This is a research on the world credit crunch in 2008-2010. The rescission is not a new experience to the world. But the causes and phenomenon is different in different time. The study has tried to explain the reasons of differences justifying the Hyman P. Minsky Hypothesis on this issue. The study tried to find out the actors and the prime cause behind the rescission. Though lot of orthodox criticized the policymaker, Minsky argued the rescission as a obvious consequences in a capital society in a cyclical life.
Research is a scientific and systematic search for pertinent information on a specific topic. In fact, research is an art of scientific investigation. Research is an academic activity and as such the term should be used in a technical sense. Research comprises defining and redefining problems, formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions, collecting, organising and evaluating data, making deductions and reaching conclusions, and at last carefully testing the conclusions to determine whether they fit the formulating hypothesis. This book covers each aspect of research methodology in detail. I am thankful to Dr.Babita Raghuwanshi and Dr. Sonali Rai for their contribution in making it possible.
This book presents a well-detailed approach and clearly outlined steps and concepts to research theory and practice. Using relevant illustrations, Dr. Ndikaru takes the reader through an in-depth understanding of various areas and concepts of research such as: nature and meaning of social research; stages in research process; research design; research questions and research hypothesis; conceptual and theoretical framework; literature review; measurement in research and sampling design; case study and survey methods; techniques of interviewing; data collection instruments; validity and reliability of research instruments; data collection, processing, analysis and interpretation; writing a research report; and writing a bibliography. The book is a very resourceful handbook to undergraduate and graduate students. It is also very useful to NGOs, government ministries and other policy makers dealing with research and development issues.
A comprehensive book for the post graduates and researchers in theoretical astrophysics who want to study the space-time singularities arising in the gravitational collapse from a mathematician’s point of view. The study has become significant from the perspective of cosmic censorship hypothesis. Four and higher-dimensional space-times are investigated for the possibility of cosmic censorship violation. Analysis of space-time singularities formed in the gravitational collapse of a star is one of the most important areas of mathematical research today. The book provides methods to determine the stability and strength of the singularities arising in various space-times.
This research is an ambitious attempt to study the determinants of debt maturity in the Indian corporate sector using panel OLS regression methodology. The corporate debt portfolio analysis discloses that the dominance of traditional debt instruments, predominance of banks, declining trend in the issue of debentures, conservative financing strategies, and absence of innovative and diverse debt instruments for investment, speculation, and risk diversification are the major imperfections prevail in the corporate debt market. The corporate debt market imperfections and the dysfunctional corporate bond market have hampered the growth and development of business and industry. The Indian corporate sector has been characterized by a moderate level of long term debt maturity. This research finds that growth options, firm size, firm quality, asset maturity, corporate tax rate, term structure, and asset variance jointly determine the debt maturity. These research findings lead to the conclusion that agency cost hypothesis, signaling hypothesis, liquidity risk hypothesis, matching hypothesis, and tax hypothesis determine debt maturity in the Indian corporate sector.
This research work integrates James Messerschmidt’s Masculinity Theory (1997) with Robert Agnew’s General Strain Theory (1992) to examine the relationship between failure to achieve ideal masculine standards, resultant psychological stressors, and the decision to engage in illicit drug activity. OLS and Binary Logistic Regression was performed on a sample of male college students (N = 851) to examine three hypotheses. Findings support the hypothesis that a positive relationship exists between failed masculinity and negative emotions. Partial support was found for the hypothesis that a positive relationship exists between negative emotions and drug trafficking. Partial support was also found for the hypothesis that negative emotions mediate the relationship between failed masculinity and selling drugs. Further examination of these relationships is encouraged.
The book is dedicated to the solution of the Bayesian problem of many hypotheses testing with respect to the parameters of multivariate normal distribution and derivation of working formulas for simple testing of many hypotheses in a limited period of time, and calculation of the suitable value of the risk function, which is the objective criterion of the quality of the decision made. Also a new sequential method of testing many hypotheses based on special properties of regions of acceptance of hypotheses in the conditional Bayesian task of testing many hypotheses is formalized.The results of sensitivity analysis of the considered Bayesian problem are given; the results of experimental research of the developed optimal, quasi-optimal and sequential Bayesian methods are presented.
