relationship between various variables i.e. Age & Expected Rate of Return, Gender & Expected Rate of Return, etc., has been tested by applying research test like ANOVA & T-Test. The book is primarily meant for the practicing research scholars of management & of commerce. Besides students pursuing courses like MSW or BSW.
The main objective of writing this book is to demystify research proposal and thesis/report writing. Readers will find useful information about undertaking the process of writing research proposal and tenets of writing thesis as well as report/dissertation. The book presents this information in simple and informative manner to make readers appreciate and understand it. The target audiences of this book are under-graduates and post graduates researchers. The major features of this book include; definition of research and basic terms in research process, types of research ,how to select a topic, formulation of research problem and hypothesis and research questions, research design, research instruments, data analysis and report writing techniques. In each section of this book, there are technical and methodological competences that guide students through the process of; planning and designing a viable research proposal, collecting and analyzing data, and writing report/thesis. The research principles contained in this book are applicable to both qualitative and quantitative research. A list of references is provided at the end of the book for further reading to extend the knowledge
Knowledge in one aspect or other exists in a person which is transferred from one generation to another. In educational structure the changing process of knowledge can be felt and observed in different shades the effect of which is easily visible in the air of the 21st century. Research being deeply rooted in education cannot be desolated in any way. It is undoubtedly an invincible weapon and a comprehensive key to unlock the way towards acquiring knowledge. Thus it necessitates the knowledge of research and its process. The present book aims to acknowledge the reader with the knowledge of research methods, tools, techniques and other aspects of research. The present book has been prepared as a reference to the students of M.Ed., D.Phil., M.Phil., and Ph.D. and all those who are interested in research. The book presents its content in simple and lucid language. It consists a detailed discussion about scientific thinking, educational research, research problem, review of literature, hypothesis, sample, methods, tools of research, statistics and the report writing with examples making the content easily understandable.
In the current scenario, Sampling theory and Testing of Hypothesis play an important role in the literature of various disciplines of Statistics and Operations Research. The present book highlights the developments concerned with the Sampling theory and Testing of Hypothesis and its applications to various disciplines dealing with Statistical Analysis. It aims at addressing the key issues pertaining to these topics and will be helpful to Biologists, Statisticians and Operational Researchers.
The study of the gravitational collapse of massive objects to form black holes has a long and fascinating history. The purpose of this book is to present a study on naked singularities arising in different dimensional gravitational collapse and its implication to cosmic censorship hypothesis for the university students and researchers who are pursuing this line of research. This book provides the study of gravitational collapse of spherically symmetric and non-spherically symmetric space-times and examine whether it ends into a black hole or a naked singularity.
In 1959, scientist and novelist C.P. Snow labeled art and science as two conflicting cultures, unable to communicate. Over the last fifteen years the landscape has dramatically changed. Collaborative research projects between artists and scientists have been flourishing in the UK, putting Snow’s thesis to the test. This has spawned a debate on the value of art-science research projects and how it can be assessed and validated. This dissertation attempts to contribute to this debate through the investigation of the value of art-science collaborations in terms of knowledge. To this purpose, a theoretical model of knowledge construction has been adopted to test the hypothesis that art and science collaborations can create knowledge. The model, for the first time in this research, has been applied to an art-science setting and the hypothesis has been tested against a case study, to which the knowledge-building theory has proved to be only partially applicable. Therefore an alternative model has been developed. Since this model has been devised on the basis of one case study, it needs to be validated by further research.
The study discusses the teaching of English language writing skills in Hungarian secondary education. The aim of the dissertation is to contribute to the body of research on writing in an EFL (English as a foreign language) context on secondary school level in Hungary, and thus fill a hiatus in the area of writing research. The research wishes to test the research hypothesis, namely that secondary graduates do not possess effective writing skills in English. The main research question is: Why are English writing skills not taught adequately at Hungarian schools? Through the process of investigating the issue, various research tools have been applied: curriculum documents are analysed, English teachers in a cross section of Hungarian secondary schools are interviewed, students are asked through questionnaires and student papers are analysed. The research takes a largely qualitative approach, combined with some quantitative features. It focuses on a sample of three secondary schools, situated in small-town environments in the vicinity of Budapest, the capital of Hungary.
Revision with unchanged content. Events are one of the most exciting and one of the fastest growing forms of tourism. The aim of this research is to determine the impact of local events on the travel motivation of South German ski and snowboard instructors.It outlines the existing literature about Events and Motivation and discusses the existing research paradigm and data collecting methods. A hypothesis was worked out by the researcher and a questionnaire was sent to South German ski and snowboard instructors to examine the influence of events on the decision making process and to identify the change of travel motivation by events. Addressed at ski-resort managers and at event organisers will this work of research help to identify the main reasons to travel to a ski-resort as well as the importance of events in ski-resorts.
A comprehensive book for the post graduates and researchers in theoretical astrophysics who want to study the space-time singularities arising in the gravitational collapse from a mathematician’s point of view. The study has become significant from the perspective of cosmic censorship hypothesis. Four and higher-dimensional space-times are investigated for the possibility of cosmic censorship violation. Analysis of space-time singularities formed in the gravitational collapse of a star is one of the most important areas of mathematical research today. The book provides methods to determine the stability and strength of the singularities arising in various space-times.
Involvement Load Hypothesis is a motivational-cognitive construct consisting of three components: need, search and evaluation. Each of them may be present or absent in the process of vocabulary learning in a natural or artificially designed task. The degree of involvement is characterized by different combinations of these factors.Task-Induced Involvement is the extension of Involvement Load Hypothesis into language teaching and research context especially for the purpose of vocabulary learning studies in such a way that the tasks with higher degree of involvement lead to learning words with higher degree of retention.
This book provides a thorough exposition of the elements and mechanisms of fraud especially in the banking system. It concentrates on bank fraud in the financial institutions. It encompasses the definition of bank fraud, the causes, the effects, the measures for controlling fraud and the role of asset managers in the financial institution. As link to research aid, it incorporate research methodology and theories of social science that adequately explain the reasons for the existence of fraud including strain, bond, multiple factors, opportunity and political economy theory. The book is sufficiently handy for statistical table of chi-square and contains steps of testing hypothesis. However, the book will assist researchers in the field of social sciences like criminology and security studies in understanding the principle of systematization of research work. The introductory part of the book provides ideas on the standardization of the arrangement of research. Succinctly, the tools of hypothesis testing were explicitly presented to assist students of social research on confirming the acceptability of tentative answers to the research problems.
This monograph presents the research of the process of the management professionalization in the contemporary Serbian society. The most suitable model for the studying of the management profession is constructed in the monograph. The process of the research was to identify elements of the management profession which are both developed and undeveloped in Serbian society. The research was conducted in Serbian province Vojvodina and the research sample consisted of 294 managers in 30 companies/institutions and 510 students of management. All the results of the empirical research confirm the general hypothesis that a manager profession in contemporary Serbian society is still in the process of its creation and that all constitutive features of this profession are still not developed. The results also show the fields of professionalization of managerial profession in our country.
Acne vulgaris is a common human skin disorder characterized by seborrhea, comedones, papules, pustules, nodules, and possibly scarring. Clindamycin, a lincosamide antibiotic, is most commonly for the treatment of acne as compared to other available treatment because it directly kills the bacteria which is associated with acne. But Clindamycin Hydrochloride suffers from a major drawback of having very low topical bioavailability of only 4-5%. So, a hypothesis was made that Clindamycin, if entrapped in liposomes can results in the improvement of topical bioavailability. With this hypothesis the research project work was carried out concerning the formulation and evaluation of Clindaycin Hydrochloride liposomes. This book tells you all the aspects and parameters considered for the research project work with their results. From the research work, it can be concluded that in future topical liposomal gel of Clindamycin Hydrochloride can be an effective treatment for acne vulgaris.
The work is a comparative and interdisciplinary study dealing with the protection systems of autochthonous minorities in Slovenia and Sweden in a comparative key. The main research hypothesis is that Slovenia and Sweden chose a successful and effective model of minority protection. This statement is assessed, on the one hand, through the analysis of specific minority policies and, on the other hand, through the analysis of opinions and feelings of minorities’ members.
Generally, research is understood to follow a certain structural process. Though step order may vary depending on the subject matter and researcher, the following steps are usually part of most formal research, both basic and applied: Observations and Formation of the topic: Consists of the subject area of ones interest and following that subject area to conduct subject related research. The subject area should not be randomly chosen since it requires reading a vast amount of literature on the topic to determine the gap in the literature the researcher intends to narrow. A keen interest in the chosen subject area is advisable. The research will have to be justified by linking its importance to already existing knowledge about the topic. Hypothesis: A testable prediction which designates the relationship between two or more variables. Conceptual definition: Description of a concept by relating it to other concepts. Operational definition: Details in regards to defining the variables and how they will be measured/assessed in the study. Gathering of data: Consists of identifying a population and selecting samples, gathering information from and/or about these samples by using specific
The aim of the book is to disseminate research findings and ideas on international trade and economic development issues. This book contains nine chapters contributed by authors specializing in international trade and development economics. The areas covered includes non-tariff barriers, export-led growth hypothesis, regional trade agreements, intra-industry trade, education, poverty, income inequality, and determinants of entry in banking sector.
High fuel oil prices, as well as the strict regulations for reducing Sulphur Oxides (SOx) and Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) emissions from vessels exhaust have led ship owners to consider other alternatives in order to reduce the fuel cost and meet the upcoming strict environmental regulations at the same time. In this instance, LNG fuel has gained importance against conventional fuels, since LNG as fuel has been successfully used in the short sea and the inland waterways over the last 12 years. In terms of the methodology of the research, deductive approach has been followed in this study. A hypothesis states the feasibility of the LNG fuel system on board a vessel in terms of technical and economic. Over the course of the research, the secondary and primary data have been conducted through qualitative data analysis to answer the hypothesis. The result shows that the implementation of LNG fuel system to a large container vessel seems theoretically possible. However, as a result of the analysis and discussion of the literature and primary data, implementation of LNG dual-fuel system on board a large container vessel is not economical for the next 10 years.
This book is based on a research idea which exploits the relative mobility of nodes in mobile ad-hoc networks (MANET) for the enhancement of overall throughput of the network. The hypothesis is proved using simulations in the OPNET modeler, a tool built for the purpose. An implementation of Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV) protocol, already made available by National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to facilitate researchers, is used as a benchmark to compare our findings. Packet formats of AODV protocol are altered to facilitate the required algorithms. This book may also be useful for young researchers who want to work with the OPNET modeler for conducting simulations. Source code of work done during our research is available for furthering our ideas and may be requested through an email to Idrees@pucit.edu.pk.
International research indicates that environmental management leads to profitability and competitive advantage in a firm. The lack of supporting empirical evidence begs the question whether environmental management does indeed increase a firm’s profitability. The study delineates environmental management and profitability and examines the causal relationship between the two factors. Data is collected from ten industries in South Africa and the research model tested using confirmatory factor analysis and path analysis with latent variables. The model supports the hypothesis that environmental management increases a firm's competitive advantage. Environmental management, however, is limited to the minimization of natural resource consumption. The work is informative to executive and senior managers responsible for the implementation of environmental management systems; to economists, industrial and chemical engineers; and students in the field of statistics.