The researcher has conducted a primary research based on the hypothesis of "violations of human rights contribute to generate conflict as trigger forces." Different areas of the Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT), south-eastern part of Bangladesh, have been selected for this research as study areas. Above all, this research is an organized attempt to study conflict analysis from human rights perspectives.
A key contribution of this research was to define probability as “ the mystery of mathematics”, or “the existence of non existing theory”. This study analyzed some hypothesis on the difficulties facing the teaching of probabilities , and found how models of probability were useful to solve any confusion. This was clarified by formulating questions that were addressed with data,collect,organize, and display relevant data to answer them . This research gave the solution of the problem “ who will win the million“, which was a good example of improving probability education through statistical experiments.
The main objective of writing this book is to demystify research proposal and thesis/report writing. Readers will find useful information about undertaking the process of writing research proposal and tenets of writing thesis as well as report/dissertation. The book presents this information in simple and informative manner to make readers appreciate and understand it. The target audiences of this book are under-graduates and post graduates researchers. The major features of this book include; definition of research and basic terms in research process, types of research ,how to select a topic, formulation of research problem and hypothesis and research questions, research design, research instruments, data analysis and report writing techniques. In each section of this book, there are technical and methodological competences that guide students through the process of; planning and designing a viable research proposal, collecting and analyzing data, and writing report/thesis. The research principles contained in this book are applicable to both qualitative and quantitative research. A list of references is provided at the end of the book for further reading to extend the knowledge
Generally, research is understood to follow a certain structural process. Though step order may vary depending on the subject matter and researcher, the following steps are usually part of most formal research, both basic and applied: Observations and Formation of the topic: Consists of the subject area of ones interest and following that subject area to conduct subject related research. The subject area should not be randomly chosen since it requires reading a vast amount of literature on the topic to determine the gap in the literature the researcher intends to narrow. A keen interest in the chosen subject area is advisable. The research will have to be justified by linking its importance to already existing knowledge about the topic. Hypothesis: A testable prediction which designates the relationship between two or more variables. Conceptual definition: Description of a concept by relating it to other concepts. Operational definition: Details in regards to defining the variables and how they will be measured/assessed in the study. Gathering of data: Consists of identifying a population and selecting samples, gathering information from and/or about these samples by using specific
Knowledge in one aspect or other exists in a person which is transferred from one generation to another. In educational structure the changing process of knowledge can be felt and observed in different shades the effect of which is easily visible in the air of the 21st century. Research being deeply rooted in education cannot be desolated in any way. It is undoubtedly an invincible weapon and a comprehensive key to unlock the way towards acquiring knowledge. Thus it necessitates the knowledge of research and its process. The present book aims to acknowledge the reader with the knowledge of research methods, tools, techniques and other aspects of research. The present book has been prepared as a reference to the students of M.Ed., D.Phil., M.Phil., and Ph.D. and all those who are interested in research. The book presents its content in simple and lucid language. It consists a detailed discussion about scientific thinking, educational research, research problem, review of literature, hypothesis, sample, methods, tools of research, statistics and the report writing with examples making the content easily understandable.
This book provides a thorough exposition of the elements and mechanisms of fraud especially in the banking system. It concentrates on bank fraud in the financial institutions. It encompasses the definition of bank fraud, the causes, the effects, the measures for controlling fraud and the role of asset managers in the financial institution. As link to research aid, it incorporate research methodology and theories of social science that adequately explain the reasons for the existence of fraud including strain, bond, multiple factors, opportunity and political economy theory. The book is sufficiently handy for statistical table of chi-square and contains steps of testing hypothesis. However, the book will assist researchers in the field of social sciences like criminology and security studies in understanding the principle of systematization of research work. The introductory part of the book provides ideas on the standardization of the arrangement of research. Succinctly, the tools of hypothesis testing were explicitly presented to assist students of social research on confirming the acceptability of tentative answers to the research problems.
Acne vulgaris is a common human skin disorder characterized by seborrhea, comedones, papules, pustules, nodules, and possibly scarring. Clindamycin, a lincosamide antibiotic, is most commonly for the treatment of acne as compared to other available treatment because it directly kills the bacteria which is associated with acne. But Clindamycin Hydrochloride suffers from a major drawback of having very low topical bioavailability of only 4-5%. So, a hypothesis was made that Clindamycin, if entrapped in liposomes can results in the improvement of topical bioavailability. With this hypothesis the research project work was carried out concerning the formulation and evaluation of Clindaycin Hydrochloride liposomes. This book tells you all the aspects and parameters considered for the research project work with their results. From the research work, it can be concluded that in future topical liposomal gel of Clindamycin Hydrochloride can be an effective treatment for acne vulgaris.
The purpose of this research is to examine the relationship between market structure and performance in the banking sector using data from Pakistani commercial banks. Investigating the effect of changes in the market structure on profitability is based on the structure-conduct-performance (SCP) and efficient-structure (E-S) hypotheses. Researcher has taken a sample of 20 scheduled commercial banks incorporated in Pakistan to examine the above hypotheses, using the annual and panel data for a period of 9 years from year 1996-2004. Three measures of bank’s performance are utilized i.e. return on assets (ROA), return on capital (ROC) and return on equity (ROE). Concentration ratio (CR) has been used to measure structure-conduct-performance (SCP) hypothesis and market share to measure efficient-structure (E-S) hypothesis. Control variables were used to capture market specific characteristics such as bank size, market size, risk to owners, liquidity measure,market risk, and market growth as well.
The aim of the book is to disseminate research findings and ideas on international trade and economic development issues. This book contains nine chapters contributed by authors specializing in international trade and development economics. The areas covered includes non-tariff barriers, export-led growth hypothesis, regional trade agreements, intra-industry trade, education, poverty, income inequality, and determinants of entry in banking sector.
An attempt has been made by the researcher to study the profile and expected rate of return on their investment of the Judicial Department Employees. Hypothesis of a casual relationship between various variables i.e. Age & Expected Rate of Return, Gender & Expected Rate of Return, etc., has been tested by applying research test like ANOVA & T-Test. The book is primarily meant for the practicing research scholars of management & of commerce. Besides students pursuing courses like MSW or BSW.
Every culture rests on a bedrock of folk wisdom handed down through generations. The pronouncements of philosophers are homespun by our grandmothers, and find their way into our common sense: what doesn't kill you makes you stronger. Do unto others as you would have done unto you. Happiness comes from within. But are these "truths" really true? Today we all seem to prefer to cling to the notion that a little bit more money, love or success will make us truly happy. Are we wrong? In "The Happiness Hypothesis", psychologist Jonathan Haidt exposes traditional wisdom to the scrutiny of modern science, delivering startling insights. We learn that virtue is often not its own reward, why extroverts really are happier than introverts, and why conscious thought is not as important as we might like to think...Drawing on the rich inspiration of both philosophy and science, "The Happiness Hypothesis" is a remarkable, original and provocative book - ancient wisdom in our time.
Involvement Load Hypothesis is a motivational-cognitive construct consisting of three components: need, search and evaluation. Each of them may be present or absent in the process of vocabulary learning in a natural or artificially designed task. The degree of involvement is characterized by different combinations of these factors.Task-Induced Involvement is the extension of Involvement Load Hypothesis into language teaching and research context especially for the purpose of vocabulary learning studies in such a way that the tasks with higher degree of involvement lead to learning words with higher degree of retention.
The study discusses the teaching of English language writing skills in Hungarian secondary education. The aim of the dissertation is to contribute to the body of research on writing in an EFL (English as a foreign language) context on secondary school level in Hungary, and thus fill a hiatus in the area of writing research. The research wishes to test the research hypothesis, namely that secondary graduates do not possess effective writing skills in English. The main research question is: Why are English writing skills not taught adequately at Hungarian schools? Through the process of investigating the issue, various research tools have been applied: curriculum documents are analysed, English teachers in a cross section of Hungarian secondary schools are interviewed, students are asked through questionnaires and student papers are analysed. The research takes a largely qualitative approach, combined with some quantitative features. It focuses on a sample of three secondary schools, situated in small-town environments in the vicinity of Budapest, the capital of Hungary.
The book presents, in some detail, the application of the log linear and the ordered logit models. The results from the models are thorughly discussed to make them interesting to the experts and very useful for people learning the application of such models. In addition, a thorough discussion of relevant consumption theories is undertaken, carefully linking the discussion to poverty. All these set up a foundation for the test of the postulation that consumption expendutures are less tied to fluctuations in income, the latter being a common phenomenon in most developing countries. The hypothesis is rejected on the basis of the findings.
Almost 4 decades ago Janzen(1970) and Connell(1971) proposed that one of the key factors in maintaining high tropical tree species diversity was played by the various host-specific seed and seedling predators, herbivores and pathogens. They predicted inexplicably high mortality of seed and seedlings close to the parent tree because of these natural enemies. In the present paper, the primary motive was to identify the spatial patterns of the dispersed seedlings, about four years old and subsequent infection by fungal pathogens, which determine their recruitment, relative to the distance from the parent tree. The field experiment was carried out in the dry deciduous part (50 Hectare plot) of the Mudumalai Tiger Reserve, Tamil Nadu, which confirmed that there is both a decrease in the seedling density and in the proportion of infected seedlings, as a function of distance from the parent tree, among the seedlings of Syzygium cumini, a bird-dispersed tree species. This supported Janzen’s hypothesis that pathogen activity and seedling vulnerability to disease is maximum, when established near parent tree where seedling density is highest.
The dispersion of innovative activities by Multinational Enterprises concerns today both developed and developing countries, as home or host countries, although some nations seem to be better recipients than others. A panel sample of 23 countries has been built to test two empirical questions: which drivers have the highest impact on the choices of localisation of R&D affiliates in foreign countries? And, do differences between advanced and less advanced countries exist in terms of attracting factors? The method used is a set of regressions with the share of foreign R&D expenditures as dependent variable and pull, push, policy and enabling factors have been included as explanatory variables. Main results confirm the hypothesis that some factors are more relevant than others and that these, in turn, differ between countries. In particular, developing countries are more likely to attract R&D-related investments if they can provide e.g. a good growth rate and a specialisation towards high-tech productions, while foreign firms are more willing to invest in advanced countries with factors like well developed infrastructures and a qualified and appropriate educational system.
The work is a comparative and interdisciplinary study dealing with the protection systems of autochthonous minorities in Slovenia and Sweden in a comparative key. The main research hypothesis is that Slovenia and Sweden chose a successful and effective model of minority protection. This statement is assessed, on the one hand, through the analysis of specific minority policies and, on the other hand, through the analysis of opinions and feelings of minorities’ members.
The book is on “Capital Structure & Profitability Relationship – An empirical analysis to study the impact of Capital Structure on Financial Performance of Listed Public & Private Sector Banks in India.”And it includes overview of Indian Banking Sector, Structure of Indian Banking System, Problems or challenges faced by Indian Banking System, Basic information of selected sample Public & Private sector bank, Research Problem, Research Methodology, Literature Reviews, Research Design, Hypothesis building & its testing & Findings & conclusions on the same topic. In this Master Thesis, the research has been carried out by collecting the financial data of P & L A/C and Balance Sheet of selected Public & Private sector banks & by calculating various capital structure and profitability ratios from these data. Hypothesis testing has been carried out by performing ANOVA test for different variables like; Debt Ratio, Debt Equity Ratio, Coverage Ratio, ROCE, ROE, ROA, Financial Leverage & EPS and also by analyzing the relationship between various dependent & independent variable through Multiple Regression Analysis.
The study aims to test the impact of leverage on financial performance by taking evidence from local industries of Pakistan. The hypothesis suggests an existence of impact of leverage on financial performance. The impact of size or market capitalization, growth and nature of industry on financial performance is also assumed by the research as control variables along with leverage.The data employs all the public limited companies listed on KSE (Karachi stock exchange) from 22 different industrial sectors of Pakistan including Textile, Cement, Fuel and Energy sector, transport and communication, tobacco, chemical & pharmaceutical, engineering, automobile and miscellaneous sectors. The statistical results prove a significant impact of leverage on financial performance and alternate hypothesis is accepted.Methodology, detail of variables, theoretical framework, hypothesis and sources of data are illustrated while Statistical analysis is done by using descriptive statistics, and regression analysis tools. The findings and discussion on results is demonstrated in detail at the end of the study. The issues for further research are also highlighted in the study.